500 Word Summary of The Article about Deep Space Exploration Space Transportation Systems and Control Technology

To: Professor Ellis
From: Edwin Ascencio
Date: 09/22/21
Subject: 500 Word Summary of The Article about Deep Space Exploration Space Transportation Systems and Control Technology

The following memo is a 500-word summary about an overview about deep space exploration space transportation systems. The article mentions how deep space exploration missions are calling for a new development of space transportation systems and reviews current deep space exploration transportation systems. Space transportation technology before only allowed humans to explore the Moon but with different countries’ space development programs humans are now able to travel and study planets that are lightyears away from Earth. Even now humans are still developing new space transportation systems that will allow them to explore the deep galaxy and travel beyond its current limited distance. According to the article, “Development of deep space explorations is in full swing, the future deep-space missions about nearly halfway are through international cooperation and organization with low cost, high efficiency to achieve more distance future deep space exploration.”, our goal is to continue to create new space transportation systems that allow humans to go further into space.

Space transportation systems are classified as the following: expendable launch vehicle and Reusable Lauch Vehicle (RLV). Space transportation systems rely on both classifications.  Expanded launch vehicle’s primary purpose is to enter an attached component into space and then the rockets that performed the launched are discarded after reaching its distance. In the upper stage of the rocket, a reusable launch vehicle is used to carry out it’s space mission and reach its destination. Deep space exploration is not as simple as sending a rocket into space. There are tremendous considerations that are implemented into the overall function and designs of space transportation systems and these considerations ensure that the rockets can travel deep into the solar systems.

Some of the problem that are included in deep space exploration are management technology for long flying time, thrust regulations, autonomous navigations, and reliable electrical systems. Deep space exploration mission are large scales which put heavy demands on control system reliability. By increasing the flying time, it brings challenges to the reliability of the control system. To keep the system reliable and resilient over long periods of flight, fault detections and execution of sensitive equipment will be performed to keep up with the high reliability, flying time and multiple task demand. These performances are stress test which will give developer an idea on what are rockets current limitations and how to overcome those limitation to perform at higher loads. Using these data analysis developer could create a newer version of a rocket that will be able to perform under heavy loads and be used in longer space exploration. Large launch vehicles use new variable thrust systems and several other working power systems which will lead to a bitter control of thrust control systems. Thrust regulations and control technology can regulate the loads of different orbits, reduce thrust for better aerodynamics loads, improve flight reliability, reduce thrust to ease separation when transitioning to different environment and improve separation accuracy with little change in the carrier state. With proper thrust regulation humans will be able to transvers through space efficiently Deep space exploration control technology has entered the testing stage to meet the development needs of future deep space explorations.

[1] J. Cao, G. Xu and F. Xu, “Overview of deep space exploration space transportation systems and control technology,” Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Chinese Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, 2014, pp. 2433-2438, doi: 10.1109/CGNCC.2014.7007551.

500 word Definition Cyber Security

From: Ron Bepat
ENG 2575 OL70
To: Professor Ellis
Subject: 500 word Definition
Topic/Major: Cyber Security & Networking

Cyber Security is the protection of an individual’s information from hackers. Cyber security over time has improved significantly across various fields of work. The increasingly significance of Cyber protection today has increased as more attacks have plagued the internet. As technology advances, there are still many vulnerabilities that have been created throughout the years. The internet has evolved and strengthen however, different societies have become increasingly vulnerable in the cyber space. Such as the many Americans who don’t know much on protecting themselves on the internet and click on ads they shouldn’t be clicking being misled by malware. Different ways have been created to prevent any future cyber-attacks. One such example is that businesses are required to go through yearly (or frequent) updates to their networks. Governments have started to focus on cyber security and examined what the situation has become. For example, Russian hackers creating havoc during the 2016 and 2020 Presidential elections. The average person’s internet usage has exponentially increased in the last decade due to the numerous devices available to connect to the network and is now a constant part of society. A United States government entity called NATO, or the Northern Alliance Treaty Organization has dedicated resources to help protect NATO countries in cyber-attacks and risks. [1] “Its main task is to strengthen the ability, cooperation, and information sharing among NATO countries” Some countries strengths may lie in their national security in fields such as land, sea and air but have tend to neglect the importance of Cyber Security. Hackers use these vulnerabilities to take advantage of the situation. To figure out how hackers are disrupting the flow of the internet cyber security, professionals would have to understand the logistics of hackers and use the same tools hackers use to figure out solutions to protect themselves from these threats. There is not much regulation as it appears to be on the internet but there are military cyber experts cracking down on these hackers. It is important for the internet to have a military presence to observe the networks for suspicious activities. Network penetration tools are all over the internet to manipulate data. If a country has weak to no Cyber Security to protect themselves then the citizen and legal entities that operate in the country are more at risk from attacks from hackers. Legal action must be taken to stop cyber criminals from running rampant on the internet because one of the top threats in the modern day are cyber-attacks. Cyber-deterrence should be encouraged but many people would think the internet would not be as “free” if the cyber-deterrence policies were made. [1] “…that deterring the attackers from their wishes, attacks, or wars, in particular cyber wars and “cyber deterrence,” may be the best.” The knowledge of cyber security can help many people prevent many crimes that can happen to them which will prevent more hackers from compromising people’s data.

[1] Senol, Mustafa, and Ertugrul Karacuha. “Creating and Implementing an Effective and Deterrent National Cyber Security Strategy.” Gale Academic ONEFILE, 30 June 2020,


Expanded Definition of Cloud Computing

To: Prof: J. Ellis
From: Quazi Hedayet
Date: 10/27/2021
Subject: Expanded Definition of Cloud Computing


The goal of this article is to explore the history of a phrase for computer system technology students. “Cloud Computing” is the word I am defining. While the majority of people are chasing short-term advancement of technologies and networking policies, so I would like to take a different approach to representing the concept of cloud computing, one in which the user’s privacy and security concerns are paramount in the development of a long-term cloud computing solution. In this paper, I’ll go through the definitions of the phrase as well as the context in which it is used.


The Oxford English Dictionary defines cloud computing as “the use of networked facilities for the storage and processing of data rather than a user’s local computer, access to data or services typically being via the internet.” Cloud computing is the distribution of on-demand computing resources over the internet and on a pay as you go basis, ranging from software to storage and processing power. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active control by the user. In other words, cloud computing is the use of network facilities for the storage and processing of data rather than a user’s local computer, access to data or services. Cloud computing is on-demand access, via the internet, to computing resources applications, servers, data storage, development tools, networking capabilities, and more hosted at a remote data center managed by a cloud services provider (CSP). The CSP makes these resources available for a monthly subscription fee or bills them according to usage. The term “cloud computing” also refers to the infrastructure that enables cloud computing to function. This includes virtualized IT infrastructure, which consists of servers, operating system software, networking, and other infrastructure that has been abstracted using special software and can be pooled and divided across physical hardware boundaries.


According to this journal article “Secure Integration of IOT and Cloud Computing”, “Cloud infrastructure involves the hardware and software components required for proper implementation of a cloud computing model. Cloud computing can also be thought of as utility computing, or on-demand computing” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964). Instead of owning their own computer resources or data centers, companies can rent access to anything from apps to storage from a cloud service provider, according to the authors. One advantage of cloud computing is that companies can escape the upfront costs and complexities of owning and managing their own IT infrastructure by paying only for what they need, when they use it. Mobile Cloud Computing is a relatively modern technology that refers to an infrastructure that stores and processes data outside of the mobile device. The Internet of Things is a relatively new technology. Another article “cloud computing acceptance among public sector employees” stated that “However, in today’s rapidly changing technology, with the transition to the industrial revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) environment, it has opened a new dimension to the world computing. The emergence of cloud computing technology as a new platform for computing has opened the eyes of technology industry players to further benefit from this innovation. Many studies have proven that this technology provides many benefits to the industry and users such as its ability to reduce operating costs, improve collaboration, more secure security levels and more mobile accessibility” (Amron et al., 2021, p.124). The idea of business agility is often stated by cloud proponents as a major advantage. Companies that use cloud platforms can move faster on projects and try out ideas without having to go through lengthy procurement processes or incur large upfront costs because they only pay for the tools they use. Turning the eyes into the mobile clouding the authors states that, “Mobile Cloud Computing is a new technology which refers to an infrastructure where both data storage and data processing operate outside of the mobile device” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964). The ability to spin up new services without the time and effort associated with traditional IT procurement should mean that is easier to get going with new applications faster. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a relatively new telecommunications technology that is quickly gaining popularity. The authors also stated that, “Cloud computing also cuts costs related to downtime. Since downtime rarely happens in cloud computing, companies don’t have to spend time and money to fix any issues that may be related to downtime” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964).


Cloud computing is related to the key computer system technology, according to the definition and quotes I discussed. Cloud computing, in my perspective, is the supply of a variety of services, including data storage, servers, databases, networking, and software. It also enables us to save or work on files remotely in databases, as well as recover them as needed. Cloud computing is incredibly convenient since it eliminates the need for us to be concerned about computer crashes. It saves files and allows access to them via the internet.


Expanded Definition of Encryption

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Ron Bepat

DATE: 10/27/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Encryption


The Purpose of this document is to elaborate on the word “encryption,” identify the historical references from where this term started and explain how the term’s definition has evolved throughout history. Both the old and modern versions of the term “encryption” will be compared. I will be discussing the way it’s defined by explaining how encryption works in full detail and outlining what it takes to make sure a piece of data is safe. I will be breaking down the meaning behind encryption and why it’s so important to encrypt data in the tech industry, in a world where there are so many hackers stealing data. Protecting data is as important as protecting a social security number, as it can be easily stolen and manipulated if not managed properly.


According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term “Encryption” was first used in the 1960s in the Navy [1] — “Proc. U.S. Naval Inst. Dec. 38/1  After giving the message..to the waiting code clerk for encryption..I strolled about the Consulate grounds.” The Navy would create secret messages that could only be deciphered by each other, which is essentially what Encryption is in it’s simplest form — taking a message and mixing it up so only certain people can understand given a certain code. Another example from the Oxford Dictionary is a type of language that is similar to encryption, called Morse Code [5], which is defined as “code devised by Morse for use with the electric telegraph, in which the letters are represented by combinations of long and short electrical signals represented audibly or visually, or by long and short flashes of light or (in writing) dashes and dots.” This Definition was first used back in 1867. This connection between Morse code and the modern word “encryption” is similar as only certain people are able to understand Morse code — the only people who can understand the message are the sender and receiver. The sender would be the one who creates the unreadable code to the sender. It doesn’t have to be a message and can be any form of data. Another definition from The Britannica is [2] “Data encryption, also called encryption or encipherment, the process of disguising information as ciphertext, or data unintelligible to an unauthorized person. Conversely, decryption, or decipherment, is the process of converting ciphertext back into its original format. Manual encryption has been used since Roman times, but the term has become associated with the disguising of information via electronic computers. Encryption is a process basic to cryptology.” This form of communication is so secretive that it can help send important information without an untrusted or unauthorized person being able to understand or access that information. The type of encryption where someone sends unorganized info to another is called end – to – end encryption, which is also used today in the form of emails and text messages. These types of messages are only allowed to be viewed by the sender and intended recipient. For example, if a hacker were to pull up a WhatsApp chat, they would just see a bunch of encrypted text.


This is a quote from Norton a company based on securing and protecting data [3] — “To unlock the message, both the sender and the recipient have to use a “secret” encryption key — a collection of algorithms that scramble and unscramble data back to a readable format.” This process needs an encryption key because without that key, data cannot be locked or unlocked. Here is another quote from an academic journal called “Information security analysis of deterministic encryption and chaotic encryption in spatial domain and frequency domain” [4] — “In cryptography, encryption and decryption are used to protect privacy and confidentiality of transmitted data via the process of encoding and decoding, so that the authorized parties are able to access it exclusively.” Encryption keys can be used for both unlocking and locking data. When a hacker doesn’t have a key, they try to make their own by using ransomware to break into the data and reveal the message or what data is being stored.

Working Definition:

Currently encryption is mainly used in the cyber security, database, networking, and programming fields to protect people’s data. To encrypt data in the programming field is to prevent any outsiders from stealing a person’s code. The user may need to use a program to juggle the data into a message that is more obscured and does not look like the original data. This data can only be deciphered by converting the text using a decryption program. A person would need technology, mainly a working computer, to either decrypt or encrypt data. The user has 2 keys — a decryption key and an encryption key. Each key is only used for their specific purposes. For example, a user can’t use the encryption key to decrypt the data —they would need to use the decryption key for that. If a coworker asked to open a certain piece of data that they don’t have access to, they would have to go to the system administrator of the network and ask for permission to this data and obtaining the decryption key. A person can also make their own algorithms to encrypt their data using any code they see fit to edit the data. Once the text is encrypted, it is essentially unreadable, and this text is called cipher text.


            [1] “”encrypt, v.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2021. Web. 14 October 2021,


[2] “Data Encryption.” Brittanica Academic https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/data-encryption/2217.

[3] Written by Alison Grace Johansen for NortonLifeLock. “What Is Encryption and How Does It Protect Your Data?” Norton, https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-privacy-what-is-encryption.html.

[4] Z. Ye, H. Yin and Y. Ye, “Information security analysis of deterministic encryption and chaotic encryption in spatial domain and frequency domain,” 2017 14th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE), 2017, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICEEE.2017.8108905.

[5] “Morse, n.3.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2021. Web. 14 October 2021.


500-word summary article about Security in Social Networking Services

To: Prof. Ellis

From: Quazi Hedayet

Date: 10/05/2021

Subject: 500-word summary article about Security in Social Networking Services

The following article is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed titled, “Geosocial Media as a Proxy for Security: A Review” by Mr.Zhigang Han, Somgnian Li, Caihui Cui, Daojun Han, and Hongquan Song, published in 2019. The article identifies various prominent themes in need of more research in the ongoing growth of social security concern and cybercrime management. While most people are looking for a quick fix, the author takes a different approach to redefine the concept of security in social networking, emphasizing the importance of users’ privacy and security concerns in the development of long-term social networking, and using geosocial media as a proxy for this security. 

Social networking is a collection of rules and configurations for maintaining the integrity, confidentiality, and usefulness of all software and hardware technologies used in computer networks and data. Any firm, regardless of size, sector, or infrastructure, needs network security solutions in place to protect itself from the ever-growing array of cyber-attacks in the wild today. 

In other words, the author intends to explain to the public that network security is the protection against hacking, misuse, and unwanted device access to files and directories on a computer network. Specifically, when combined with location data, geosocial media can be utilized as a proxy for security event detection and situational awareness. This paper summarizes the general structure of security-related analyses based on geosocial media, as well as the geosocial media data and associated processing/analysis methodologies utilized for detecting protection incidents. The scientists write is, “Social media data give extensive information that represents people’s social behavior”. Various terrorist and gang groups have increasingly realized the significance of social media in the security field and have actively used it to plan and organize activities, recruit members, promote terrorist ideas, and post various terrorist messages to grow their influence” (Han et al., 2019, p. 154225). The authors classify security-related analysis tasks into two sorts, based on the economic and moral aspects of an equation: security event detection and security situational awareness and assessment. 

Natural catastrophes, man-made disasters, violent occurrences, military events, sociopolitical events, and other security events are among the six types. When it comes to the analysis of various networking systems, the author goes above and beyond to demonstrate the general process of security-related analysis based on geosocial media, identifying two types of data sets: social media datasets and auxiliary analysis datasets, as well as discussing the data acquisition and preprocessing methods. Users of geosocial networks and apps, such as Facebook locations can share their geolocated data. Knowing an individual’s location is one of the most serious risks to his privacy of all the Personal Identifiable Information (PII). The prevalence of geosocial media around the world, particularly significant adoption by the urban poor in many developing countries, is one of the most intriguing prospects for the technology. For example, a person’s spatio-temporal data could be used to deduce the location of his home and office, track his movements and activities, learn more about his core interests, or even notice a deviation from his usual behavior. 

Natural language processing, social network analysis, position inference and geospatial analysis, and picture or video interpretation and visual analysis were all highlighted in the papers as significant technology for detecting security occurrences and assessing security situations. The report finishes with potential future research directions and areas to be addressed and examined.

REFERENCES:Han, Z., Li, S., Cui, C., Han, D., & Song H. (2019). Geosocial Media as a Proxy for Security: A Review. IEEE Access, 7, 154224-154238. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 1

After watching this week’s lecture (embedded in the post above) and reading this article on best practices for emailing professors, complete your first Weekly Writing Assignment by sending an email of introduction from your official City Tech email account to Prof. Ellis at jellis@citytech.cuny.edu according to the following parameters:

  • Send an email to Prof. Ellis at jellis@citytech.cuny.edu from your City Tech email account.
  • Subject line: ENG2575 [Your Section] Student Introduction
  • Salutation
  • Body: Tell me about yourself, your major, career goals, hobbies, what you want to get out of our class, and your availability for teamwork.
  • Closing: Sign with your name or how
    you would like me to refer to you.
  • If you need to reset your City Tech email password, go to forgot.citytech.cuny.edu.