kept secret or done secretively, especially because illicit.
“she deserved better than these clandestine meetings”

In 1658, the English poet John Milton wrote of “clandestine Hostility covered over with the name of Peace.” Three and a half centuries later we use clandestine in much the same way. The word is often used as a synonym of secret and covert, and it is commonly applied to actions that involve secrecy maintained for an evil, illicit, or unauthorized purpose. It comes to us by way of Middle French from Latin clandestine, which is itself from the clam, meaning “secretly.”

Belle Époque

variants: or belle époque

Definition of belle epoque

a period of high artistic or cultural development especiallysuch a period in fin de siècle France


French for “beautiful era,” a term that describes the period in French history beginning in 1890 and ending at the start of World War I in 1914, which was characterized by optimism, relative peace across Europe, and new discoveries in technology and science.


“works by artists of the Russian avant-garde”
favoring or introducing experimental or unusual ideas.
“a controversial avant-garde composer”
French for “advanced guard,” this term is used in English to describe a group that is innovative, experimental, and inventive in its technique or ideology, particularly in the realms of culture, politics, and the arts.



  1. the performance of actions without conscious thought or intention.
    “diabetic patients who commit crimes while hypoglycemic may be able to plead automatism”
    • an action performed unconsciously or involuntarily.
      plural noun: automatisms
      “automatisms occurred in all four epileptic syndromes”
    • ART
      the avoidance of conscious intention in producing works of art, especially by using mechanical techniques or subconscious associations.

Atelier Populaire

French for “popular workshop,” the renegade print workshop established at Paris’s École des Beaux-Arts during nationwide protests in France in May 1968. The workshop created new images daily to respond to events.

The posters produced by the ATELIER POPULAIRE are weapons in the service of the struggle and are an inseparable part of it. Their rightful place is in the center of the conflict. To use them for decorative purposes, to display them in bourgeois places of culture or to consider them as objects of aesthetic interest is to impair both their function and their effect.


A nonfiction film, usually lasting no more than one to two minutes, showing unedited, unstructured footage of real events, places, people, or things. Actualities, the predecessor of documentaries, were popular forms of entertainment from the early 1890s until around 1908.

Lorum Ipsum

Lorem ipsum, in a graphical and textual context, refers to filler text that is placed in a document or visual presentation. Lorem ipsum is derived from the Latin “Dolores Ipsum” roughly translated as “pain itself.” Lorem ipsum presents the sample font and orientation of writing on Web pages and other software applications where content is not the main concern of the developer.


Widows and Orphans are lines of text that appear at the beginning or end of a paragraph, which is left alone at the top or bottom of a line. There is some debate about the exact definitions of these terms but as a rule of thumb:

  • Orphan: A is a single word or very short line, that appears at the end of a paragraph or the beginning of a column or a page, separated from the rest of the text.