Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 13

For this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment, add a comment to this post in memo format that describes what you have contributed to your team’s collaborative project. Include any writing drafts and/or research that you have done. This is a way to maintain accountability for each team member’s contributions and to keep Prof. Ellis apprised of the work that your team members are doing to help bring the project together. Watch this week’s lecture for more details.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 12

Due to the Thanksgiving Holiday, I am posting this week’s lecture and weekly writing assignment early.

After watching this week’s lecture and continuing your teamwork on the Analytical Research Report, each student should individually write a memo (TO, FROM, DATE, and SUBJECT: Research Project Update) that describes that individual’s work and responsibilities for researching and writing on the project and copy-and-paste any writing (including quotes that you might discuss) into your memo. Post your memo as a comment to this Weekly Writing Assignment post. Again, this is an individual assignment that demonstrates what each team member is responsible for working on their team’s project.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 11

This is an individual writing assignment based on your team’s collaborative project. Each team member should write a short memo of no more than 250-words addressed to Prof. Ellis that describes what research responsibility he/she has been delegated or volunteered to do this week for the team project and include three IEEE references to articles and/or ebooks found through the City Tech Library that might be useful for your team’s research. Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this post.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 10

After watching this week’s lecture and reading Prof. Ellis’ “Reply-All” email with your new team assignments, each team should have one member create a folder on Google Drive and share it with the other team members. Then, create a Google Doc inside your team’s shared folder to write a memo together about your team’s project topic deliberations and the topic that you ultimately chose. Each team member should then copy-and-paste the memo into a comment added to this post. Remember: Each team member will copy-and-paste the same memo that you wrote together.

TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Hari Seldon, Mose Ellis, and Moomin Papa
DATE: 11/17/2021
SUBJECT: Team Project Topic

Write one sentence stating the purpose of this memo. Then, write about the topics that you considered and ultimately the topic that your team picked for your research report. This only needs to be 250 words. 

Announcement: PLAN Week = Good Info + Raffle

City Tech PLAN Week, November 1 — 5, 2021

During PLAN week, we offer information to help you plan your next steps—from choosing classes and learning how to register to finding out where to get support and make connections within the college. Don’t miss this opportunity to create a successful and personal PLAN. Also, by completing PLAN Week daily forms, you will be entered in a raffle pool for $50 MasterCard gift cards. If you participate all 5 PLAN Week questionnaires, you will be entered for a grand prize of $300. We recommend that you set aside 20-30 minutes a day this week, and watch one video and follow it by answering the corresponding response form.

Monday, November 1: Start your PLAN with the Introduction to Academic Advising video and respond here.

Tuesday, November 2: PLAN your academic career by watching Understanding Your Degree Requirements and respond here.

Wednesday, November 3: PLAN your academic advising appointment by watching Creating a Semester-by-Semester Plan and respond here.

Thursday, November 4: PLAN to register by watching Introduction to Registration and respond here.

Friday, November 5: PLAN to get involved by watching How to Get Involved (video coming soon!)and respond here.

All of the videos and forms are available from now until Sunday, November 7 at https://www.citytech.cuny.edu/advisement/library.aspx. Any responses filled out by midnight on the seventh will be eligible for the raffle. Good luck, and start planning!

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 8

Write a 250-word memo addressed to Prof. Ellis with the subject, “Other Sections for Instruction Manual,” in which you strategize what other sections to include in your instruction manual document. Below, you will find some suggestions. Also, look at the Instructions chapter and Instruction examples in David McMurrey’s Online Technical Writing Textbook for models that you can look to about how they are organized. Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this post.

1.0    Introduction
1.1    Purpose
1.2    Intended Audience
1.3    Scope
1.4    Organization Description
1.5    Conventions (abbreviations, left/right)
1.6    Motivation (answers the “so what” question)
1.7    Safety and Disclaimers
2.0    Description of the Equipment
2.1    Illustration of the Equipment
2.2    Description of the Equipment’s Parts
3.0    List of Materials and Equipment Needed
3.1    Illustration of the Parts Needed to Carry Out the Instructions
3.2    Tools needed
3.3    Table of the parts with description of each
4.0    Directions
4.1    Assemble the Skateboard
4.1.1    Step 1 (don’t write Step 1--write a brief statement on what the first step is)
4.1.2    Step 2
4.1.3    Step 3...Step n (write as many steps--briefly--as you can think of--you can fill this list out later)
5.0    Troubleshooting
6.0    Glossary
7.0    Reference List

Lecture, Week 7

To help with this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment below, study and make notes on the commonalities between the instruction manuals discussed in last week’s class.

Sample Instruction Manuals

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 7

Watch and take notes on this week’s lecture before proceeding.

Write a memo to Prof. Ellis that presents a basic numbered, process list for your Instruction Manual.

Write as much as needed to show the process in your instruction manual.

However, this is a draft–you may add, subtract, and change as needed later.

Include notes about what images to include with each step as appropriate (think of WOVEN).

We will look at the other components of your Instruction Manual next week. 

Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this post on our OpenLab Course Site.

Lecture, Week 6

After watching this week’s lecture, watch for Prof. Ellis’ email to your team to begin peer review on your Expanded Definition project. Use the model below for your Expanded Definition memo. Remember to copy-and-paste your completed memo draft into your “Reply-All” email to your team along with your ask-and-offer.

TO:         Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:         Due Date
SUBJECT:     Expanded Definition of Your Term

Introduction [Heading Level 2]
What is the purpose of this document? What term are you defining? How are you discussing the way it is defined and the way it is used in context? Describe a road map for what follows (definitions and context). This content should be published as paragraphs, unlike the heading for this section, which is a level 2 heading.

Definitions [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two quoted definitions from different sources of the term that you selected. Provide quotes and IEEE in-text citations for each definition, and include your sources in the References section at the end of the document. Each definition that you include deserves discussion in your words about what it means and how it relates to the other definitions that you include. Consider how they are alike, how are they different, who might use one versus another, etc. And, as a part of your compare and contrast, discuss the etymology or history of the word (e.g., one definition might be more like what the word meant originally or more recently). Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry.

Context [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two sentences that use the term as it appears in different sources. This discussion should focus on how the context of the word shapes its meaning. A range of sources would provide the best source material for your discussion of how the term is used in these contexts. For example, a quote from an academic journal, a quote from a newspaper or magazine, a quote from a blog, and a quote from social media would give you a range of uses that might have different audiences. For each quote, you should devote at least as much space as the quote discussing what it means in that context and how it relates to the other quotes in context. Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry. 

Here’s a quote example from The New York Times: Technology Opinion Writer Kara Swisher wrote about the bombshell allegations made by Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen in a television interview: “Everything the former product manager on Facebook’s dispersed/disbanded (depending on whom you believe) Civic Integrity team said in her interview with CBS’ “60 Minutes” on Sunday rang true, including her allegations that the company’s algorithm is a wildfire that feeds on rancor and that the company always chooses its business over safety” [3]. The use of the term algorithm here refers to how Facebook surfaces certain content and submerges other content on a given Facebook user’s feed. 

Another quote example from a book on optimizing Rust language programming applications: While Swisher uses the term algorithm to refer to a specific decision-making technology at Facebook, Moraza uses it in a more general way where he writes: “You will also understand the difference between the common standard library collections so that you can choose the right one for your algorithm” [4, p. 1]. Algorithm here refers to the programming code that the reader of Moraza’s book is developing using the Rust programming language. Any computer code that is performing a process would qualify as an algorithm in this context while Swisher’s use of the term algorithm referred to a specific algorithm developed and used by a specific company.


Working Definition [Heading Level 2]
Based on the definitions and word history that you quoted and discussed, and the contextual uses of the term that you quoted and discussed, write a working definition of the term that's relevant to your career field or major, which you will need to identify (this is the specific context for your working definition).

References [Heading Level 2]
Order your IEEE references in the order that they appear in your document. The first would be [1], the second would be [2], etc.

[1]    "Algorithm," in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2012, def. 2. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com
[2]    “Algorithm,” in Science and Technology Encyclopedia, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Online]. Available: https://archive.org/details/sciencetechnolog00univ/mode/2up 

[3]      K. Swisher, "Brazen is the order of the day at Facebook," The New York Times, Oct. 5, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/05/opinion/facebook-blackout-2021.html

[4]      I. E. Moraza, Rust High Performance: Learn to Skyrocket the Performance of Your Rust Applications. Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing, 2018. [Online]. Available: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 6

After watching this week’s lecture, begin thinking about what tasks and processes would be appropriate and interesting for you to write an instruction manual on for the next individual project. Possible instruction manuals should focus on your degree and career goals so that you create something relevant to your training and illustrative of your communication skills.

For this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment, write a 250-word memo addressed to Prof. Ellis with the subject line of “Instruction Manual Topic Selection.” In the body of your memo, discuss the pros and cons of three possible instruction manual topics and state which one you choose to work on for the project. Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this post.

To aid in your thinking, review the links below for sample instruction manuals, and see a sample instruction manual outline at the bottom of this post.

Sample Instruction Manuals

Sample Instruction Manual Organization

1.0    Introduction
1.1    Purpose
1.2    Intended Audience
1.3    Scope
1.4    Organization Description
1.5    Conventions (abbreviations, left/right)
1.6    Motivation (answers the “so what” question)
1.7    Safety and Disclaimers
2.0    Description of the Equipment
2.1    Illustration of the Equipment
2.2    Description of the Equipment’s Parts
3.0    List of Materials and Equipment Needed
3.1    Illustration of the Parts Needed to Carry Out the Instructions
3.2    Tools needed
3.3    Table of the parts with description of each
4.0    Directions
4.1    Assemble the Skateboard
4.1.1    Step 1 (don’t write Step 1--write a brief statement on what the first step is)
4.1.2    Step 2
4.1.3    Step 3...Step n (write as many steps--briefly--as you can think of--you can fill this list out later)
5.0    Troubleshooting
6.0    Glossary
7.0    Reference List

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 5

For this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment, continue your research and writing for the next two sections of the Expanded Definition Project: Context and Working Definition. As discussed at length in this week’s lecture, which you should watch before proceeding, write drafts of the Context and Working Definition sections and include in-text citations for quotes and corresponding references to those quotes at the end of your document. Copy-and-paste just those sections into a comment made to this post to demonstrate your on-going progress on the project.

Separately, you should aim for having a rough draft of your Expanded Definition project ready for peer review next week.

I am including the sample quotes and citations from today’s lecture below. Also, links to IEEE citation guides are at the bottom of the post.

TO:         Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:         Due Date
SUBJECT:     Expanded Definition of Your Term

Introduction [Heading Level 2]
What is the purpose of this document? What term are you defining? How are you discussing the way it is defined and the way it is used in context? Describe a road map for what follows (definitions and context). This content should be published as paragraphs, unlike the heading for this section, which is a level 2 heading.

Definitions [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two quoted definitions from different sources of the term that you selected. Provide quotes and IEEE in-text citations for each definition, and include your sources in the References section at the end of the document. Each definition that you include deserves discussion in your words about what it means and how it relates to the other definitions that you include. Consider how they are alike, how are they different, who might use one versus another, etc. And, as a part of your compare and contrast, discuss the etymology or history of the word (e.g., one definition might be more like what the word meant originally or more recently). Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry.

Context [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two sentences that use the term as it appears in different sources. This discussion should focus on how the context of the word shapes its meaning. A range of sources would provide the best source material for your discussion of how the term is used in these contexts. For example, a quote from an academic journal, a quote from a newspaper or magazine, a quote from a blog, and a quote from social media would give you a range of uses that might have different audiences. For each quote, you should devote at least as much space as the quote discussing what it means in that context and how it relates to the other quotes in context. Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry. 

Here’s a quote example from The New York Times: Technology Opinion Writer Kara Swisher wrote about the bombshell allegations made by Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen in a television interview: “Everything the former product manager on Facebook’s dispersed/disbanded (depending on whom you believe) Civic Integrity team said in her interview with CBS’ “60 Minutes” on Sunday rang true, including her allegations that the company’s algorithm is a wildfire that feeds on rancor and that the company always chooses its business over safety” [3]. The use of the term algorithm here refers to how Facebook surfaces certain content and submerges other content on a given Facebook user’s feed. 

Another quote example from a book on optimizing Rust language programming applications: While Swisher uses the term algorithm to refer to a specific decision-making technology at Facebook, Moraza uses it in a more general way where he writes: “You will also understand the difference between the common standard library collections so that you can choose the right one for your algorithm” [4, p. 1]. Algorithm here refers to the programming code that the reader of Moraza’s book is developing using the Rust programming language. Any computer code that is performing a process would qualify as an algorithm in this context while Swisher’s use of the term algorithm referred to a specific algorithm developed and used by a specific company.


Working Definition [Heading Level 2]
Based on the definitions and word history that you quoted and discussed, and the contextual uses of the term that you quoted and discussed, write a working definition of the term that's relevant to your career field or major, which you will need to identify (this is the specific context for your working definition).

References [Heading Level 2]
Order your IEEE references in the order that they appear in your document. The first would be [1], the second would be [2], etc.



[1]    "Algorithm," in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2012, def. 2. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com
[2]    “Algorithm,” in Science and Technology Encyclopedia, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Online]. Available: https://archive.org/details/sciencetechnolog00univ/mode/2up 

[3]      K. Swisher, "Brazen is the order of the day at Facebook," The New York Times, Oct. 5, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/05/opinion/facebook-blackout-2021.html

[4]      I. E. Moraza, Rust High Performance: Learn to Skyrocket the Performance of Your Rust Applications. Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing, 2018. [Online]. Available: ProQuest Ebook Central.

IEEE Citation Guides

Lecture, Week 4

Remember to actively watch and make notes from this week’s lecture before proceeding with the Weekly Writing Assignment and submitting your 500-Word Summary Project.

As discussed in the lecture, the following is a model for the overall structure of your 500-Word Summary project. The lecture includes directions on how to create a post on our OpenLab course site to submit your work. Follow those directions carefully for maximum credit. The 500-Word Summary is due by next Wednesday. For those students who have reached out to me needing more time to complete the project, remember to email me after you have submitted your work so that I can go back and grade it.

Sample 500-Word Summary
(with IEEE in-text citation and Reference, and Lorem ipsum filler text)

TO:       Prof. Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:     10/6/2021
SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Virtual Reality

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about tracking human bodies in virtual reality. The authors discuss the body tracking software that they developed called Pfinder by showing how the software was developed, tested, and improved. According to the authors, “To  address  this  need  we  have  developed  a  real-time  system called   Pfinder   (“person   finder”)   that   substantially   solves   the problem  for  arbitrarily  complex  but  single-person,  fixed-camera situations” [1, p. 780]. 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum at porttitor neque. Nullam dapibus pulvinar hendrerit. Etiam elementum ipsum quis elit aliquet tincidunt. Aliquam dui augue, tempor quis pretium et, fermentum et dolor. Praesent sit amet velit et ligula iaculis vulputate. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam lobortis pulvinar rhoncus. Aliquam neque sem, tincidunt sollicitudin ante gravida, congue pretium odio. Nullam in vestibulum tellus, accumsan dignissim dolor. Sed convallis nisl vel venenatis sagittis. In eu turpis risus. Phasellus ac rhoncus est.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis felis arcu, luctus sit amet mauris non, vestibulum lobortis massa. Nullam dapibus arcu ac sem dignissim, sed sodales lorem pulvinar. Proin convallis arcu et varius rutrum. Aenean ante dolor, maximus gravida tristique eget, fermentum nec diam. Maecenas accumsan faucibus tortor. Vivamus blandit, massa at pretium mattis, odio neque lobortis turpis, at placerat lorem nulla vitae sem. Sed in enim nec magna consequat malesuada. Suspendisse a lacinia quam, eget mollis lectus. Nam sed rutrum nisl. Vestibulum molestie justo sed pulvinar ultrices. Nam consequat dolor risus, hendrerit hendrerit magna consequat a.

In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Donec tempor metus eros, at accumsan nunc eleifend et. Vivamus velit ligula, commodo at justo non, interdum egestas elit. Nulla tristique facilisis massa quis volutpat. Quisque sollicitudin eu eros commodo mattis. Aliquam vel nisl ut enim rhoncus tristique. Integer placerat sapien et augue placerat interdum. Mauris semper augue eget sapien gravida hendrerit. Integer quis bibendum sem, vel tempus ligula. Nullam ante lorem, laoreet sit amet gravida semper, maximus non magna. Quisque dolor elit, semper a consequat eu, dignissim sed mi. Duis ac nibh efficitur orci gravida lacinia vel a tortor. Aenean quis nisi sit amet turpis molestie interdum.

Vestibulum viverra nulla semper risus placerat, at auctor massa ornare. Nullam quis gravida arcu. Mauris et lorem sed ante pharetra laoreet sed vel odio. Suspendisse eget nibh ex. Nulla a placerat lacus, blandit sodales nulla. Sed dapibus et velit sed pulvinar. Sed tincidunt nulla vel nunc interdum lacinia. Sed at tempus orci. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Aenean in ultricies nisi. Phasellus rhoncus elit nunc, sit amet sollicitudin metus bibendum vitae. Maecenas feugiat est ut arcu malesuada aliquam.

References

[1]     C. R. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell, and A. P. Pentland, “Pfinder: Real-time tracking of the human body,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 780-785, July 1997, https://doi.org/10.1109/34.598236.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 4

For this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment, you will begin writing your Expanded Definition project. To start, focus on the first two sections as detailed below, which are the Introduction and Definitions sections. For all the definitions and etymological (word history) information that you quote, remember to use IEEE in-text citation numbers and create a corresponding References section at the end of your document in which the numerated IEEE bibliographic references match the numbered quotes in your Definitions section. Format your writing as a memo with the subject, “Expanded Definition of Your Term, First Half, Rough Draft.” There is no word count on this assignment. Its purpose is to demonstrate your best effort on the first half of your Expanded Definition project. Save your work in a safe place and copy-and-paste it into a comment made to this post (remember to click the title “Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 4,” scroll to the comment box, copy-and-paste, and click “Post Comment.”

Overview of the Expanded Definition Project Deliverable

TO:         Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:         Due Date
SUBJECT:     Expanded Definition of Your Term

Introduction [Heading Level 2]
What is the purpose of this document? What term are you defining? How are you discussing the way it is defined and the way it is used in context? Describe a road map for what follows (definitions and context). This content should be published as paragraphs, unlike the heading for this section, which is a level 2 heading.

Definitions [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two quoted definitions from different sources of the term that you selected. Provide quotes and IEEE in-text citations for each definition, and include your sources in the References section at the end of the document. Each definition that you include deserves discussion in your words about what it means and how it relates to the other definitions that you include. Consider how they are alike, how are they different, who might use one versus another, etc. And, as a part of your compare and contrast, discuss the etymology or history of the word (e.g., one definition might be more like what the word meant originally or more recently). Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry.

Context [Heading Level 2]
Compare and contrast at least two sentences that use the term as it appears in different sources. This discussion should focus on how the context of the word shapes its meaning. A range of sources would provide the best source material for your discussion of how the term is used in these contexts. For example, a quote from an academic journal, a quote from a newspaper or magazine, a quote from a blog, and a quote from social media would give you a range of uses that might have different audiences. For each quote, you should devote at least as much space as the quote discussing what it means in that context and how it relates to the other quotes in context. Each quote should have an IEEE in-text citation and reference entry.

Working Definition [Heading Level 2]
Based on the definitions and word history that you quoted and discussed, and the contextual uses of the term that you quoted and discussed, write a working definition of the term that's relevant to your career field or major, which you will need to identify (this is the specific context for your working definition).

References [Heading Level 2]
Order your IEEE references in the order that they appear in your document. The first would be [1], the second would be [2], etc.



[1]    "Algorithm," in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2012, def. 2. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com
[2]    “Algorithm,” in Science and Technology Encyclopedia, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Online]. Available: https://archive.org/details/sciencetechnolog00univ/mode/2up 

[3]      Author,Title, volume, edition. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.

[4]      Author, “Title,” Journal, volume, number, page range, month year, DOI.

Helpful Resources with IEEE Style

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 3

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 3

This week’s Weekly Writing Assignment has two parts. The first part should be submitted as a comment made to this post. The second part should be conducted over email with your team. Watch this week’s lecture from start to finish before proceeding.

The first component of this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment is the beginning research that you need to accomplish for the second major project: 750-1000-Word Expanded Definition. Think of several possible technical or scientific terms, phrases, or acyonyms that would be interesting to research the definition, etymology, and context of. Then, using the resources described in the Week 3 lecture, see which term might have the most useful material for you to use on the project. Once you see which term might yield the most research material, write a 250-word memo describing the terms that you considered, which library and approved sources yielded the most useful material (give accurate and specific titles), and what term you decided to choose for your expanded definition based on what you found in your initial research. Your memo should look like this:

TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: [Your Name]
DATE: 9/29/2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: [Term you selected]

First sentence should state the purpose of the memo in your own words. Follow with the possible terms you choose from, discuss the resources that you looked in, and state which term you chose for your expanded definition based on your initial research.

After you have written your memo, copy-and-paste it into a comment made to this post and click “Post Comment.” As I showed in a previous lecture, you click on the title of “Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 3” and scroll to the bottom to find the comment box where you copy-and-paste your memo.

The second component of this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment is to use email to connect with your teammates by clicking “Reply All” to the email that Prof. Ellis will send to each team. Follow the directions in Prof. Ellis’ email to initiate introductions and to share the draft of your 500-Word Summary rough draft with your teammates for peer review. We will talk about revising and posting the final draft of your 500-Word Summary during next week’s lecture.

Lecture, Week 2

Remember to take notes while watching the lecture. And, watch the lecture before proceeding with the Weekly Writing Assignment and other homework.

If you have any questions, email Prof. Ellis, visit the weekly office hours on Wednesday 3-5pm (link to the left), or email Prof. Ellis to make an office hour appointment.

Follow the Syllabus schedule to keep up with the class. Due to the college’s academic calendar, there will not be a lecture posted for the next two weeks. Lecture 3 will be posted on Sept. 22. In the meantime, Prof. Ellis will be holding weekly office hours and will respond to emails ASAP.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 2

This week’s writing assignment will help you develop the scaffolding for your 500-word summary project by creating a reverse outline of the article that you find in your research on a topic related to your field of study and eventual career field. This is due by our next week of lecture on Wednesday, Sept. 22.

Watch this week’s lecture and make notes before proceeding!

For this Weekly Writing Assignment, do the following (detailed in this week’s lecture):

  • Find an article in the library’s databases on an appropriate topic and of sufficient length (Remember: go to library.citytech.cuny.edu > Find Articles > click on “A” for Academic Search Complete and Academic OneFile or click on “I” for IEEE Explore)
  • Create a new document in your word process of choice (Google Docs, Microsoft Word, Apple Pages, LibreOffice, etc.).
  • Write a memo addressed to Prof. Ellis with the subject “Reverse Outline.”
  • Under the memo header, type “1.” followed by one sentence in your own words summarizing the first paragraph of the article that you chose. Then, type “2.” on the next line followed by one sentence in your own words summarizing the second paragraph. Write an enumerated sentence for each paragraph until you reach the end of your selected article. Do not make the mistake of using the author’s words in your one sentence summary–put away the article when you write each summary sentence so that you express the main idea of each paragraph using only your own words.
  • Conclude with a section titled “Reference” followed by an IEEE formatted reference entry for the article. See my example in the lecture, and use this, this, and this for additional help.
  • Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this Weekly Writing Assignment post.

Also, you have some homework to accomplish before Wednesday, Sept. 22.

First, “reply-all” to the “Team Assignment” email that I will send you during the next two weeks. Follow the directions contained in the email to meet your fellow teammates and to show Prof. Ellis that you are actively taking part in establishing rapport with your teammates.

Second, take your reverse outline that you prepared for this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment and paste it into a new document on your computer or in the cloud. Remove the numbers before each summary sentence. Consolidate the sentences into paragraphs or one large paragraph. Read the sentences and edit as needed to create flow from one sentence to the next. Then, add a memo header as shown below (edit the subject according to my directions in the lecture or as you see below–meaning the main topic of your selected article), add an introductory sentence explaining what the document is (see the example first sentence below), and add a significant quote from your selected article with an in-text citation in IEEE Style as shown in the first paragraph below. This will yield a rough draft of your 500-word summary for the first project, which we will conduct peer review on during the week beginning on Sept. 22. Save this document until Sept. 22. We will use it for that week’s Weekly Writing Assignment

TO:       Prof. Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:     Oct. 6, 2021
SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Virtual Reality

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about tracking human bodies in virtual reality. The authors discuss the body tracking software that they developed called Pfinder by showing how the software was developed, tested, and improved. According to Wren et al., “To  address  this  need  we  have  developed  a  real-time  system called   Pfinder   (“person   finder”)   that   substantially   solves   the problem  for  arbitrarily  complex  but  single-person,  fixed-camera situations” [1, p. 780]. 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Proin iaculis pharetra diam, eget condimentum nulla aliquam at. Duis interdum commodo est nec faucibus. Pellentesque porttitor ipsum in urna tempor rhoncus. Donec at nisl sagittis, tincidunt arcu sed, porta ex. Aliquam vehicula eget nisl quis egestas. Phasellus condimentum, dui nec blandit pretium, mauris est venenatis sapien, sed dictum dolor felis non eros. Morbi in sodales ex.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Proin eu pellentesque quam. Sed nec risus vulputate, suscipit nibh ac, gravida orci. Nam eu ultricies magna. Nunc rhoncus eget ex ut sagittis. Praesent sed sollicitudin justo. Praesent convallis porttitor dui ac efficitur. Duis efficitur purus in condimentum mollis. Cras vel nisi sed arcu lacinia fringilla. Donec ultricies venenatis metus, at placerat.
Ut aliquam sem eget diam vulputate, in ultrices neque iaculis. Integer urna est, suscipit quis nulla vel, posuere molestie lorem. Nunc porttitor luctus odio, quis porttitor est. Maecenas ultricies nisi a nisi consequat consectetur pellentesque eget ipsum. Nulla congue ipsum at ante molestie, sit amet aliquam ex tempus. Curabitur tristique, felis vel volutpat commodo, risus justo convallis elit, ut pellentesque augue purus eget leo. Vivamus et hendrerit enim, eu placerat nunc. Curabitur purus augue, dictum a imperdiet tincidunt, dictum ornare erat. Pellentesque ac justo accumsan, sodales ligula ultricies, lobortis tellus. Fusce velit mi, gravida non ante non, sollicitudin finibus odio. Phasellus fermentum ante felis, sed varius enim vehicula sed.

Praesent ultricies sem at mi varius fermentum. In tempus eleifend est nec ultrices. Aenean nisi metus, suscipit quis massa nec, viverra tempor dui. Donec vel ultrices urna, ac fermentum elit. Donec a maximus sapien. Donec nibh magna, eleifend at laoreet sit amet, sagittis eu ex. Praesent efficitur, nisl vitae maximus ullamcorper, lorem nulla malesuada nibh, id aliquet nisl est sit amet turpis. Aliquam a tellus vel lacus tempor blandit sed non nulla. Mauris ut erat ligula. Ut nec dignissim mi. Sed suscipit mi in dui fringilla placerat. Duis sed sem consequat, sagittis ex eget, egestas tortor. Vestibulum vitae magna ipsum. 

Cras ligula tortor, consequat vel urna vel, dignissim finibus lectus. Donec accumsan nibh lectus, vitae molestie ex dapibus vitae. Mauris eu fermentum sapien. Vestibulum laoreet consectetur diam ut volutpat. Morbi rhoncus aliquam posuere. Cras consectetur, odio at feugiat euismod, augue diam rhoncus ligula, at sollicitudin nunc turpis vitae diam. Proin ut tortor velit.

Reference

[1]     C. R. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell, and A. P. Pentland, (1997). “Pfinder: Real-time tracking of the human body,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 780-785, July 1997, doi: 10.1109/34.598236.

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 1

After watching this week’s lecture (embedded in the post above) and reading this article on best practices for emailing professors, complete your first Weekly Writing Assignment by sending an email of introduction from your official City Tech email account to Prof. Ellis at jellis@citytech.cuny.edu according to the following parameters:

  • Send an email to Prof. Ellis at jellis@citytech.cuny.edu from your City Tech email account.
  • Subject line: ENG2575 [Your Section] Student Introduction
  • Salutation
  • Body: Tell me about yourself, your major, career goals, hobbies, what you want to get out of our class, and your availability for teamwork.
  • Closing: Sign with your name or how
    you would like me to refer to you.
  • If you need to reset your City Tech email password, go to forgot.citytech.cuny.edu.

Welcome to Technical Writing, ENG2575 OL70!

Dear all,

I would like to welcome you to our Fall 2021 Technical Writing class! To make sure you’re in the right place, this is ENG2575 OL70. I am Prof. Ellis and I will be leading our class this semester.

It’s important that you read through this message carefully and follow my directions below to join our class on OpenLab.

Even though classes don’t begin until Wednesday, Aug. 25, the school asked faculty to reach out to students early to help everyone be ready to begin when classes begin. At any point, feel free to reach out to me by email with any questions that you might have.

Our class is completely online and we will not be meeting synchronously (meaning at the same time). Instead, our class is designated asynchronous, which means each student can watch lectures and do the work at times of their choosing as long as deadlines and due dates are met.

Furthermore, there are, required team-based projects in which students will have to collaborate with others and coordinate times to work together throughout the semester. Please bear in mind that this is required for all ENG2575 classes and is therefore non-negotiable.

We will be using City Tech’s OpenLab to coordinate our class and the work that you will be doing this semester. To get you setup with the OpenLab, you will need to create an account using your City Tech email address (if you haven’t already done so), which you can do here: https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/register/

After you login to OpenLab with your account, you need to visit the Profile Page of our class and click on “Join Now” on the left side under the avatar image of a phonebooth: https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/groups/eng2575-ol70-technical-writing-fall-2021/

Then, to access our class site where I will post lectures and assignments, and you will turn in many of your projects in the class, click on “Visit Course Site” (on the right) after you joined the course, or you can go there directly by following this link: https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/elliseng2575ol70fa2021/

On our Course Site, you will see this Welcome message from me at the top of the page. On Wednesday, Aug. 25, I will post the first lecture video and weekly writing assignment. I explain a lot about how the class works and what we will be doing in that video. Watching each week’s lecture, taking notes, and completing assignments are required for success in the class.

Also, look at the menu on the left side of our Course Site to find the link to the class Syllabus: https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/elliseng2575ol70fa2021/syllabus/. All of our class’ policies, major assignments and grades, and schedule can be found there. I go over the syllabus in detail in the first lecture video.

Finally, I will hold weekly virtual office hours on Wednesday from 3:00pm-5:00pm on Google Hangouts here: https://hangouts.google.com/call/ffqYdoXngPvd-4OB-HTtACEE. There is also a link to the weekly office hours on the left side of our Course Site. If you would like to meet with me at a different day and time, please send me an email with your availability for the coming week so that I can arrange a time that accommodates both of our schedules.

I’m looking forward to working with you all over the coming semester. Remember to contact me with questions or if anything comes up that affects your performance in the class at jellis@citytech.cuny.edu. I want us all to complete the semester successfully!

Be well and stay safe!

Best, Professor Ellis

1500 word manual instruction on secure computer network/wireless

TO:         Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM:     Kanak Das

DATE:         12/01/2021

SUBJECT:     1500 word instruction manual on Secure Computer network/Wireless

Encryption is one of the major subject to talk about in wireless security, Because, all wireless computers are radio transmitters and receivers, anyone can listen to the information that are being transfer or received, that’s why it’s important  to have encryption enable on wireless network. So, that way even if the other people hear about the information, they would not be able to see the information. Only people will have access are the ones with proper passwords or proper wireless configuration.

Another major topic in wireless network is Hacking. For example, if you connect to public network, it can be easily intercepted by cybercriminal, where your personal data could be at risk. Whenever there is free public wi-fi, once you connect to these fake network everything you do online is monitor by cybercriminal. Who can scan your activity such as social media log in information. Cybercriminal can even easily transfer viruses, or other unnecessary software to your computer. That can cause serious damage to your computer and can get through your personal information.

Despite the fact these public networks can be harmful, there are ways to stay safe on public wi-fi. such as:

  • Verify your connections, be sure to ask an employee what the actual public Wi-Fi is, in order to avoid fake network.
  • Avoid checking sensitive or personal data, unless it’s necessary, avoid logging in  Facebook, email and more importantly financial accounts while on public Wi-fi.
  • Turn off Sharing, In your computer or the social media you are using there’s Sharing ON and OFF option. Turned that off while you are on public network.
  • Turn your Wi-Fi off when you are done with your work. That can prevent falling your personal files and information on wrong hand.

So, now that there are some disadvantages of wireless security, it needs of improvement  of protecting wireless data while they are in transit between a client and wireless access point.

  • Techniques and Technology can be applied are:
    • Use dynamic encryption key.
    • Include real authentication key.
    • Use strong encryption.
    • Use improved cryptographic integrity protection for data frames.
    • Improve session initiation.
    • Use Strong Passwords.
    • Have your Email connected to trusted device.

Another security technique can be applied is WPA which is Wi-fi Protected Access. WPA improve security by adding authentication Protocol for access control. It ensures the secure wireless communication. WPA support for temporal key integrity protocol TK IP which can be implemented in software with just firmware update. Along with that it also provides integrity checking using MIC, which is Message Integrity Code.

Configuring DNS on Windows, because The Domain Name System (DNS) is the protocol that makes the Internet usable by allowing the use of domain names. Its one of the safe zone to configure files or extract file.

Open the Server Manager from the task bar.

Click on DNS/ Right Click your server / select DNS Manger/ Click the Action Tab/ Select Configure a DNS Server.

-Select Configure a DNS Server in Windows Server 2012

The Configure DNS Server Wizard will come up click Next to continue and select one of the following actions:
– Create a forward lookup zone
A forward lookup zone is a DNS function that takes a domain name and resolves it to an IP address.

– Create forward and reverse lookup zones
A reverse lookup zone is a DNS function that takes an IP address and resolves it to a domain name.

– Configure root hints only
Root hints only Will have the IP addresses of DNS servers where records can be acquired.

This is the Configure DNS Server Wizard screen output in Windows Server 2012

Select where the DNS data will be maintained for your network resources, and then Click Next

Selecting a Primary Server location in Windows Server 2012

Enter your new zone name, in this case, your domain and Click Next.

This is the zone name insert field when configuring DNS in Windows Server 2012

Create a new zone file or use an existing one from a different DNS server

Creating a Zone file when configuring DNS in Windows Server 2012

Next you select how your server will respond to Dynamic Updates.

Select the do not allow Dynamic Updates option while Configuring DNS in Windows Server 2012

Select whether your DNS server should forward queries or not. If you choose YES, type the IP of the server and click Next. If NO, select No, it should not forward queries and Click Next.

Select one of the options to configure forwarders when Configuring DNS in Windows Server 2012

Click Finish and you’re all set.

Completing the DNS configuration in Window Server 2012

Furthermore, one of the case study I did, to learn this implementation even better is that there is Wi-Fi provider known as Web Titan. Web titan cloud for Wi-Fi is a web content filtering and network security solution for Wi-Fi providers. This is based in London UK. Selfridges ensure that guests and staff don’t have encounter malicious sites or view inappropriate content while using their Wi-Fi network.

According to this case study this is good Wi-Fi provider for business. Some of the reasons are, it provides a safer, faster and more secure environment for your hotspot guests and finally it allows you to control the content that you allow your guests to access. You can control multiple locations and routers And Web Titan Cloud handles any volume of usage. The product has extensive reporting, easily showing you usage and traffic. It also supports dynamic IPs and works with any device that joins your network. Another feature is that all of this protection and filtering comes without any compromise to speed.

            Moreover, Security in public places has become one of the major issue in Wireless security field. There have been many references on how the problem can be fixed. Top of all that VPN also known as Virtual Private Network, can be one of the strongest ways to secure our Network. This is also can be called as Layer 3 security which left the IP network vulnerable to attacks. For instance, if you need to check sensitive data such your banking or any financial account while on public Wi-Fi use Virtual Private Network. Even if a cybercriminal positions himself in a middle of your connections, your data or files will be strongly encrypted.

            In conclusion, securing wireless networks can be useful and difficult and harmful at the same time, but it all depends on how carefully we are using it. As I discussed on my previous paragraph there many techniques and method we apply in order to protect our privacy. There are procedure we can follow to help ourselves in wireless network, to ensure that a wireless network is as secure as possible, network administrator should follow several guidelines.

First, and most importantly the wireless network must be encrypted as I mentioned earlier. For this purpose, it is critical to use WPA based encryption rather than WEP based encryption. Since WEP encryption is severely flawed and can be cracked with free software in jut few minutes.

Second, it is important to remember that the benefits of wireless networking come up with price. To extend this idea more, data that are traveling over wired network, wireless data are much more exposed and open. Even, if wireless data are encrypted, the absence of physical wire network, it bring the hacker one step closer to gaining access to sensitive data.

Finally, a long password should be used for network authentication. The use of very strong password may be inconvenient or bothering for users, but it will help to prevent the hacker from foiling any password cracking attack. As you can see, the use of wireless network can be very  beneficial and unfavorable at the same time but it is our choice how we are going to use it for, when to use it and have pick the right moment to value our wireless technology. Technology has changed a lot throughout the years, we don’t know what the technology hold for us in future. But the way our technology growing rapidly it won’t very long until we see something amazing on technology world. Network wireless has improved a lot through the years and surely it will be even better and safer with strong encryption and protected devices, where people can access network and Wi-Fi without any worry or hesitations.

750-1000 Word Expanded definition on Networking Firewall

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Kanak Das

DATE: 12/01/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: Networking Firewall

Firewall is one of the important topic on Information technology. The purpose of the memo indicates that the computer or the network we use; how it can protect our information, data and applications. There are also other terms that goes along with Firewall, such as Wireless security, Network Security, Virtual private network (VPN), Virus, Ransomware. Some resources I have used for research to focus on my term is Forcepoint, Vmware, Dictionary.com. the term I have selected to focus is Firewall; A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic. My interest in computer is mostly network security where firewall comes up big when computer or network requires protection from hackers or malicious users.

“A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific traffic based on a defined set of security rules.” “Advanced firewall can no longer single-handedly defend a network against today’s complex cyber threat landscape, these devices are still considered to be the foundational building block for creating a proper cybersecurity system”. From these two quoted definitions we can understand that firewall might protect network from malicious traffic, but it’s still not capable enough to stop higher complicated attack or threat. While in network firewall can be divided int two types of protection proxy and stateful, which decided what to use when, proxy can be regularly use for any kind of websites that the users might think it’s not safe website to work on. On the other hand, stateful monitors the full state of active network connections. This means that stateful firewalls are constantly analyzing the complete context of traffic and data packets.

Moreover “traditional” firewall, a stateful inspection firewall allows or blocks traffic based on state, port, and protocol. It monitors all activity from the opening of a connection until it is closed. Filtering decisions are made based on both administrator-defined rules as well as context, which refers to using information from in previous connections and packets belonging to the same connection.”  And “and applications crossing through the network perimeters – especially due to the growing volume of IoT and end user devices – and less overall centralized control from IT and security teams, companies are becoming much more vulnerable to cyberattacks.” These two sentences basically talk about the fact that stateful inspection firewalls and application crossing through a specific network can be harmful for the company and for the applications itself. When data or packets being transfer form one network to another if the stateful firewall don’t investigate those packets or file a company’s or any firms information can be in wrong hands.

For example, in simple terms NAT is used to convert your IP address into your routers IP address , this is done because ipv4 which is a 32 bit IP address is limited and exhausted . Ur private IP address is not recognized by google so yuir router does the talking to the internet. It is like a cell phone which allows u to talk to “google.So” your private IP address is converted into the internet IP address with the help of net masking which u can see on seeing ifconfig which shows that your private IP address is converted into the routers IP address. Basically, when u buy internet connection you are buying an IP address that can talk to the world.  ISP has globally bought a range of Ip address from IANA and it is giving u an ipaddress. So all the devices which access internet from ur home would actually be converted into the routers ip address in ur router and those packets are shoots up into the net. So   router does the working of a postman when it receives reply from google and internally unmask the Ip address to determine who was the person who send that request.

In conclusion, Firewall term can be referred as where protection is needed. Whether it’s in computer, hardware, software. A firewall acts as a defensive border by helping to protect your computer from hackers, blocking malware from penetrating your system, and removing sensitive data from a compromised system. Such as stateful Firewalls scan each “packet” of data, small chunks of a larger whole, reduced in size for easy transmission, to make sure these packets don’t contain anything malicious. and interacts with the internet they come between you and the internet and thereby prevents direct connections this protects your device’s identity and keeps the network safe from potential attacks.

  1. “Firewall.” Fine Dictionary, http://www.finedictionary.com/firewall.html.
  2. “Firewall Definition and Meaning: Collins English Dictionary.” Firewall Definition and Meaning | Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/firewall.
  3. “What Is a Network Firewall?” Fortinet, https://www.fortinet.com/resources/cyberglossary/firewall.
  4. “What Is a Network Firewall?” Fortinet, https://www.fortinet.com/resources/cyberglossary/firewall.

500-Word Summary on Network wirless security

TO:       Prof. Ellis

FROM:     Kanak Das

DATE:     Dec, 1, 2021

SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Network Wireless Security

When we talk about network in computer, it also include huge responsibility in security as well as wireless security. It is one of the most important and fundamental topic in Networking. The reason this is an essential research in this topic is because Network security helps in protecting personal data, files, and others important information that is connected to devices.  Increasing network security, you decrease the chance of privacy spoofing, identity or information theft and so on. Wireless network has become one of the fastest technologies for everyone’s benefit, which is a Computer Network that allows computing devices to communicate with each other without being connected through physical communications medium, such as networking cable or any involvement of wire. It is usually reply upon radio communication and wireless Network are implemented at the physical layer which is Layer 1 of the OSI model. The importance of wireless security is that it is all in one person under control. The owner can control it from anywhere nearby, without any need of wire or cable. Some of the reasons are, trusted video security solutions, commitment to quality with superior service, for personal protection.

Wireless technologies use radio frequency transmission as the means for transmitting data, whereas wired technologies use cables. Wireless technologies range from complex system, such as WLAN which is Wireless Local Area Network, when we use cell phones and have wireless headphones, through the use of Bluetooth to listen to songs, and other small devices that does not require wire. moreover, we also have, WPA which is wireless Access Point, is hardware device that allows properly equipped computing device to connect wirelessly to a network. Which can be used through router including a radio transceiver to enable wireless communication with client, and where we all use it every single day, commonly known as Wi-Fi. The transport mechanism between devices connect can also have impact on the all devices that connected to each other and any information can be shared easily through this process. Encryption is one of the major subject to talk about in wireless security, Because, all wireless computers are radio transmitters and receivers , anyone can listen to the information that are being transfer or received, that’s why it’s important  to have encryption enable on wireless network. So, that way even if the other people hears about the information, they would not be able to see the information. Only people will have access are the ones with proper passwords or proper wireless configuration.

Another major topic in wireless network is Hacking. For example, if you connect to public network, it can be easily intercepted by cybercriminal, where your personal data could be at risk. Whenever there is free public wi-fi, once you connect to these fake network everything you do online is monitor by cybercriminal. Who can scan your activity such as social media log in information. Cybercriminal can even easily transfer viruses, or other unnecessary software to your computer. That can cause serious damage to your computer and can get through your personal information.

Reference

Biersdorfer, J. “The Security of Cellular Connections.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 Aug. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/08/10/technology/personaltech/security-wifi-lte-data.html.

Biersdorfer, J. “Staying Safer on Public Networks.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 4 May 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/05/04/technology/personaltech/staying-safer-on-public-networks.html.

1000 word expanded definition

New York City Technical College Department of Business

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: [ Shemei John]

DATE: 9/29/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: [Transhumanism]

            [Introduction]

The intent of this memo is to introduce and inform technological Terminology we may or may not be fully familiar with. Terms such as “Networks”, “the internet of things”, “information technology”, “information sciences”, “data”, “transhumanism”, “hive-mind concept” and “Artificial Intelligence”. After careful consideration, I decided to research the term “Transhumanism”. Although, according to its popularity, the term isn’t mentioned a lot in today’s topics regarding technology, I do find it to be fascinating since it deals with the ideology that Mankind will transcend our current limitations through the use of technology. There are several sources I am considering for this topic to convey the definitions. So, I am going to include the definition of the word and its origins, throughout its history, from the Oxford etymology, and also from an excerpt taken from the books, “New bottles for new wine”, on Transhumanism, which discusses the ideology behind the term and its definition today.

[Definitions]

The Oxford English dictionary’s definition of transhumanism (n), is a deviation of the English word, transhuman, with the prefix “trans” meaning beyond or across the farther side of. The term was first used by Julian Huxley in his book “New bottles for new wine (1957)” in which he said, “The human species can..transcend itself..in its entirety, as humanity. We need a name for this belief. Perhaps transhumanism will serve: man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature.” [1] What Huxley is saying is, the belief in the will to surpass our current nature as humans is transhumanism. The term has surfaced occasionally in its etymology, being used again by Tom Bell, in his writings from “Extropy”, in which he says that the alternative to religion would be transhumanism. The term also has a definition more relevant the modernity of time.

[Context]

Over the course of its history from when it was first coined to current times, the word transhumanism has variated into slight nuances. Huxley’s definition of transhumanism is the belief that humankind will transcend our nature, but he was speaking specifically about the beliefs. He believed that either synchronously, or not, humans will consciously give rise to this belief in order to evolve. Today the word has slightly a different definition which includes some addition to it. [2] The definition today is familiarly used in science fiction. So, the current definition of the 21st century would be that, transhumanism is the belief that one day humankind with transcend our current limitations, ultimately achieving immortality, by use of science and technology.

I checked in the Oxford dictionary of science-fiction for some comparison. The word transhuman references with two other words, “cyborg” and “posthuman”. The definition of a transhuman according to the science fiction definition, [3]“someone whose body or mind has been transformed (e.g. by cyborgization or genetic engineering) so greatly that they are no longer considered human, especially one who now possesses greater abilities than normal humans.”

The term is more relevant today since we marvel at our current level of technology. This definition is what most of us are familiar with. We put a lot of our faith in technology. It has embedded its way into our lives. As I stated earlier, trans, the prefix, means beyond or across the farther side of, however, the suffix ‘ism’, usually accompany a verb, and means or implied an action that was or is to be performed, or a state of being, (Like Buddhism or Plagiarism). This definition is on par with current events.

Professor M. Battle-Fisher, in his article, “Transhuman, posthuman and complex humanness in the 21st century”, defines Transhumanism as the philosophy that you are already posthuman once you remove the current limitations of the current human being, “…the present state of our bodies.” Any kind of capacity that can enhance our abilities beyond our current state of flesh is transhumanism. He also states in the article that the only way to do that on the horizon is through the use of technology.

[1] Julian Huxley, New Bottles for New wine (page 17), Harper and Brothers publishing, 1957

[2] C. Christopher Hook, Transhumanism and Posthumanism, Encyclopedia of Bioethics(Vol. 5. 3rd ed.) Page 2517, Gale Publishing, 2004

[3][Oxford reference] Jeff Prucher, The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction, (Version 2007),

Oxford University Press, published 2006

[4] M. Battle-Fisher, Transhuman, posthuman and complex humanness in the 21st century, Science Direct, library.citytech.cuny.edu, 25 March 2019

[5]”Transhumanism,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Oct 6, def. 1. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com