**Class Notes**

Focusing on Attention Structures – Jones & Hafner (pg82 – 97)

Key Concepts: 

Multitasking & Partial Attention (82)

“Digital Media and Polyfocality” (83)

“One important though sometimes neglected literacies is this ability to use digital tools to manage, distribute, and focus attention”

Cast switching – switch from one activity to another

Dual activity – paying attention to two important things; switching back and forth

Continual partial attention –  constantly but partially, attending to the information from their communication devices, motivated by the fear of ‘missing something’ (82)

Example of Fola 

Analog  – doing laundry, watering grass, taking niece to park

Digitally – switching back and forth in tabs

  1. Is this multitasking and what type?
  2. How do we categorize this?
  3. Is this meta-cognitive multitasking?
  4. Does the concept of, “In the background” alter multitasking?
  5. What is considered noise in multitasking?

Managing attention:

  • Making yourself unavailable
  • Get attention when you give attention
  • Always on (Participation and Interaction)

Branching – which involves keeping a goal in mind but allocating time for other things. (84, last paragraph) links to polyfocality( directing attention to more than one focal point) !!Not just in digital spaces!!

Attentional tracks – distribute attention among a variety of different things such as conversations (85)

“Paying attention means more than just saying focusing your mental energy on a particular exchange, remembering who you are talking to and what you are talking about. it also involves sending appropriate signals or feedback to other participants in order to show them what you are paying attention” (85)

Attention Structures (87) –

“Attention structures are the technology means used by people to make sense of the over abundance of information that they face in the digital age” which are effected by the 3 elements :

  1. Historical body – You and Your mind
  2. Interaction order – Your relation with the people around you
  3. discourses in place – The communication tools available in the situation

(overlap in the social action)

“The Attention Economy and Digital Literacies” (90)

Attention economy – where value is created from the exchange of attention and ‘[w]hat matters is seeking, obtaining and paying attention’

  • facilitate participation by creating new channels for distributing attention
  • creates other types values

Illusory attention – give the illusion of personal attention even though they are addressing a large audience.

  • automatic replies
  • away message
  • filtering
  • ‘boomeranging’ (branching)
  • reminders

“Ideas become popular, and then become more popular based on the fact that they are popular in the first place, just like search results on google. Originating a meme, or playing a significant role in its distribution, is one way of attracting attention.” (91)

“In order to attract attention effectively, one also needs to gain some understanding of how social filters (see Chapter 2) function and amplifying information and in distributing and drawing people’s attention to content.” (92)

“while digital media have undoubtedly given people the tools with which attract attention, some are concerned that this is leading people to do ‘anything’ as long as it gets attention.” (92)

Social Media case study (92-93)


  • demands attention
  • enables and localizes participation
  • paying selective attention
  • categories
  1. What type of multitasking device is a hashtag?
  2. How have hashtags, favoriting, bookmarking changed out ability to attention?

Singling out

  • ‘@’ a person, place, or thing
  • gives explicit attention

How to Gain Attention Online (95) –

  • Do some something cool and/or stupid
  • Be controversial
  • Interview cool people;
  • Post pictures and videos;
  • Give your work a great title;
  • Write a guest post for a large blog
  • Leave comments and relevant blogs or social media channels;
  • Create a poll

What different strategies do social media platforms allocate to gain attention?

  • Notification in various places (email, popups, forwarding, etc.)
  • quick, popular, invites participation
  • gets point across by multimodality
  • is not overwhelming

Tracking Viral Visual Images

How does this event generate or incorporate the following topics:

  • Visual rhetoric
  • Emotional appeal
  • Multimodality
  • Circulation
  • Virality
  • Attention
  • Eventfulness
  • Provocativity

Reminders –

  • Keep in mind the Lebduska in mind and be prepared for discussion
  • Check schedule for update
  •  11/3 and 11/5 working on project based work in class
  • Mid-semester reflection 1-2 pages single spaced Document emailed to Professor Belli by sunday night 11/01
  1. How have you developed as a writer, in major, professionally?
  2. How have you grown?
  3. What have your gravitated towards ie. topics?
  4. Are there specific topics you are interested in perusing for final project?

Class Notes 10/27/15

The crowdsourcing postings are not optional and counts towards our grades.  It was due two days ago and those who have not participated should go back and revisit them.  Everyone should participate in the ongoing conversation.  Credit will still be given.

For Thursday we should focus on Jones and Hafner and Cohen and Kenny.  If the Syrian boy post is not finished or posted, it should be done by Thursday.


Fola: Meme’s Ability to Change Over Time

  • Discourse communities
  • Where memes originated
  • How images are manipulated

Mariah:  “Just Do It”

  • Introduced Shia Labeouf
  • Advertising and image have merged
  • Self distribution of image and self
  • Commercial use and parodies

Samantha: Twitter: The power of a retweet

  • How we communicate on Twitter
  • Explained what retweets are and the purposes
  • Political and entertainment spreading
  • Terms and conditions of Twitter

Discussion:  “Iconographic Tracking: A Digital Research Method for Visual Rhetoric and Circulation Studies.”

We are required to rethink rhetoric and our composing strategies. It is important to the flow of new visual images.

We have a sharing society where we have the freedom to post anything as opposed to some other countries which have restrictions.

To verify stories, we should try to get at least three viable sources.

For iconic tracking, it is necessary to have a big dataset to identify patterns and terms.

Question: Does the image stand alone? Gries argues that we should be open to other possibilities.

Glossary Terms:

Creative comments: you can use other people’s images for your own purposes but you have to give credit to the original source.

Open source: relates more specifically to software which is made available openly and you don’t have to buy it.

Open access: publishing it means it can be accessed anywhere freely. It creates greater access and therefore a greater impact.

Class Notes 10/22

*Everyone should find one excerpt, type it out, and provide analysis of the excerpt chosen. If you were trying to make a larger argument, you would need to go in and find textual evidence of it. DO NOT QUOTE & SUMMARIZE but quote & find evidence to support the claim in one or two sentences.

Kairos- a notion of opportunity (the time being right).

Domesticate- to tame that is suitable for a particular space (in context to Greis’ article)

Associative- linked to or tied to

Contiguous- next to each other

Irreverent- not respectful

Key Claims of Articles

Picking Up the Fragments of the 2012 Election: Memes, Topoi, and Political Rhetoric

  • Social media is becoming too involved in politics, specifically memes that are taking us away from the heart of the issues or core of politics.
  • “Some memes function as a rhetorical topoi” (Wetherbee 2).
  • “The internet memes are fleeting bits of discourse that quickly lose steam…”, in other words, memes don’t necessarily last once they go away from what once gave them momentum; they go away (Wetherbee 3).
  • Memes have an impact and a sort of power. As they circulate, they are changing.
  • The meme “binders full of women” took off because it tapped into other things that was circulating about how people felt about Romney
  • Memes are distancing from its social context

Iconographic Tracking: A Digital Research Method for Visual Rhetoric and Circulation Studies

  • Images are not stable
  • Circulation is beyond what users of the internet can control

*Continue discussion on the blog by analyzing quotes found in the article


Ashley: What’s So Special About a Meme?

  • The Willy Wonka meme uses the same photo but provide different contexts and is essentially farther from the original context

Samantha: The Art of the Meme

  • There may be a consequence of an image as it circulates
  • Memes are in the political scene and are used to send political messages or may be a spoof on the real message the candidate is trying to convey

Jodiann: The Virality of Memes

  • How memes go viral
  • She believes memes are an accidental invention
  • Memes are popular in culture
  • Memes changes our ways of knowing and understanding, the way we think and interact with each other

Pamela: Got Milk? Got Meme?

  • How an advertising campaign can turn into a meme
  • Promotion of milk in the United States turned into a meme
  • Participatory culture where memes allow us to do so
  • Memes can be taken in different ways

Class Notes 10/20


Cats Exhibit:

  • “New Age Museums”: allowing more interactions
  • A phenomenon that is culturally specific to the US
  • Memes can reshape the cultural landscapes that they are a part of

Cohen & Kenny:

  • meme: single idea that is imitated as it changes and evolves(circulation)
  • Three properties:
    • longevity: livespan
    • fecundity: fruitfulness or ability to produce
    • copy fidelity: closeness to original
  • Photogenic truth: in meme culture, not all things depicted are truth (208)
  • Memes redefine culture, context
  • Memes allow emotions to be explored through images
  • “Although memes are created online … revision, and agreement.” (86)

Hafner & Jones:

  • Framing: image/text interactions
  • Multimodality: the use of multiple semiotic modes, such as visual, aural, spoken and written modes, in a text.
  • spatial perspective:
  • simultaneous: at the same time
  • emotional appeal & visual arguments (61)
  • cultures of use


  • Who is the “author” of the content?

Class Activity

IMG_4370 IMG_4369 IMG_4368 IMG_4367IMG_4372

Class Notes 10/13/15

Dr. Reneta Lansiquot will stop by next Tuesday 10/20.

Post the response blog to the reading and to the museum visit.




Multimodality- describes communication practices in terms of the textual, aural, linguistic, spatial, and visual resources – or modes – used to compose messages.

Icon-a person or thing regarded as a representative symbol of something.

Iconography- the images or symbols related to something.

real-time-the actual time during which something takes place <the computer may partly analyze the data in real time

taxonomy-is the practice and science of classification.

folksonomy- is a system in which users apply public tags to online items, typically to aid them in re-finding those items.


Our class might be featured on the OpenLab Spotlight section

One person to present on one of the readings.



Twitter moments to keep in mind

timely vs. real-time

editing vs. presenting



recent news

surfaced content



more than one dynamic with interactive

expansion of original literacy

Memes- take into account how means go viral and how to incorporate it into your meme creation.


There needs to be more dynamic to interacting with content not only liking a post.

**Keep in mind the strategy that are often times used in social media.**


Class notes 10/8



  • Check the schedule to catch up on all previous work.
  • Comment on Blogs and other content on our OL
  • Catch up on readings or get familiar with future readings


How Social Media is Ruining Politics


  1. What restrictions or freedoms does it afford?
  2. Does it verify or confirm our existing viewpoints?
  3. What kind of democracy is being promoted?
  4. What is being gained / loss by these changes?


You end up gathering or flocking to people who are like you and share your views.

The message ends up lost and unclear on social media.

Social media has become more encompassing, taking over.

Regulates what we see as well as our responses.

Think of social media as a window, you can only see what’s outside the window. Meaning we only see what’s filtered through other  mediums.

These things are not helping us get more involved or informed on social issues or politics, it’s benefiting the companies and big name brands.

Communication becomes less meaningful and more superficial on social media.

Gaining, speed, updates and access to news

Loosing, quality, pernicious content

Social media places more information in peoples hands however they have to know how to use it, better yet WANT to use it and access vital information.

Peer Input;

“(Jodieann) Social media has the power to drastically change how we think, and it effects our individual self. Disrupting who we are as people.”

“(Mariah) Social experiment on asking people who the current political leaders are, and how shocking it was that many did not know. Going to show that we are not more informed because of social media.”

“(Pam) Quick news stories, they come as us so fast they’re not as important as they were in the past”

“(Ashey) DeBlasio (mayor) had a mainly social media campaign, grabbing team attention and new voters attention” >Fola (replied) admitted her voting for President Obama based on popularity and his image, not by doing political research.

Jones and Hafner- Chapters 8 and 10

Chapter 8-

(Page 117)Online Affinity space- discourse system, theres a way of going about operating in these communities. A starting place where people come together to build, interact or communicate to build relationships.

Cultures of use- conventions norms and values that grow up around a particular group of users. Each affinity space has its own set of them.The better you are at understanding these the better you will be at communicating.

Discourse system- using different tools, to get your message across. Communicating in a community. Ideaology, face systems, forms of discourse and socialization. For example don’t take things at face value, look further into them.

Face System- how people interact or get along with one another. Interpersonal connections.

Forms of discourse- How the communicate, online, in person ect

Socialization- how people learn to communicate within that discourse community. Online communities use the apprenticeship method, learn on the job. The relationship between the self and the community is important.

We often participate in multiple discourse communities, learning to adapt to each one. We also flock to ones we relate to or are interested in joining.

People try to learn the rules and gain skills in the forms of discourse to climb in within the group.

Media ideologies: With the shareability of online communities your messages can be spread or perceived in ways you didn’t intend. You cant look at just one medium, they effect each other. There’s no one way to use the tool. Each culture will have its own definition of what’s “socially acceptable”

With each downside or folly of one medium there  is advance in another. These networks cant stay the same, their use and communities evolve and change over time. Different networks lend their abilities to different professions and groups.

Informational vs relational: do you want to get information or spread your idea or voice. Meaning are you using a platform to get information or to spread it.

(Bottom of page 121) Approaching different platforms, everyone has a different view on how medias are used (twitter vs facebook) The media you chose to share your information will determine the audience it will reach and the response it will get. The idea against technological determinism, it will determine partial uses but it really depends on the community.

Online communications can sometimes amplify cultural divides or differences, what was once a small scale issue can now be shared globally. Discussions about traditions, culture practices and ideology can take center stage.

We reinforce our values and cultural norms online, however being online gives us the ability to share our views on other cultural norms, sometimes creating controversy sometimes creating smaller or sub groups of larger communities.


Prezi Presentations: Ashley and Mariah presented on 10/8 the rest of us will present on 10/13 (for more information on each presentation click the persons name!)

Fola – Discussing Pintrest

Ashley – Discussing Instagram

The terms and service of instagram- many many communities on instagram but not all understand what happens to their media. You own your original content. When facebook bought IG there was great upset over the privacy practices. Device identifiers or cookies collect data connected to the operating system, meaning this is why you get “just for you ads” and things that seem oddly tailored to you. IG has access to any device you log onto, they may store it an share with third parties (apps or sites affiliated with IG legally)

Jodieann – Discussing LinkedIn

Pamela – Discussing Facebook

Mariah – Discussing Tumblr

Fandoms- built around a general or shared interest, they create media posts based around that shared idea. Very vocal and interested in sharing the best of the fandom. Tumblr is a global platform. Tumblr doesn’t take your posts you own them. Tumblr tracks the popularity of fandoms, whats trending, whats coming up.

Samantha – Discussing Twitter


Fortuitous: By luck or by chance

Tribalistic: A multi view point community

Pluralistic: One view point community

Kindred : Like minded people

Ideaology: The study of ideas

Cloistered: grouped together but separate

Pernicious: bad or harmful


Class notes

My sincerest apologies, for the delay in posting these notes classmates, but here are the class notes from 10/06:

To begin with:  !!REMINDERS!!
• 5 Minute presentations on Social  Media Platforms
• be sure to choose a specific part to embellish upon
• write abstracts for presentation and reflections on your experience with using Prezi  software 
• remember to re-read the ‘how social media is changing politics’ article along with the chapters from Understanding Digital Literacies Textbook ( Hafner and Jones)
• also if you haven’t done so yet tag all past posts and comment on classmate individual blog posts.

The Buzz Blog/Bloggers advice for blogging

  • create a connection between what is seen and what is written
  • edit to enhance and embellish, to attract an audience
  • ask yourself what is really important about the post?
  • try to create a narrative

Brianna Vasquez

  • create a content strategy
  • work through person and mental challenges
  • be a part of the audience feedback

Mandy Mei

  • Bridge between what you are writing and what you want to introduce to post
  • understand physicality
  • promote yourself


Class Notes 10/1/15

Today we continued our discussion on blogging.

Remember we can take class notes directly onto the OL post.

HW : Be on the look out for a class discussion posted about the Buzz.

Purpose of lighting talks: gets everyone talking and gives us experience and confidence.  Helps us to make good presentations. It is an important skill and we will do it almost every week.

Today’s Presentations:

Pamela: Newspapers to News Blogs

Jodi: A look at Millennial Discourse Communities

Ashley: Are Curls Slowly taking over the Blogsphere?

Samantha: Blog Presentation Hony

Mariah: The Non-Shady Post about a Shady Blog

Comments: The presentations were well done however, we must state why the topic was picked, define terms, talk more about the tools and how the site functions in site’s communities, use visuals, and bring in other examples.

Next week’s presentations topics:

Pamela: Facebook

Ashley: Instagram

Samantha: Twitter

Mariah: Tumblr

Jodi: LinkedIn

The blogs must be done in Prezi.  Presenters must also post a comment on their experience using Prezi.

Next week, we will also experiment with different types of software.



Class Notes- Tuesday 09/29


1. Before class begins, log onto OpenLab site (& open anything else-digital or print you need for day’s class)

2. Class notes should be thorough (not just vocabulary and what is written on the board) and should be posted by the night of the class

Carroll, Chapter 7: Writing for Blogs

debate: blogger vs. journalist (general interest vs. servicing the public)

Can good quality of blogging be achieved?

When everyone is able to blog, how credible is that idea?

Anyone can blog however, it is only effective when it is understood by the audience “targeted serendipity”

What are the attributes of a great blogger?

Permalink– permanent links

Attribute– defining characteristic

Blogosphere– realm of blogging

Explicit– stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt

Hierarchy– an ordering in which things are placed

Folksonomy– crowd-sourced classification system, user generated way of classifying things (tagging is a folksonomy)

Anonymous– without a name

Eponymous– to be named after

Curate– filtering and organizing information

Idiosyncratic– your own personal way of doing something; individual


  • Tagging produces aggregating content through shared interests
  • Tagging is like a search engine
  • Tagging is used to “sell’ content
  • Hashtags are a form of tagging, servicing a little bit of a different purpose, to make something visible and to create engagement
  • Think of tagging as key words to distill key concepts/components from the reading


Good blogging consists of:

  • being ethical; refrain from lying but being responsible
  • being subjective; getting across your individual views


*For Thursday, everyone should reread everyone’s introduction and in a brief comment, comment what you gathered out of the key words. Are there any discrepancies? Also, tag all past posts and posts moving forward.






Class Notes (9/25)

*Next week is moving into discussing blogging as a genre

*All readings are in the Carrol book

*Chapter 7 is leading into next week’s discussion

*Will be looking at The Buzz (OpenLab)

*Blogs are back to Monday night deadline


Discourse Community

Have own language, rules, norms (standards)

There is a social and cultural aspect

A group of people that discuss shared ideas/values


“Wikipedia’s Politics of Exclusion” – Gruwell

Do women prevent themselves in way of gender biases?

Different ways of conceiving truths.

Eliding: to leave out

Interfaces can mask and promote social biases by eliding them

*Contribute to class discussion



Ethical responsibility

“Social capital” (Carroll 224)

News-> different agendas

Participatory/citizen journalism (Carroll 213)

Hyperlocal news (Carroll 229)

Realities of photojournalism:



*Ability to trace


*Digital nature