Setting the Table Across Cultures: A Scaffold Approach to Intercultural Knowledge & Competence

Setting the Table Across Cultures: A Scaffold Approach to Intercultural Knowledge & Competence

Dolores C. Urena

Hospitality Management / School of Professional Studies

HMGT 2305 / Dining Room Operations (Lab)

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

In this three-part assignment, students identify, explain, and demonstrate the differences and similarities involved in the provision of dining experiences across different cultures in comparison to the specification of fine dining service as practiced in the dining room laboratory at City Tech.
Part I: OpenLab (Week 3 of the semester)
• Students individually post a picture of a tabletop setting different than the one learned in class.
• Students are required to post with the picture a short description of why the setting (silverware, china, glassware, table, etc) is different or similar to the one practice in dining room laboratory.
• Each student is required to comment on two other posts-more are welcome.
Part II: Collaborative Research Paper/ Self Reflection (After an in-class discussion on OpenLab postings, the instructor assigns groups on Week 4 of the semester)
• Students will be placed into groups of three to conduct research on the significance of the tabletop setting, and dining and service etiquette they have selected.
• Individually students are required to write a personal reflection paper.
• The instructor will provide prompt questions and instructions to assist students with the research and reflection papers.
Part III: Final Group Project / Presentation (Week 14 of the semester)
• Each group will submit a two-page research paper.
• Each group will explain and illustrate in class the tabletop setting they have selected.
• Individually students will submit a one-page personal reflection paper.

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

The purpose of this assignment is for students to interact and build a consensus that supports knowledge of an expanded cultural worldview. The assignment scaffold approach will help students assimilate the awareness, sensitivity, and proficiencies needed to succeed in the multicultural industry of hospitality. To do well in their chosen field, they will need the ability to interact, adapt and build relationships effectively across cultures.
Learning Goals associated with:
• Global / Multicultural Orientation
• Lifelong Learning
• Communication
• Information Literacies
• Professional / Personal Development

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

The instructor distributes the three-part assignment on the first day of class.
Part I – Week 3 of the semester:
• Out of class time is expected to obtain, and post picture/comments on OpenLab.
Part II – Week 7 of the semester:
• An in-class two-hour workshop at City Tech Library.
• Additional out-of-class time is expected to conduct research before and after the workshop.
Part III – Week 14 of the semester:
• An in-class five to ten minutes presentation.
• Additional out-of-class time is expected to write assignments.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

Part I – Knowledge of OpenLab:
• The instructor will instruct students on how to use OpenLab.
Part II – Visit to City Tech Library
• The instructor will give instructions to the students on how and what to research and reflective questions to contemplate will be provided.
Part III – Review Expectations:
• Preparation for final group presentation will be discussed in class.
• The instructor will provide students with the appropriate guidelines and rubrics to complete assignments.
The semester-length three-part assignment is medium-to-high stakes-15% of the final grade.

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

The assignment will be assessed using the Intercultural Knowledge and Competence Value Rubric, as well as an additional rubric evaluating the quality of the presentation and teamwork.
Written assignments will be graded using an appropriate writing intensive course rubric.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

This information is not available yet. The activity has not been implemented.

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab

Research Project: Making Connections Between Texts

Research Project: Making Connections Between Texts

Amy Sawford

English Department / City Tech

ENG1121 – English Composition II

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

This activity is a research project that asks students to make connections between texts. Students will work on a “long-term” end-of-semester project that requires six components. Students will submit a research proposal of intended work (based on the following prompt), participate in library instruction, submit an annotated bibliography, participate in two peer review workshops, complete a 5-to-6-page essay assignment, and finish their experience with a short in-class writing reflection. All these components will focus around this prompt: students will choose any one story, poem, or play on the syllabus (their choice) and two scholarly journal articles that they’ll find through research from the school’s library database. The purpose of this assignment will ask students to think about and investigate how one text shapes, or impacts their reading, of another text. Students will take this skill further and deepen this by bringing in outside research of their own. For this essay I’d like students to locate two scholarly journal articles that will serve as the “lens” through which they analyze your chosen work of literature. Students will explain how the articles shape their interpretation of the work of literature. For example, how do the articles help to understand the issues that the literature raises? Or, do the articles show that these issues are more complex than the literature would lead us to believe? Or, do the articles challenge the argument made in the piece of literature? Or, do the articles support that argument? The Targeted Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) that this project will engage with are: Knowledge (engage in inquiry-based learning), Skills (communication and inquiry), Integration (gathers, interpret, and evaluate literature and sources), and Values, Ethics, and Relationships (personal development and ethics).

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

Students must show that they understand how literature connects to research, or vice versa, but particularly how literature and research can be used as a “lens.” Furthermore, students will integrate the reading, analysis, and discussion of literature into the writing process. Students will demonstrate how research can shape their interpretation of the work of literature. Overall, students will:
•Produce a well-defined thesis on a literary topic pertinent to the course and develop it into an effective and well-organized essay.
•Demonstrate in writing the standards of grammar and style in a discipline-specific context.
•Integrate the reading, analysis, and discussion of literature into writing processes. (Employ active reading strategies to interpret and evaluate complicated texts.)
•Complete research that distinguishes among a variety of resources based on a standard criterion.
•Produce a research paper that demonstrates competency in ethical thinking and information literacy.
•Overall, for this assignment specifically, students will demonstrate skills in college-level writing, reading, and critical thinking and investigate the ethical dimensions or cultural issues through thoughtful writing (considering and implementing Aristotle’s Mode of Argument).

In addition, the Targeted Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) are:
•Knowledge (engage in inquiry-based learning)
•Skills (communication and inquiry)
•Integration (gathers, interpret, and evaluate literature and sources)
•Values, Ethics, and Relationships (personal development and ethics)

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

This project is intended for English Composition II and is to be assigned toward the end of the semester (but early enough for students to be able to plan the work ahead). Students will have worked on a series of scaffolding assignments to develop this project (researching scholarly articles and providing an annotated bibliography, for example). Students will be asked to take a previously selected reading from the semester and consider how research can be used as a “lens” to their chosen work. By the end of this project, students will have completed at least 7-8 pages of college-level writing using MLA format between the various assignments with targeted due dates (for example, research proposal, annotated bibliography, peer workshop, library instruction reflection writing). Students will work together to discuss their research plan and two peer workshops (two rough drafts of progress). Students will do research and library instruction, visiting the library at least twice during this project. Students will engage with topics concerning local and global issues. Ideally, the timeframe for this assignment would be at least six weeks before the end of the semester. There should be dedicated class time for this project, as well as at least 3 hours a week outside of the class for research, drafting, and revising.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

Students must use the library and its databases to conduct research. By the end, this activity will be considered high-stakes, especially since it takes multiple smaller projects to complete and takes time to complete. I think this assignment is appropriately weighted to be at least 25%-30% of the student’s final grade. This assignment includes six components to complete:

1. Research Proposal
2. Library Instruction
3. Annotated Bibliography
4. Peer Review
5. Essay Assignment
6. Reflection

Research Proposal (Working Thesis): Students should select a research topic that impacts their understanding of humanity in some way. For example, if a student decides to further investigate Aylmer and Georgiana’s decision about ethics and beauty in Nathanial Hawthorne’s “The Birth-Mark” and bring that back to research about plastic surgery (or even the impact of social media filters or body image, for example), then potentially students could connect literature devices to everyday life, culture, tradition, and beliefs. Furthermore, setting is just as important. For example, students could investigate place and how humans are manipulated by spaces (think Edward Soja and his argument regarding lonely spaces in big cities), so another idea could allow students to consider how setting determines empathy. For example, the idea of mental illness in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wall-Paper.”

Library Instruction: Part of this assignment requires students to visit the CityTech Library (and hopefully inspire a trip their local public library). Students will respond to an assignment in which students will be asked to:
•Tour the CityTech Library (and participate in Library Instruction presented by a librarian if they have not done so already)
•Register/activate their library card (if they have not done so already)
•Check out a book (preferably one related to their intended research)
•Logon to a computer on campus and print out a scholarly article (preferably one related to their intended research)
•Take a selfie in the library (this could be used later to upload this project in an eportfolio)
•Reflect on their experience in the library (sounds, smells, space, feelings)

Annotated Bibliography: Students must show that they understand how literature connects to research, or vice versa, but particularly how literature and research and be used as a “lens.” Furthermore, students will integrate the reading, analysis, and discussion of literature into writing processes. (Employ active reading strategies to interpret and evaluate complicated texts.) Complete research that distinguishes among a variety of resources based on a standard criterion.

Peer Review: Students will collaborate and work with their peers and discuss their ideas and research as well as review their drafts and provide feedback. There will be a preliminary peer review and a more detailed peer review.

Essay Assignment: The purpose of this assignment asks students to think about how one text shapes their reading of another text. This essay assignment will continue to investigate how one reading impacts another. Students will take this skill further and deepen this by bringing in outside research of their own. For this essay I’d like students to locate two scholarly journal articles that will serve as the “lens” through which they analyze their chosen work of literature. Explain how the articles shape their interpretation of the work of literature. For example, do the articles help students understand the issues that the literature raises? Or, do they show that these issues are more complex than the literature would lead us to believe? Or, do they challenge the argument made in the piece of literature? Or, do they support that argument?

Students will choose:
•Any ONE story, poem, or play on the syllabus (your choice)
•TWO scholarly journal articles that you’ll find through research

Final draft:
•5 full pages (not including the Works Cited page), double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12-point font. Students must also hand in all component activities, including rough draft, peer review sheets, and copies of scholarly sources along with the final draft.

Overall, this project is meant for students to develop ‘Intercultural Knowledge and Competence’ by evaluating research and a text and considering:
•Cultural Self-Awareness (how students relate themes in literature to their own values and beliefs as well as to characters and their development)
•Empathy (Students must consider Aristotle’s Mode of Argument)
•Verbal and Nonverbal Communication (rhetoric)
•Curiosity (questioning literature for research and how literature impacts how we view current issues)
•Openness (comparing their own culture and beliefs and approaching critical thinking and analytical writing working with an open mind)

Targeted Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs):
•Knowledge (engage in inquiry-based learning)
•Skills (communication and inquiry)
•Integration (gathers, interpret, and evaluate literature and sources)
•Values, Ethics, and Relationships (personal development and ethics)

Targeted High-Impact Education Practices (HIEPs):
•Writing-Intensive Courses (7+ pages of written work over time)
•Collaborative Assignments and Projects (peer workshop and collaborative reflections)
•Undergraduate Research (search for scholarly articles)
•Place-Based Learning (library instruction and interaction)

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

In addition to using the VALUE rubric, as discussed above, I will also use my own rubric for each assignment. Students will have these rubrics up front to use a checklist to organize and keep track of their work as they move along. For the essay itself, I will assess the final essay’s introduction, organization of ideas, support, style, formatting, citation, etc.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

Although I am refining an existing research project, this particular activity has not been assigned yet.

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab

Creating a Brand : Transitioning from Student Identity to Professional Identity

Creating a Brand : Transitioning from Student Identity to Professional Identity

Ruth Marsiliani, RDH, FBPI

Department of Dental Hygiene

DEN2300L Principles of Dental Hygiene

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

During the semester students are asked to build the e-portfolio page and post: resume, cases, bio, and extracurricular activities. I propose to add a part to this project and have the answer questions that will lead to answer “ What image do they have of themselves as professionals?”

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

To incorporate; clinical practice, classroom theory, and personal experience, and help the student build their professional brand

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

: It can start during the second semester in the DH program, after their research project. Classroom time is NOT necessary. 3hrs of work is the maximum time necessary, per semester.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

There is no special preparation needed. The instructions for how long the answers should be and the format, will be posted on the Dental Hygiene Open Lab. This assignment is considered a HIEP. General SLOs: Open educational Pedagogy/ Learning communities/ writing – Intensive project/ assignments

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

The Value Rubric would be given to students as a guide. They would be graded by their ability to stay within 50 words and the amount of grammatical errors within this statement. One of the questions will require them to find 2 references to support their argument/ point of view.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

Not Applied yet

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

DEN 2300/ DEN 2400
RUTH MARSILIANI RDH, FBPI

CREATING A BRAND: TRANSITIONING FROM STUDENT T0 PROFESSIONAL
Handout

Part 1: There will be a total of 5 questions that will be posted on the Dental Hygiene Open Lab forum during the semester. You will also be expected to comment on at least 1 more person’s post. One of the questions will ask you to submit 2 references to support your argument.
Format: answer each question with a maximum of 50 words, which should be posted within 5 days. The Value Rubric serves as a guide on how to answer the questions.

Part 2: Review your semester’s work; analyze and focus on Dental Hygiene ethics and how it affects you as an oncoming Professional. Also, review other people’s work and think about how their views also coincide or differ from yours. Create your Bio/ about me page that will be part of your e-portfolio, which will reflect your professional identity or e-brand. The length should stay within 300 words and grammatically proofed.

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab

Final Hotel Design Project

Final Hotel Design Project

Harry Shapiro

Hospitality Management

Services Marketing & Management

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

Students create a blog post that contains the conceptual design of a hotel that has a specific place-based location. They will design services for their hotel along with a service delivery system (Heskett, 1994), and elements of a servicescape (Bitner, 1992). They will also explore how information about this hotel will be brought to market; they must contemplate how they will create marketing messages for the hotel. They will use the hotel to explore the interdependencies between services management and marketing. Students will be given an example outline, and an example of a completed assignment.

This is the fifth of five related assignments and it will be used by the students as the input to a final summative exam.

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

Students will create a blog post. Critical Reasoning about Ethics will play a major role in crafting this post; such thinking will help students understand and balance the diverse needs of guests, staff and management.

However, there are additional and overlapping goals and objectives including place based learning, and storytelling. This activity will use a peer reviewed critical thinking (around Ethical issues) rubric to help the students understand the complex balance that must be achieved in consideration of the needs of the staff, the customers, the managers, and the owners when designing, managing, and marketing a service.

Ultimately they should be able to demonstrate that if staff are not properly treated, the guests will not be treated well and they will have a hard time marketing their property; inversely when they go above in beyond in caring for staff, not only will it help improve guest experiences it will help the hotel "market itself." They will also make it clear how the Servicescape of the hotel plays a role in the treatment of guests and staff, but also in how the hotel is able to "auto-magically create its own marketing."

Services management is often an futile attempt to brindle, constrain, and restrict the activities of staff while demanding impeccable service delivery — Heskett (1994) turns this on it's head by making it clear that management must first create an impeccable workspace for the staff (the Service Profit Chain) if they wish to have an effective and impeccable service delivery system. Bitner (1992) makes it clear that the space in which the service is delivered also plays a key role in the service delivery. Bitner's work pre-dates the Instagram Selfie, the smartphone, and the selfie stick — yet a property with an excellent servicescape will generate its own inbound marketing (Shah, & Halligan, 2005).

The final summative assessment for the course will ask students to draw from this assignment; this assignment is asking them to create their own Services Management and Marketing "crayon box" and during their final exam use it to draw-out the learning they have synthesized during the course.

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

Very little time is to be spent in class on this phase of the assignment. Classroom time will include a discussion of the assignment during week 10, a review of the assignment week 11, and during week 12 a showcase covering how the assignment will be used during the exam week. During week 14 the students will peer review each other's assignments using several rubrics. During week 15 the students will use a print-out of their post as part of their final exam.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

The prior assignments should help students prepare for this assignment.

Prior Blogging Assignments
* Design a Dish
* Design a Signature Dish
* Design a Hotel (Group Assignment)
* Design a Customer Relationship Management Process (group)
* Design a Hotel (Individual Assignment) ← This assignment

The instructions are found here:

Example Individual Hotel Concept

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

Students will peer review with several rubrics including the Ethical Reasoning Value Rubric. The instructors assessment using the Ethical Reasoning Value Rubric will also be submitted to the school.

Since this activity is a precursor to the final and summative assessment for the course, the assignment will be "graded" during this assessment. The course is a writing intensive course.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

I have completed parts 1 – 4 (see below); it has worked effectively. Students have demonstrably been able synthesize the learning outcomes from the course into real world examples. A challenge to this specific was the negative reaction to the detailed nature of the assignment. This negative reaction was discussed openly and compassionately; I presented a counter narrative discussing how since this was part of the final exam, they were better off with an assignment that gives them five weeks to complete it vs. having to craft it only within the time allowed during an exam. Most students accepted the "open book" and "take-home" nature of the assignment. Prior assignments included

* Design a Dish
* Design a Signature Dish
* Design a Hotel (Group Assignment)
* Design a Customer Relationship Management Process (group)

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab

https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/service-product-design/category/one/

Testing Usability, Learning Ethics

Testing Usability, Learning Ethics

Joe Jeyaraj

English

Planning and Testing User Documentation (Eng 3780)

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

Students will do usability testing of a health document either they or a friend or relative may have used.

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

How well the document works for its audience and purpose.

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

In the second section of the course.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

As assignments go, it is simple in its planning, but complex in its completion.

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

I use a rubric that I have for upper level courses in technical and professional writing.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

I have given students a document I have personally used, and students generally respond well to this type of assignment because it involves their personal life.

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab

Clinic Journals

Clinic Journals

Annie Chitlall

School of Professional Studies department of Dental Hygiene/New York City College of Technology

Princinples of Dental Hygiene Care II

Activity Description: Provide a brief description of the activity

Students will write 3 clinic journals in Dental 1200. Each journal will be written on a completed patient. The students will enter the journal on the Den 1200 open lab site. There will be an open discussion between each student and his/her clinic advisor to ensure that the journal has met all the required information listed on the handout/rubric.

Learning Goals: What do you aim to achieve with this activity?

Timing: At what point in the lesson or semester do you use this activity? How much classroom time do you devote to it? How much out-of-class time is expected?

Students will post a clinical journal within 48 hours of patient completion. Clinical journals are to be written after each step of patient care is completed. This activity will not occur in the classroom. Students will need about 2-3 hours out-of-class time to complete these journals if they the recommended timeline is followed.

Logistics: What preparation is needed for this activity? What instructions do you give students? Is the activity low-stakes, high-stakes, or something else?

The students need to be able to demonstrate writing mechanics, understanding, and completeness of the assignment. Writing must be clear, concise, and correct. No spelling or grammatical errors. Extremely well organized. The student must demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the concepts in the assignment and must address all elements in the assignment in an appropriate length. This activity is low-stakes.

Assessment: How do you assess this activity? What assessment measures do you use? Do you use a VALUE rubric? If not, how did you develop your rubric? Is your course part of the college-wide general education assessment initiative?

There will be a grading rubric for this assignment.

Reflection: How well did this activity work in your classroom? Would you repeat it? Why or why not? What challenges did you encounter, and how did you address them? What, if anything, would you change? What did students seem to enjoy about the activity?

Currently and from previous experience, the students do not follow the recommended timeline and rush to submit the required 3 journal entries on the deadline. The last-minute submissions or journals have not yielded positive results since most entries are missing pertinent information and students do not have an opportunity for open discussion with assigned faculty members. I would repeat this activity but will modify the requirements for submission. Students will develop a better appreciation of this assignment if after each patient care visit there is a required entry for that visit and an evaluation of their goals for a specific aspect of the patient care process was met. Over the semesters the biggest challenge is receiving these journal entries in a timely manner. Most students wait for the deadline date and post their entries at midnight, this does not allow for a discussion and often results in a low grade. Most students seem to enjoy the self-reflection portion of the assignment most.

Additional Information: Please share any additional comments and further documentation of the activity – e.g. assignment instructions, rubrics, examples of student work, etc. These can be links to pages or posts on the OpenLab.

Journal __________ Principles of Dental Hygiene Care II- 1200-Spring 2018

Criteria
4
3
2
1
Score
Completeness
Addresses all elements in the assignment and is of appropriate length
Addresses most of elements in the assignment and is of appropriate length
Missing some minor elements in the assignments
Incomplete in most respects; does not address the assignment properly

Understanding
Demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the concepts in the assignment
Demonstrates an accomplished understanding of the concepts in the assignment
Demonstrates an acceptable understanding of the concepts in the assignments
Demonstrates an inadequate understanding of concepts in the assignment

Writing Mechanics
Writing is clear, concise, and correct. No spelling or grammatical errors. Extremely well organized.
Writing is clear and concise but may have one or two spelling or grammatical errors. Well organized.
Writing lacks clarity or conciseness and contains numerous spelling and/or grammatical errors.
Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious errors in spelling and/or grammar. Poorly organized

Total:

Grade = 12/12 = 100%
Instructor Comments:

Please share a helpful link to a pages or post on the OpenLab