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From: Ron Bepat
ENG 2575 OL70
To: Professor Ellis
Subject: 500 word Definition
Topic/Major: Cyber Security & Networking
Cyber Security is the protection of an individual’s information from hackers. Cyber security over time has improved significantly across various fields of work. The increasingly significance of Cyber protection today has increased as more attacks have plagued the internet. As technology advances, there are still many vulnerabilities that have been created throughout the years. The internet has evolved and strengthen however, different societies have become increasingly vulnerable in the cyber space. Such as the many Americans who don’t know much on protecting themselves on the internet and click on ads they shouldn’t be clicking being misled by malware. Different ways have been created to prevent any future cyber-attacks. One such example is that businesses are required to go through yearly (or frequent) updates to their networks. Governments have started to focus on cyber security and examined what the situation has become. For example, Russian hackers creating havoc during the 2016 and 2020 Presidential elections. The average person’s internet usage has exponentially increased in the last decade due to the numerous devices available to connect to the network and is now a constant part of society. A United States government entity called NATO, or the Northern Alliance Treaty Organization has dedicated resources to help protect NATO countries in cyber-attacks and risks.  “Its main task is to strengthen the ability, cooperation, and information sharing among NATO countries” Some countries strengths may lie in their national security in fields such as land, sea and air but have tend to neglect the importance of Cyber Security. Hackers use these vulnerabilities to take advantage of the situation. To figure out how hackers are disrupting the flow of the internet cyber security, professionals would have to understand the logistics of hackers and use the same tools hackers use to figure out solutions to protect themselves from these threats. There is not much regulation as it appears to be on the internet but there are military cyber experts cracking down on these hackers. It is important for the internet to have a military presence to observe the networks for suspicious activities. Network penetration tools are all over the internet to manipulate data. If a country has weak to no Cyber Security to protect themselves then the citizen and legal entities that operate in the country are more at risk from attacks from hackers. Legal action must be taken to stop cyber criminals from running rampant on the internet because one of the top threats in the modern day are cyber-attacks. Cyber-deterrence should be encouraged but many people would think the internet would not be as “free” if the cyber-deterrence policies were made.  “…that deterring the attackers from their wishes, attacks, or wars, in particular cyber wars and “cyber deterrence,” may be the best.” The knowledge of cyber security can help many people prevent many crimes that can happen to them which will prevent more hackers from compromising people’s data.
 Senol, Mustafa, and Ertugrul Karacuha. “Creating and Implementing an Effective and Deterrent National Cyber Security Strategy.” Gale Academic ONEFILE, 30 June 2020,
TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Ron Bepat
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Encryption
The Purpose of this document is to elaborate on the word “encryption,” identify the historical references from where this term started and explain how the term’s definition has evolved throughout history. Both the old and modern versions of the term “encryption” will be compared. I will be discussing the way it’s defined by explaining how encryption works in full detail and outlining what it takes to make sure a piece of data is safe. I will be breaking down the meaning behind encryption and why it’s so important to encrypt data in the tech industry, in a world where there are so many hackers stealing data. Protecting data is as important as protecting a social security number, as it can be easily stolen and manipulated if not managed properly.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term “Encryption” was first used in the 1960s in the Navy  — “Proc. U.S. Naval Inst. Dec. 38/1 After giving the message..to the waiting code clerk for encryption..I strolled about the Consulate grounds.” The Navy would create secret messages that could only be deciphered by each other, which is essentially what Encryption is in it’s simplest form — taking a message and mixing it up so only certain people can understand given a certain code. Another example from the Oxford Dictionary is a type of language that is similar to encryption, called Morse Code , which is defined as “code devised by Morse for use with the electric telegraph, in which the letters are represented by combinations of long and short electrical signals represented audibly or visually, or by long and short flashes of light or (in writing) dashes and dots.” This Definition was first used back in 1867. This connection between Morse code and the modern word “encryption” is similar as only certain people are able to understand Morse code — the only people who can understand the message are the sender and receiver. The sender would be the one who creates the unreadable code to the sender. It doesn’t have to be a message and can be any form of data. Another definition from The Britannica is  “Data encryption, also called encryption or encipherment, the process of disguising information as ciphertext, or data unintelligible to an unauthorized person. Conversely, decryption, or decipherment, is the process of converting ciphertext back into its original format. Manual encryption has been used since Roman times, but the term has become associated with the disguising of information via electronic computers. Encryption is a process basic to cryptology.” This form of communication is so secretive that it can help send important information without an untrusted or unauthorized person being able to understand or access that information. The type of encryption where someone sends unorganized info to another is called end – to – end encryption, which is also used today in the form of emails and text messages. These types of messages are only allowed to be viewed by the sender and intended recipient. For example, if a hacker were to pull up a WhatsApp chat, they would just see a bunch of encrypted text.
This is a quote from Norton a company based on securing and protecting data  — “To unlock the message, both the sender and the recipient have to use a “secret” encryption key — a collection of algorithms that scramble and unscramble data back to a readable format.” This process needs an encryption key because without that key, data cannot be locked or unlocked. Here is another quote from an academic journal called “Information security analysis of deterministic encryption and chaotic encryption in spatial domain and frequency domain”  — “In cryptography, encryption and decryption are used to protect privacy and confidentiality of transmitted data via the process of encoding and decoding, so that the authorized parties are able to access it exclusively.” Encryption keys can be used for both unlocking and locking data. When a hacker doesn’t have a key, they try to make their own by using ransomware to break into the data and reveal the message or what data is being stored.
Currently encryption is mainly used in the cyber security, database, networking, and programming fields to protect people’s data. To encrypt data in the programming field is to prevent any outsiders from stealing a person’s code. The user may need to use a program to juggle the data into a message that is more obscured and does not look like the original data. This data can only be deciphered by converting the text using a decryption program. A person would need technology, mainly a working computer, to either decrypt or encrypt data. The user has 2 keys — a decryption key and an encryption key. Each key is only used for their specific purposes. For example, a user can’t use the encryption key to decrypt the data —they would need to use the decryption key for that. If a coworker asked to open a certain piece of data that they don’t have access to, they would have to go to the system administrator of the network and ask for permission to this data and obtaining the decryption key. A person can also make their own algorithms to encrypt their data using any code they see fit to edit the data. Once the text is encrypted, it is essentially unreadable, and this text is called cipher text.
 “”encrypt, v.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2021. Web. 14 October 2021,
 “Data Encryption.” Brittanica Academic https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/data-encryption/2217.
 Written by Alison Grace Johansen for NortonLifeLock. “What Is Encryption and How Does It Protect Your Data?” Norton, https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-privacy-what-is-encryption.html.
 Z. Ye, H. Yin and Y. Ye, “Information security analysis of deterministic encryption and chaotic encryption in spatial domain and frequency domain,” 2017 14th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE), 2017, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICEEE.2017.8108905.
 “Morse, n.3.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2021. Web. 14 October 2021.