#1：This is the example of motion blur. To shoot a motion blur photo, we need to set up a slow shutter speed such as 1/30 to 1/100 while the object is fast moving.And if we close to the object, it will appear blurrier.
#2:This is the example of shallow depth of field. We need to zoom in to close to the object for getting focus on it. And there need some distance between the object and the background to make the background shadow.
#4: Both two photo are the center composition which helps stand clear as a portrait. For Matthew Jordan Smith’s, he used front light. Foe Timothy Greenfield-Saunders’s, he used the light between front and right side. I think they both used diffused light because there is no sharp shadow.