Expanded Definition of Aerospace and Aeronautical

To: Prof. Ellis
From: Edwin Ascencio
Date: 10/27/ 21
Subject: Expanded Definition of Aerospace and AeronauticaL

Introduction

The purpose of this memo is to expand and elaborate the two terms Aerospace and Aeronautical and how these terms play a major role in the Aviation field. Aircrafts are what allows use to travel to different countries, island, and continents. These terms are what allowed society to research and develop our modern aircrafts. Aviation has come a long way since it was explored by the Wright brothers and eventually it was divided into two more in-depth fields. These field allowed engineers to explore new possible heights and reach places we were not able to reach before. With Aerospace and Aeronautical we were able to make the journey to travel to space and this allowed us to advance our knowledge of science. I will discuss the origins of the two terms and the importance of the term. The resources I will be unitizing are credible dictionaries and research paper created by people who have studied in the Aviation field. After gathering all the required information, I will sort the information into four categories: Definition/Etymology, Context, and Working Definition. All reference will be included towards the end.


Definition/Etymology

The aviation field could be divided into many professions but without Aerospace and Aeronautical we would not have aircraft we have today. As an aircraft mechanic I can see aircrafts that have unique designs. The uniqueness comes from Aerospace and how manufactures designed the aircraft to perform certain tasks. From my understanding Aerospace is an industry that designs and manufacture unique airplanes. Some aircrafts that the industry designs are not limited to aircraft that allows us to travel to different regions around the world, they also design aircraft that can cruise between the boundary of Earth and Space. According to Dictionary, it says, “the industry concerned with the design and manufacture of aircraft, rockets, spacecraft., that operate in atmosphere”.[3] The given definition gives use an understanding on what aerospace focus on. As I mention before aerospace is not limited by aircraft that allows us to travel to different regions, aerospace allows us to travel to different atmosphere and space. According to Merriam-Webster, aerospace is “the manufacture of such vehicles or to travel in aerospace”.[4] The secondary definition correlates to the first definitions and shows that aircrafts travel could also travel outside the boundaries of Earth or within the Earth.

Another term that corresponds with Aviation is Aeronautical. According to Merriam-Webster, Aeronautical is “a science dealing with the operation of aircraft”.[2] There are several forces and principles that factor in when an aircraft or rocket is flying. These considerations are implemented via aerospace because aerospace oversees designing aircraft that will consider the several factors and principle. Both aerospace and aeronautical play a major role by producing aircraft that can perform certain action. Another definition from Collins is that aeronautical “means involving or relating to the design and construction of airplanes”. [5] Both definition gives a similar definition as they both relate to creating an aircraft that can perform certain task and focus on the operation of the aircraft.


Context

When comparing the two definitions for Aerospace we can see that both definitions share a common statement and that is the word manufacture. Aerospace creates different aircraft that can travel to different location or factor forces. The first definition states that an industry designs and manufacture aircrafts to perform in different circumstances. The second definition states it manufactures vehicles to travel in aerospace. Each definition refers to the term, design and manufacture. Aircraft could vary from an RC Drone to a Rocket ship. Today we have aircraft that allows use to travel long distance but in short altitude (helicopter), we have aircraft that allows us to travel overseas (commercial aircrafts), and we have aircraft that allow use to explore space (rockets). These are some examples of what the industry have demanded us to create, aircraft with unique design and performance.

With Aeronautical both definition talk about the operation of aircraft. When creating aircraft engineers ask, “what should this aircraft do?”. This question is what gave use a variety on aircraft. One variety that was made was the SR-71. It was an aircraft capable of traveling 200mph and travel around between the boundaries of Earth and Space. The aircraft was made of special material and deicing system to prevent the aircraft from freezing at high altitude. With Aerospace designing the aircraft, careful consideration was inserted and eventually created the SR-71. Aeronautical studied the science of high altitude and aerospace designed an aircraft to combat the forces existing at high altitude.


Working Definitions

Currently NASP (National Aero Space Plane) has created a aircraft, the X-30and that aircraft could achieve speeds of Mach 25 which is faster than regular aircraft. NASP uses a combination of both aerospace and aeronautical to create the XC-30. According to Barthelemy, “XC-30 will be fabricated from a combination of highly advance materials”. [1]. Here we see that at a certain speed friction will start to form and heat the aircraft greatly. To avoid structure damages, special material is used in the aircraft construction to prevent overheating.  Aeronautical will gather data and determine what material will be suited for this kind of stress and aerospace will design and manufacture an aircraft base on the material that was gather from research. We can see how both terms play a role in today’s aircraft.

Reference

[1] R. Barthelemy, “Recent progress in the National Aerospace Plane program,” in IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 3-12, May 1989, doi: 10.1109/62.31806.
[2] “Aeronautics definition & meaning,” Merriam-Webster. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aeronautics. [Accessed: 12-Dec-2021].
[3] “Aerospace definition & meaning,” Dictionary.com. [Online]. Available: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/aerospace. [Accessed: 12-Dec-2021].
[4] “Aerospace definition & meaning,” Merriam-Webster. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aerospace. [Accessed: 12-Dec-2021].
[5] “Aeronautical definition and meaning: Collins english dictionary,” Aeronautical definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary. [Online]. Available: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/aeronautical. [Accessed: 12-Dec-2021].

Expanded Definition

Jun Gao

Professor Ellis

ENG 2575

12/10/21

The concept of the sociological imagination permeates nearly every aspect of our existence within the confines of artificial social constructs. C. Wright Mills first coined the term to define the subtle interconnectivity of relatively common or inconsequential stimuli to more substantial social occurrences within the framework of our societal functions. The idea is indispensable to the foundation of modern sociological discourse. Its basis is rooted in the fabric of our social constructs. It allows academics to understand how individuals within a community behave based on the specific social systems that form their civilization(s). Sociological imagination allows us to peer into the boundless scope of analysis concerning how our ideological viewpoints are connected to the social and historical implications within a more profound context of reasoning. Sporting activities are an everyday communal activity related to the larger social constructs that uphold their importance to our society, subsequently illustrating the validity of Mills’ concepts through the connections that sports have to larger social and historical contexts.

The field of sociological imagination is an expansive ideology that allows academics to assess the social and historical implications of our social constructs. Every conceivable tradition possessed by human civilization inherently correlates to a substance within the sociological imagination concerning its multifaceted impact on the development of human cultures. “Mills’ contemporaries in sociology tended to focus on understanding systems rather than exploring individual issues. He believed that looking at a balance between systems and the individuals within them was essential to understanding their cooperative relationship, as well as the social structures that arise out of the conflict between various groups […] And that’s important because, without sociological imagination, all of our common sense ideas are drawn from our limited social experiences. Sociological imagination is a framework for viewing the social world that exceeds those limitations; an ability to develop an understanding of how biography is the consequence of historical processes and unfolds within a bigger context in society.” (Prout, 4) This showcases the universal capabilities of using this particular methodology better to understand complex social issues and sociological elements of study. Many of our daily activities are connected to historical circumstances that allowed for the progression of specific behavior, subsequently creating many foundational substances within our social framework(s). Sports are a notable institutional activity rooted in several groups’ socio-cultural properties, which grew into a complex network of communal activities. Sports and sporting activities are essential to modern civilization and are a common aspect of our lives; the move reflects several core values that were crucial concepts within the evolution of human society and have critical historical factors connected to its modern relevance.

The history of sports is founded on the social properties of human advancement. Sports were adapted and progressed from several behaviors and practices implemented into early social frameworks as survival techniques and entertainment. The emergence of development in early childhood directly allows individuals to allow sports to permeate an aspect of their daily lives, thus forming a connection between the social and historical factors concerning the practice’s expansion. This undeviatingly relates to Mill’s sociological concept and shows how sociological imagination can connect certain crucial factors to comprehend our society’s nature better. “Infants develop an emerging awareness of other people and physical objects found in the environment. Babies learn to grasp, hold and use simple objects like spoons, dolls, bottles, and blankets. As their physical skills continue to develop, they learn to play with objects by imitating the people around them. […] reflected the religious significance combined with activities associated with physical survival. For example, Africans participated in archery. It was a valued warring skill and dance because it held religious value.” (Delaney, 50) The extensive history of sports is rooted within human civilization’s earliest communal customs. Communities have been engaging in sport-like activities for millennia, growing into a multifaceted network of activities that encompass the same core principles of contest and competition that early civilizations used to enhance their aggressive capabilities. This establishes a profound association between Mill’s concept and the relevance of sport’s development in conjunction with human society, showcasing that many popular sports in modern culture are connected to ancient practices that appear to have no obvious correlation.

The societal implications of understanding human development through Mill’s perspective are illustrated through the growth of our civilizations through our sporting habits. Humans in different societies interacted with sports in relatively similar accords, using objects and defined regulations to compete in various competitions. These systems share several similarities concerning gender roles and other social constructs integral to modern society. “In most premodern societies, boys were encouraged by their families to compete in sports, which were presumed to prepare them for their adult roles as warriors and workers, while girls were encouraged to continue to play non-competitive games that prepared them for motherhood. In modern societies, boys and young men continue to outnumber girls and young women involved in sports competition.” (Britannica, 5) This illustrates the defining pattern of sport’s relevance within the growth of social practices; viewing this association through the sociological imagination allows for a better understanding of how gender-based practices have existed within our societies for generations, illustrating specific factors that directly connect to other aspects of sociology. The connection between sports and socialization is another profound constituent that shows the importance of Mill’s perspective. “Play, games, contests, and sports have crucial and quite specific roles in the general socialization process. The sense of self is not natural; it develops through childhood socialization as a result of role-playing […] They develop a reflexive conception of the self and its position concerning others, and they learn to see themselves as others see them.” (Britannica, 4) This sentiment illustrates the importance of sports in developing individuality and communal perspectives and their practical implementations in our social framework. Our cultural expectations and self-perceptions are directly connected to the fundamental nature of sporting activities,  allowing us to progress within communication efforts and the socialization process. This allows us to see the influence of sports within the historical and social development of the human race while simultaneously illustrating the effectiveness of the sociological imagination.

The importance of the sociological perspective is rooted in the utilization of crucial historical and social implications that connect to Mill’s methodology. Our behavior patterns expanded into numerous social systems that are active institutions within our social construct and have shown the importance of understanding society through an enlightening perspective.

Works Cited

Delaney, Tim, and Madigan, Tim. The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction, 2d Ed.. United States, McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers, 2015.

Maguire, Joseph Anthony , Guttmann, Allen , Thompson, William N. and Rowe, David Charles. “sports”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 16 Sep. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/sports/sports. Accessed 26 November 2021.

Prout, Todd. “What Is Sociological Imagination?” National University, National University, 30 July 2021, www.nu.edu/resources/what-is-sociological-imagination/.

750-1000-Word Expanded Definition

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Kanak Das

DATE: 12/05/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: Networking Firewall

Introduction:

Firewall is one of the important topic on Information technology. The purpose of the memo indicates that the computer or the network we use; how it can protect our information, data and applications. There are also other terms that goes along with Firewall, such as Wireless security, Network Security, Virtual private network (VPN), Virus, Ransomware. Some resources I have used for research to focus on my term is Forcepoint, Vmware, Dictionary.com. the term I have selected to focus is Firewall; A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic. My interest in computer is mostly network security where firewall comes up big when computer or network requires protection from hackers or malicious users.

Definition:

            “A firewall protects a computer network or personal computer (PC) from attacks from hackers or malicious software, known as malware. In e-commerce, a hacker may try to access customers’ financial information or disrupt the business in some way.”[1]. Another definition is “A firewall is hardware, software, or a combination of both that monitors and filters traffic packets that attempt to either enter or leave the protected private network. It is a tool that separates a protected network or part of a network, and now increasingly a user’s personal computer (PC)”.[2]. The first definition is form the E- commerce book and the second definition is from Securing the information infrastructure book. The two definition speaks almost the same language, because both defines what firewall are supposed to do. In e-commerce definition firewall protecting their information from hackers, they see firewall as something that could protect from all kinds of threat such in the definition malware, risky software, but in reality firewall can only so much their might be some vulnerability that they are unaware of. The second definition they see that definition almost it should protect them in software level and hardware level. If an infrastructure administrator aware that when he or she is transferring packets, files, important information thru firewall it should reach its destination, but if it doesn’t, the entire transfer would backfire. From both definitions perspective it appears that each company or book define firewall as how they uses it.

Context:

            It’s a quote from Cisco: “An early type of firewall device, a proxy firewall serves as the gateway from one network to another for a specific application. Proxy servers can provide additional functionality such as content caching and security by preventing direct connections from outside the network. However, this also may impact throughput capabilities and the applications they can support.”[3]. This sentence define the proxy types of firewall, which is any outside network, authorized or unauthorized network needs to be verified before getting into the cisco network. Company sees this as their way of defining the security threat, when someone from the company uses this word, they are most likely talking about an application is being transferred form one network to another.

            “Another quote form Forcepoint: “We saw an opportunity to combine router and advanced firewall capabilities to strengthen security across every site and accelerate throughput. We needed a solution with centralized administration that could be easily replicated every time we added a new mobile site, easing the management burden on our IT staff.”[4]. Forcepoint security company define this as the company or the firms they host they really care about their users and their tech. The definition itself shows that they don’t only want to secure the info and data for the present, but for the future of the company as well. As times advances they want to advance their security along with it. They look for different solution for how they can manage each every users requested files, packets. Instead of having the staff and users worry about the important information they want to create a safe environment for the people and in technology as well.

Working Definition:

            The research from above shows how each company treat the word firewall differently. Each and every perspective is correct, because it come down to the same meaning of how firewall works and what it should serve. My field of study Computer information Technology, IT Operation, I see firewall as one of the most fundamental being in all of computer science. Firewall is a network security mechanism that protect network or computer form solicited or unsolicited threat.

Citations:

            [1]”Firewall.” Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce, edited by Laurie J. Fundukian, 2nd ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2012, pp. 285-286. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX4020800178/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=bb425618. Accessed 5 Dec. 2021.

[2]Kizza, Joseph M., and Florence M. Kizza. “Perimeter Defense: The Firewall.” Securing the Information Infrastructure, CyberTech Publishing, 2008, pp. 209-238. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX2864600020/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=9c1aab30. Accessed 5 Dec. 2021.

[3]“What is a Firewall?,” Cisco, 23-Jun-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/firewalls/what-is-a-firewall.html. [Accessed: 06-Dec-2021].

[4]“NGFW Enterprise Firewall,” Forcepoint, 03-Nov-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.forcepoint.com/product/ngfw-next-generation-firewall. [Accessed: 06-Dec-2021].

750-1000 Word Expanded definition on Networking Firewall

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Kanak Das

DATE: 12/01/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: Networking Firewall

Firewall is one of the important topic on Information technology. The purpose of the memo indicates that the computer or the network we use; how it can protect our information, data and applications. There are also other terms that goes along with Firewall, such as Wireless security, Network Security, Virtual private network (VPN), Virus, Ransomware. Some resources I have used for research to focus on my term is Forcepoint, Vmware, Dictionary.com. the term I have selected to focus is Firewall; A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic. My interest in computer is mostly network security where firewall comes up big when computer or network requires protection from hackers or malicious users.

“A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific traffic based on a defined set of security rules.” “Advanced firewall can no longer single-handedly defend a network against today’s complex cyber threat landscape, these devices are still considered to be the foundational building block for creating a proper cybersecurity system”. From these two quoted definitions we can understand that firewall might protect network from malicious traffic, but it’s still not capable enough to stop higher complicated attack or threat. While in network firewall can be divided int two types of protection proxy and stateful, which decided what to use when, proxy can be regularly use for any kind of websites that the users might think it’s not safe website to work on. On the other hand, stateful monitors the full state of active network connections. This means that stateful firewalls are constantly analyzing the complete context of traffic and data packets.

Moreover “traditional” firewall, a stateful inspection firewall allows or blocks traffic based on state, port, and protocol. It monitors all activity from the opening of a connection until it is closed. Filtering decisions are made based on both administrator-defined rules as well as context, which refers to using information from in previous connections and packets belonging to the same connection.”  And “and applications crossing through the network perimeters – especially due to the growing volume of IoT and end user devices – and less overall centralized control from IT and security teams, companies are becoming much more vulnerable to cyberattacks.” These two sentences basically talk about the fact that stateful inspection firewalls and application crossing through a specific network can be harmful for the company and for the applications itself. When data or packets being transfer form one network to another if the stateful firewall don’t investigate those packets or file a company’s or any firms information can be in wrong hands.

For example, in simple terms NAT is used to convert your IP address into your routers IP address , this is done because ipv4 which is a 32 bit IP address is limited and exhausted . Ur private IP address is not recognized by google so yuir router does the talking to the internet. It is like a cell phone which allows u to talk to “google.So” your private IP address is converted into the internet IP address with the help of net masking which u can see on seeing ifconfig which shows that your private IP address is converted into the routers IP address. Basically, when u buy internet connection you are buying an IP address that can talk to the world.  ISP has globally bought a range of Ip address from IANA and it is giving u an ipaddress. So all the devices which access internet from ur home would actually be converted into the routers ip address in ur router and those packets are shoots up into the net. So   router does the working of a postman when it receives reply from google and internally unmask the Ip address to determine who was the person who send that request.

In conclusion, Firewall term can be referred as where protection is needed. Whether it’s in computer, hardware, software. A firewall acts as a defensive border by helping to protect your computer from hackers, blocking malware from penetrating your system, and removing sensitive data from a compromised system. Such as stateful Firewalls scan each “packet” of data, small chunks of a larger whole, reduced in size for easy transmission, to make sure these packets don’t contain anything malicious. and interacts with the internet they come between you and the internet and thereby prevents direct connections this protects your device’s identity and keeps the network safe from potential attacks.

  1. “Firewall.” Fine Dictionary, http://www.finedictionary.com/firewall.html.
  2. “Firewall Definition and Meaning: Collins English Dictionary.” Firewall Definition and Meaning | Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/firewall.
  3. “What Is a Network Firewall?” Fortinet, https://www.fortinet.com/resources/cyberglossary/firewall.
  4. “What Is a Network Firewall?” Fortinet, https://www.fortinet.com/resources/cyberglossary/firewall.

1000 word expanded definition

New York City Technical College Department of Business

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: [ Shemei John]

DATE: 9/29/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: [Transhumanism]

            [Introduction]

The intent of this memo is to introduce and inform technological Terminology we may or may not be fully familiar with. Terms such as “Networks”, “the internet of things”, “information technology”, “information sciences”, “data”, “transhumanism”, “hive-mind concept” and “Artificial Intelligence”. After careful consideration, I decided to research the term “Transhumanism”. Although, according to its popularity, the term isn’t mentioned a lot in today’s topics regarding technology, I do find it to be fascinating since it deals with the ideology that Mankind will transcend our current limitations through the use of technology. There are several sources I am considering for this topic to convey the definitions. So, I am going to include the definition of the word and its origins, throughout its history, from the Oxford etymology, and also from an excerpt taken from the books, “New bottles for new wine”, on Transhumanism, which discusses the ideology behind the term and its definition today.

[Definitions]

The Oxford English dictionary’s definition of transhumanism (n), is a deviation of the English word, transhuman, with the prefix “trans” meaning beyond or across the farther side of. The term was first used by Julian Huxley in his book “New bottles for new wine (1957)” in which he said, “The human species can..transcend itself..in its entirety, as humanity. We need a name for this belief. Perhaps transhumanism will serve: man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature.” [1] What Huxley is saying is, the belief in the will to surpass our current nature as humans is transhumanism. The term has surfaced occasionally in its etymology, being used again by Tom Bell, in his writings from “Extropy”, in which he says that the alternative to religion would be transhumanism. The term also has a definition more relevant the modernity of time.

[Context]

Over the course of its history from when it was first coined to current times, the word transhumanism has variated into slight nuances. Huxley’s definition of transhumanism is the belief that humankind will transcend our nature, but he was speaking specifically about the beliefs. He believed that either synchronously, or not, humans will consciously give rise to this belief in order to evolve. Today the word has slightly a different definition which includes some addition to it. [2] The definition today is familiarly used in science fiction. So, the current definition of the 21st century would be that, transhumanism is the belief that one day humankind with transcend our current limitations, ultimately achieving immortality, by use of science and technology.

I checked in the Oxford dictionary of science-fiction for some comparison. The word transhuman references with two other words, “cyborg” and “posthuman”. The definition of a transhuman according to the science fiction definition, [3]“someone whose body or mind has been transformed (e.g. by cyborgization or genetic engineering) so greatly that they are no longer considered human, especially one who now possesses greater abilities than normal humans.”

The term is more relevant today since we marvel at our current level of technology. This definition is what most of us are familiar with. We put a lot of our faith in technology. It has embedded its way into our lives. As I stated earlier, trans, the prefix, means beyond or across the farther side of, however, the suffix ‘ism’, usually accompany a verb, and means or implied an action that was or is to be performed, or a state of being, (Like Buddhism or Plagiarism). This definition is on par with current events.

Professor M. Battle-Fisher, in his article, “Transhuman, posthuman and complex humanness in the 21st century”, defines Transhumanism as the philosophy that you are already posthuman once you remove the current limitations of the current human being, “…the present state of our bodies.” Any kind of capacity that can enhance our abilities beyond our current state of flesh is transhumanism. He also states in the article that the only way to do that on the horizon is through the use of technology.

[1] Julian Huxley, New Bottles for New wine (page 17), Harper and Brothers publishing, 1957

[2] C. Christopher Hook, Transhumanism and Posthumanism, Encyclopedia of Bioethics(Vol. 5. 3rd ed.) Page 2517, Gale Publishing, 2004

[3][Oxford reference] Jeff Prucher, The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction, (Version 2007),

Oxford University Press, published 2006

[4] M. Battle-Fisher, Transhuman, posthuman and complex humanness in the 21st century, Science Direct, library.citytech.cuny.edu, 25 March 2019

[5]”Transhumanism,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Oct 6, def. 1. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com

Expanded Definition of Branching

TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Sebastian Vela
DATE: 10/28/2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: Branching

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to discuss the expanded definition of the term branching. I chose the terms “branch” and “branching” because they are used very commonly in programming. Any code that a programmer writes will include some form of branching to another set of instructions, rather than go through all of the instructions in the program one by one. The branches are conditional: If a user performs an action (let’s call this Action A), the program will jump (or branch) to the action corresponding to Action A. If the user performs a different action (Action B), the program will jump to the branch corresponding to Action B, and so on.

Definitions

Our current version of the word “branch” helms its origins from the Latin word “branca”, or paw, referring to parts of the anatomy that divide from the larger animal, such as the claws of a tiger. This term was later borrowed by the Anglo-French as “branche”, but now more often used to refer to the limbs of a tree. Circa 1250-1300, the word was adopted by the Middle English language as “branche”, “braunche”, and “bronche”, now referring to any parts of something that divides like the branches of a tree. Branching is a very simple concept and can be described to even a child. The University of Utah states that branching is “when an Algorithm makes a choice to do one of two (or more things) this is called branching. The most common programming “statement” used to branch is the IF statement.” [1] Techopedia.com gives a more descriptive and in-depth definition as to what branching is “A branch in a computer program is an instruction that tells a computer to begin executing different instructions rather than simply executing the instructions in order. In high-level languages, these are typically referred to as flow control procedures and are built into the language. In assembly programming, branch instructions are built into a CPU.” [2] Techopedia also states the different statements that are used in order to implement a branch such as IF statements, for loops, while loops and switch statements.

Context

Branching can be used differently depending on the industry for example in business branching is the act of creating a smaller office that is separate from a company’s headquarters. Investopedia description of how a branch office works states “Branch offices are useful in that they allow many of the client-specific administrative considerations to be conducted closest to clients. For example, Starbucks has branch offices to better serve its retail stores’ district managers in a more cost-effective manner. They can also cater to and be more informed about the needs of specific locations, rolling out location-specific items or adjusting staff.” [3] The uses of the term “branch” in programming and its use in business are very different. The meaning is more commonly associated with branches in business, so it would cause confusion for people who are not programmers to hear it used in a different context. Someone who is curious about programming would encounter the term “branch” and “branching” very often, as programs almost always have methods and condition-based actions that are described in the code and related documentation.

Working definition

Based on the definitions of branching and its context related to working in CST I would best summarize a branch as an instruction based on a decision, or a reaction based on a condition where the conditions are a series of tests that a program goes through. Each test looks for some kind of indication, whether it is a keyword, phrase, number, or boolean statement. The reaction, or branch, is the instruction that the program follows when the appropriate conditions are met. If the appropriate conditions are not met, the program goes into a different branch, and follows a different set of instructions until the conditions are finally met.

References

[1]       H. J. de S. Germain, “Branching,” Programming – Branching. [Online]. Available: https://www.cs.utah.edu/~germain/PPS/Topics/branching.html

[2]       Techopedia, “What is a branch? – definition from Techopedia,” Techopedia.com, 21-Sep-2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/18058/branch.

[3]       W. Kenton, “How branch offices work,” Investopedia, 21-Sep-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/branch-office.asp.

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Expanded Definition of “Network”

TO:           Prof.  Ellis

FROM:     Norbert Derylo

DATE:     Oct 27, 2021

SUBJECT:     Expanded Definition of Network

Introduction

    In this paper I will be writing about the definition of the word “network.” I will be writing about how network was originally used and will compare it to how it is used in modern day. I will also write about how network is used in different contexts in modern day society. I will finally write about how network is used in terms of computers and data.

Definitions

    Network was used in the Bible, one of the oldest pieces of christian literature. The word’s definition in that book was “Work (esp. manufactured work) in which threads, wires, etc., are crossed or interlaced in the fashion of a net; frequently applied to light fabric made of threads intersecting in this way” [1]. This definition refers to more physical objects which is very different compared to what network is defined as modernly.  One definition from modern times is  “a network is nothing more than a set of discrete elements (the vertices), and a set of connections (the edges) that link the elements, typically in a pairwise fashion” [2]. The modern definition of network is more about grouping objects together based on how they interact with each other. The modern definition is more broad and in a way agrees with the old definition. The older definition of network comes from a time in which people would be more focused on trying to survive. Nets are a tool that have a very distinct pattern and such anything with that pattern could be described as a network. Compared to modern day we do not really use nets anymore unless it is a part of your profession. Network has lost its connotation of being a net and now just refers to the pattern. As such using the modern definition of network you can describe a net as a network of threads. 

Context

    Network is a word that requires context to understand what it means. A network describes how a group of objects interact, and therefore you need to know what those objects are. For example the following quote talks about networks in a corporate environment: “The knowledge network of a firm is a structural representation of its cumulative stock of rules, routines, practices, or documents and as such is the result of collective efforts of past and present employees” [3].  In this context a network is about the knowledge a business has collected. If you take out the word knowledge you can see how all of those objects work together and can be considered a network. A network can also be viewed as a set of objects. This following quote is from a survey about wireless sensor networks: “Energy conservation in a WSN (wireless sensor network) maximizes network lifetime and is addressed through efficient reliable wireless communication, intelligent sensor placement to achieve adequate coverage, security and efficient storage management, and through data aggregation and data compression” [4]. In this case the network is looked at as one single object instead of a set of objects that are connected. This is because in a wireless sensor network the entire network defines what it is. If you take any part of it out it loses its status as a network and instead becomes a collection of equipment. Network is very versatile in its uses and can be used to describe many things, however its definition is very dependent on its context.

Working Definition

    In my major of computer information systems there are two major definitions. The most well known use of the word network is through computer networks. This refers to how computers connect to each other. One well known computer network is the internet. Computer networks are bluntly computers that can communicate with each other to transfer data. The other definition for network in my major is data networks. These networks are often limited in access and tend to hold more sensitive data. The difference between these two types of networks is how people interact on them. On computer networks computers and their users interact with each other. On data networks users tend to interact with a set of information and very minimally with other users. In both cases the network is defined by what you are trying to connect with as a user.

References

[1]     “Network,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2012, def. 1. [Online]. Available: https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/126342?rskey=qXENxr&result=1

[2]    Newman, M. et al. (2006) The structure and dynamics of networks. [Online]. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Available: ProQuest Ebook Central

[3]    Brennecke, J. & Rank, O. (2017) The firm’s knowledge network and the transfer of advice among corporate inventors—A multilevel network study. Research policy. [Online] 46 (4), 768–783. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2017.02.002.

[4]    Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal, Wireless sensor network survey, Computer Networks, Volume 52, Issue 12, 2008, Pages 2292-2330, ISSN 1389-1286, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2008.04.002.

Expanded Word Definition of Central Processing Unit (CPU)

TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Brandon Sosa  
DATE: October 27th, 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Word Definition of Central Processing Unit (CPU)

[Introduction]

            The purpose of this document is to expand on the definition of “Central Processing Unit”. This word is mentioned multiple times throughout the CST (Computer Information Systems) department and is mentioned in the first introductory classes. I will be discussing the origin of the word and when the word was first introduced and who coined it. I will also be looking and researching through the dictionary and the references to find interesting information about the word. After, I will organize the information into each perspective category detailing its Context, Definition, and Working Definition. Then include my references at the end. 

[Definition/Etymology]

            There are various but similar definitions of “Central Processing Unit”. As a student who is in the field of Technology, I say that my own definition of what the Central processing unit is is that it controls all functions inside the phone, tablet, and computer. It controls the input and outputs of all the daily tasks the user is recommending. The Oxford English Dictionary, it states “Computing a component of a computer system that runs programs, performs processing, and controls and coordinates the activity of other components”.[1] This definition gives a vague but helpful description of what a central processing unit is. Some people researching the definition might need a more in-depth definition of what the word is. In the Oxford Reference text, I was able to find a definition of the word but in more detail. It said, “A CPU usually consists of two units: the control unit organizes the data and program storage in the memory and transfers data and other information between the various parts of the system; the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) executes the arithmetic and logic operations, such as addition, multiplication, and comparison.” [2] This definition in comparison to the first definition is a lot more detailed and it specifies what the CPU is doing inside the selected device. 

[Context]

            When comparing both definitions of the Central Processing Unit, it provides details about what it is and how it performs, on the other hand, the first definition is short and gives good but vague detailing about what it does for the computer/phone or tablet. The 2nd definition highlights and gives details on what the central processing unit is, how it works, the components that are inside of it to help run programs and execute tasks. What really stands out between both definitions are the keywords that there use. Both definitions have similar keywords, but the one definition uses keywords such as “ALU” when the other definition didn’t use it. In a textbook, when talking about the CPU the author goes in-depth about what the CPU is and what the main functions it is. His definition of the CPU is different from the 1st and 2nd definitions because the author is adding more context to it. The author stated “The CPU is responsible for manipulating data and coordinating the activities of the computer’s other physical components, including memory and peripherals. Instructions gathered from input interfaces are executed at the CPU, and the results are delivered to output interfaces. The CPU, therefore, functions as the heart of the computer, facilitating all data processing activity.” [3] This definition gives an accurate detailed description of what and how the CPU functions. It also makes the comparison of how it is “the heart” of the computer and that it controls all the task and programs that the user requests.

[Working Definition]

            In the CST department, when learning about the internal components of the computer, phone, or tablet the Central Processing Unit is always mentioned. In my own definition, I would say the Central Processing Unit is the heart of the computer. It controls all tasks and programs that come in by the user and it executes the task/programs all accordingly. The central processing unit is the brains of the entire operation and every commend must go through it so that it is executing functions at a timely matter. Throughout all the years, the Central Processing Unit will always be updated, it will never stay the same. There’s a saying that just because it’s not broken, doesn’t mean that it cannot be improved. 

[References]

[1]        “Central Processing Unit,” in Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2013, def. 2. [Online]. Available:https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/29680?redirectedFrom=central+processing+unit#eid9942421

[2]        Butterfield, A., & Szymanski, J. (2018). memory. In A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 Oct. 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780198725725.001.0001/acref-9780198725725-e-2926.

[3]     Lerner, K. L., & Lerner, B. W. (2013). Computer Sciences. Macmillan Reference USA, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. 

Expanded Definition of Virtual

TO:              Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:        Jiaqi Huang
DATE:         Oct 27, 2021
SUBJECT:  Expanded Definition of Virtual

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to elaborate on the word I pick for the expanded definition project. I picked three words at the beginning, virtual, network and space. The term Network is kind of a new word, it doesn’t have that much history than the other two terms. I can not get enough information for the expanding project. For the term space, we know it is a big prerequisite for everything to work normally, computer systems are no exception. But the term space is an old word and has various meanings in different areas. It can represent time, the universe, etc. Though it has such various meanings, the term virtual is more related to my major computer information system, and it is also more representative in the computer field, which means it is more close to a special word for a specific area. At least people now heard the term virtual will associated with computer stuff immediately. The term space is not only used in academic fields, we also use it in our daily life. That’s why I chose the term virtual instead of space. The term virtual has been clearly pointed out to the “virtual technology” in the past few years. As new technology in these years, virtual technology is relatively mature than others and there is considerable room for development, no matter the technology itself or in the applied fields.

Definition

The origin of the term “virtual” is borrowed from Latin and has a long history we can look back on. There are a lot of meanings of “ virtual”. At first, it represented “Inherently powerful or effective owing to particular natural qualities”[1] in “See if the Virtuall Heat of the Wine, or Strong Waters will not mature it.” from Sylva sylvarum. Most of the Other definitions at first also related to power. However, they were Obsoleted because it is no longer in line with usage habits or we can say it was too far away from how we use the term now. When people talk about virtual, it mainly means a kind of technology. In Proc. Eastern’s Joint Computer Conf actually used the term virtual at a description “The sole function of the virtual memory is to increase machine speed”,  which we can conclude it “being on or simulated on a computer or computer network.”[2]

Context

In the article “Virtual reality environment using a dome screen for procedural pain in young children during intravenous placement: A pilot randomized controlled trial ” there is a description using the term virtual. It stated, “Virtual reality (VR), often referred to as a virtual environment, is a computer technology that enables users to view or ‘immerse’ themselves in an alternate world, and it is attracting attention as a digital distraction technique”.[3] in this statement, the term virtual had been clearly defined as a kind of computer technology. The term virtual inherently carries a fake meaning, it presents something that does not truly exist in reality. That’s why the article used the statement “immerse’ themselves in an alternate world”, a world built by a computer that can not physically touch it. And just like what I stated in the definition section, the term virtual has totally different meanings in the past. Based on P. Miller’s Gardeners & Florists Dict, we can find the used the term virtual in a sentence that “the virtual Qualities of the Sun and Air, [vapours] are formed into Clouds.”[4] In this situation, we can consider that virtual is an inherent power of nature. In the 1700s, the secret of nature had not yet deciphered. The science ability in that age was not enough to figure out the physical principle so it is suitable to use the word virtual to present something powerful while unreachable. 

Work Definition

Obviously, in the computer information system field, the term virtual is the name of a kind of computer technology. From the past till now, virtual always carries the meaning of fake and out of understanding in the past, and artificially created, non-physical existing in modern science. Virtual is a technology with a lot of possibilities in various areas and it has a big room to develop. In industry and the medical field, it can provide a safer and more efficient environment for users’ training. In-game areas, it brings a totally new experience to gamers and a new direction to game makers, same for other art areas. So I will define the term virtual as a technology “being on or simulated on a computer or computer network”.

References

[1]”virtual, adj. and n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/223829. Accessed 6 October 2021. 

[2]“Virtual.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virtual. Accessed 6 Oct. 2021.

[3]Lee, Ha Ni, et al. “Virtual Reality Environment Using a Dome Screen for Procedural Pain in Young Children during Intravenous Placement: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.” PLoS ONE, vol. 16, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 1–11. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0256489.

[4]P. Miller, “Gardeners & Florists Dict,” The Oxford English Dictionary, Oct. 12, 2021. Available: https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/223829?redirectedFrom=virtual#eid

Expanded Definitions of Data Structures

To: Prof. Ellis
From: Hamzat Olowu
Date: 10/27/2021
Subject: Expanded Definition Term: Data Structure

Introduction

The objective of this document is to accentuate one of the most important term for programmers and software engineers. This term is Data Structures, the focus of this paper will be on the etymology of the term, then it will discuss the term and its uses in different backgrounds under computer science. This paper will also focus on the way the term is used depending on the context of the articles or books in which the term has been used. The official definitions of the term will be provided first, term’s etymology will be provided after which the context of the words will be discussed. At the end another definition will be provided which will come from understanding the term’s etymology, definition, and the context in which it’s used.

Definition

 The term data structure according to the oxford English dictionary means “Computing the form in which a collection of data is organized, typically allowing for efficient access or manipulation of the data.” [1] According to this definition we know this term is coined for the computer science field, which makes this a unique term. If we look at the term’s etymology, the term was first used in 1960 in a sentence from the IRE Transactions on Space Electronics and Telemetry which states “The decoding program also includes provision for recognizing the time and data structure when partially camouflaged by noise.” [1] The sentence provides a better understanding of the term and shows that the term is being used in a computer science environment. The second time the term was used officially was in 1973 in a book called Introduction to computer science which was what set the standard for later uses of the word. Data structure can also be defined as “The logical or mathematical model of a particular organization of data.” [2] This definition is essentially the same as the first definition but it’s defining the term based on logic and math.             For computer science students the term data structure is made known from either a mathematics course or computer science course called data structures and algorithm. This shows how deeply entrenched in computer science the term is, other definitions for this term still haven’t escaped from the scope of computer science. According to a definition from the Britannica encyclopedia, data structure is a “way in which data are stored for efficient search and retrieval.” [3] The definition from the oxford English dictionary and the Britannica encyclopedia both have different wordings but the same meaning, one says, “efficient access” and the other says “efficient search and retrieval” which attest to the same meaning, further corroborating the fact that the term has the same meaning across different definitions, and it is most suitable to be used in a computer science environment.

Context

Perceiving the essence of the term entails more than just the definition of the term. The context of in which the word or term is used needs to be discussed to come to any kind of conclusion about the term. For this document, the focus is on data structures and in what context it is used. Based on what has been discussed in the previous paragraph data structure is a term that is mainly used in computer science settings, so the context of the word would hold a fair amount of computer science mixed within. This is seen in the book called Python Data Structures and Algorithms which states “A good understanding of data structures and algorithms cannot be overemphasized. It is an important arsenal to have in being able to understand new problems and find elegant solutions to them.” [4, P.1] The book was stating the importance data structures and its counterpart which is algorithm. The book teaches the different types of data structures and algorithms which uses them using a programming language called python. The term data structure in this book is an important concept that is being taught to students interested in computer science. Looking at how the term is being used in context from a different type of source might explain more about the term itself. A different type of source is an article and the one that was chosen for the sake of this writing is by Rhoda M. Gilinsky, a freelance writer who wrote about Teachers Learning Computer Methods: “Students with previous academic preparation in computer science or who want supplementary preparation can also select from more advanced courses, such as Information Structures and Algorithms, Computer Architecture and Programming Languages.” [5] The use of the term here is different as we did not detect the term data structure in the sentence instead term information structure was spotted. In this context, information structure is replacing data structure as data and information can be used interchangeably. The usage of the term in both contexts truly demonstrates the interpretation of the term data structure.

Working Definition

After the juxtaposition of the term’s usage in different context, another definition can be derived from the information provided in the last two paragraphs. Using this knowledge data structure can be defined as any layout information/data is stored. Whilst the definition is in essence equivalent to the ones provided by the sources of this document, it is less specialized. The difference between this definition and the others is that it is presented with generalized wordings which allows for the word to be used in almost any other settings rather than only in computer science.

References

[1]    “Data Structures,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Mar. 2012, data n, c2. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com

[2]    R. S. N. and S. P. Suman, “The Role of Data Structures in Multiple Disciplines of Computer Science A Review,” The Role of Data Structures in Multiple Disciplines of Computer Science A Review – IJSER Journal Publication, Jul-2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/The-Role-of-Data-Structures-in-Multiple-Disciplines-of-Computer-Science-A-Review.pdf

[3]   “Data structure.” In Britannica Academic Encyclopædia, 12 Apr. 2017, [Online]. Available: academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/data-structure/472173

[4]     B. Baka, Python data structures and algorithms: Improve the performance and speed of your applications. Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing Limited, 2017. [Online]. Available: ProQuest Ebook Central.

[5]    R. M. Gilinsky, “TEACHERS LEARNING COMPUTER METHODS,” The New York Times, Jun. 3, 1984. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/1984/06/03/nyregion/teachers-learning-computer-methods.html?searchResultPosition=5