The study of arithmetic begins (in elementary school) with the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, … These are the simplest kind of number, and it is only after you learn to add, subtract multiply and divide natural numbers that you start working with other kinds of numbers like negatives, fractions, decimals, and so on.

The study of algebra, which begins when we introduce a variable like ‘x’, follows a similar path. In algebra, the most basic kind of expression is called a **polynomial**. We will be learning how to add, subtract, multiply and divide polynomials in the next few days. Then we will move on to more complicated kinds of expressions (rational expressions, radical expressions, and so on).

To study polynomials, we first must understand **terms**. A term consists of numbers and variables multiplied together, a “product of one or more numbers or variables”. The numbers can be any kind of number at all, and the number in a term is also called the **coefficient** of the term. The variables can be raised to powers, but only nonnegative whole number powers. A **polynomial** is a sum of terms, a “collection of one or more terms connected by addition or subtraction.” Here is a quick example of polynomial:

We have special names for polynomials depending on how many terms they have. A **monomial** has one term, a **binomial** has two terms, a **trinomial **three terms, and so on (note: the prefix ‘poly’ means ‘many’, and ‘polynomial’ is used no matter how many terms there are). Two terms are **like terms** if they have the same variables, raised to the same powers. The **degree** of a term is obtained by adding the exponents of all the variables. The **degree of a polynomial** is the largest degree of any of its terms.

To add polynomials, we combine *like terms.* When we combine terms, we add or subtract the coefficients (the numbers in front), but keep the rest of the term (variables and exponents) the same.

Subtracting polynomials is similar, but before combining like terms we must distribute the minus sign ‘-‘ through the parentheses.

Multiplying polynomials starts simple, but gets complicated as the polynomials get larger. We will start simple and work our way up to more complicated examples.

To **multiply a polynomial by a monomial**, you must **distribute** the monomial.

To **multiply a binomial by a binomial**, you can use the **FOIL method** (First, Outer, Inner, Last).

There are two special kinds of products that are common enough to have ‘shortcut formulas’ — if you remember these formulas, and can identify when to use them, it will save you some time (you can skip the FOIL). The first is the **square of a binomial**, and the rule is:

**(a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2**

The second rule is the **sum and difference of two terms**, and the rule is:

**(a+b)(a-b) = a^2 – b^2**

The general rule (of which all the rules above are just special cases) is this:

To **multiply a polynomial by a polynomial**, EACH term in the first polynomial should be multiplied by EVERY term in the second polynomial (and then add up the results).

this class was fairly easy it was a recap of what i already knew plus a few new details

People have forgotten that open lab is a part of their grades apparently. This was just a recap of what we already learned and it was less than enjoyable

This was a fairly easy class discussion, with a nice little review

Well today in professor halleck we got up to division of polynomials and I think I’m still a bit lost, but I understood everything, and this first time in awhile, I mean an actual confidence boost

I really loved this leason. It was easy to understand.

John

Prof Reitz

Polynomials are easy to understand thats why this topic is fun and enjoyable to encounter

I total got it didn’t have to watch the video, class was a lot better, mathzone helps too

I like all the problems because they just foil.