Lecture, Week 15

I’m posting this week’s short lecture early to remind everyone about the due dates and the grade distribution in the class.

The deadline for all work in the class is by midnight on Tuesday, Dec. 21.

There is no Weekly Writing Assignment this week. Focus on your team projects and catching up on all individual projects.

Also, the Student Evaluation of Teaching survey deadline has been extended to Dec. 17, so please complete those if you haven’t already done so. For those who have completed it, thank you!

Good luck with finishing up the semester!

500 word summary

TO:       Prof. Ellis

FROM:     Kanak Das

DATE:     Dec, 1, 2021

SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Network Wireless Security

When we talk about network in computer, it also include huge responsibility in security as well as wireless security. It is one of the most important and fundamental topic in Networking. The reason this is an essential research in this topic is because Network security helps in protecting personal data, files, and others important information that is connected to devices.  Increasing network security, you decrease the chance of privacy spoofing, identity or information theft and so on. Wireless network has become one of the fastest technologies for everyone’s benefit, which is a Computer Network that allows computing devices to communicate with each other without being connected through physical communications medium, such as networking cable or any involvement of wire. It is usually reply upon radio communication and wireless Network are implemented at the physical layer which is Layer 1 of the OSI model. The importance of wireless security is that it is all in one person under control. The owner can control it from anywhere nearby, without any need of wire or cable. Some of the reasons are, trusted video security solutions, commitment to quality with superior service, for personal protection.

Wireless technologies use radio frequency transmission as the means for transmitting data, whereas wired technologies use cables. Wireless technologies range from complex system, such as WLAN which is Wireless Local Area Network, when we use cell phones and have wireless headphones, through the use of Bluetooth to listen to songs, and other small devices that does not require wire. moreover, we also have, WPA which is wireless Access Point, is hardware device that allows properly equipped computing device to connect wirelessly to a network. Which can be used through router including a radio transceiver to enable wireless communication with client, and where we all use it every single day, commonly known as Wi-Fi. The transport mechanism between devices connect can also have impact on the all devices that connected to each other and any information can be shared easily through this process. Encryption is one of the major subject to talk about in wireless security, Because, all wireless computers are radio transmitters and receivers , anyone can listen to the information that are being transfer or received, that’s why it’s important  to have encryption enable on wireless network. So, that way even if the other people hears about the information, they would not be able to see the information. Only people will have access are the ones with proper passwords or proper wireless configuration.

Another major topic in wireless network is Hacking. For example, if you connect to public network, it can be easily intercepted by cybercriminal, where your personal data could be at risk. Whenever there is free public wi-fi, once you connect to these fake network everything you do online is monitor by cybercriminal. Who can scan your activity such as social media log in information. Cybercriminal can even easily transfer viruses, or other unnecessary software to your computer. That can cause serious damage to your computer and can get through your personal information.

[1] “The security of cellular connections – The New York Times.” [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/10/technology/personaltech/security-wifi-lte-data.html. [Accessed: 06-Dec-2021].

750-1000-Word Expanded Definition

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Kanak Das

DATE: 12/05/2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition Term: Networking Firewall


Firewall is one of the important topic on Information technology. The purpose of the memo indicates that the computer or the network we use; how it can protect our information, data and applications. There are also other terms that goes along with Firewall, such as Wireless security, Network Security, Virtual private network (VPN), Virus, Ransomware. Some resources I have used for research to focus on my term is Forcepoint, Vmware, Dictionary.com. the term I have selected to focus is Firewall; A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic. My interest in computer is mostly network security where firewall comes up big when computer or network requires protection from hackers or malicious users.


            “A firewall protects a computer network or personal computer (PC) from attacks from hackers or malicious software, known as malware. In e-commerce, a hacker may try to access customers’ financial information or disrupt the business in some way.”[1]. Another definition is “A firewall is hardware, software, or a combination of both that monitors and filters traffic packets that attempt to either enter or leave the protected private network. It is a tool that separates a protected network or part of a network, and now increasingly a user’s personal computer (PC)”.[2]. The first definition is form the E- commerce book and the second definition is from Securing the information infrastructure book. The two definition speaks almost the same language, because both defines what firewall are supposed to do. In e-commerce definition firewall protecting their information from hackers, they see firewall as something that could protect from all kinds of threat such in the definition malware, risky software, but in reality firewall can only so much their might be some vulnerability that they are unaware of. The second definition they see that definition almost it should protect them in software level and hardware level. If an infrastructure administrator aware that when he or she is transferring packets, files, important information thru firewall it should reach its destination, but if it doesn’t, the entire transfer would backfire. From both definitions perspective it appears that each company or book define firewall as how they uses it.


            It’s a quote from Cisco: “An early type of firewall device, a proxy firewall serves as the gateway from one network to another for a specific application. Proxy servers can provide additional functionality such as content caching and security by preventing direct connections from outside the network. However, this also may impact throughput capabilities and the applications they can support.”[3]. This sentence define the proxy types of firewall, which is any outside network, authorized or unauthorized network needs to be verified before getting into the cisco network. Company sees this as their way of defining the security threat, when someone from the company uses this word, they are most likely talking about an application is being transferred form one network to another.

            “Another quote form Forcepoint: “We saw an opportunity to combine router and advanced firewall capabilities to strengthen security across every site and accelerate throughput. We needed a solution with centralized administration that could be easily replicated every time we added a new mobile site, easing the management burden on our IT staff.”[4]. Forcepoint security company define this as the company or the firms they host they really care about their users and their tech. The definition itself shows that they don’t only want to secure the info and data for the present, but for the future of the company as well. As times advances they want to advance their security along with it. They look for different solution for how they can manage each every users requested files, packets. Instead of having the staff and users worry about the important information they want to create a safe environment for the people and in technology as well.

Working Definition:

            The research from above shows how each company treat the word firewall differently. Each and every perspective is correct, because it come down to the same meaning of how firewall works and what it should serve. My field of study Computer information Technology, IT Operation, I see firewall as one of the most fundamental being in all of computer science. Firewall is a network security mechanism that protect network or computer form solicited or unsolicited threat.


            [1]”Firewall.” Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce, edited by Laurie J. Fundukian, 2nd ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2012, pp. 285-286. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX4020800178/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=bb425618. Accessed 5 Dec. 2021.

[2]Kizza, Joseph M., and Florence M. Kizza. “Perimeter Defense: The Firewall.” Securing the Information Infrastructure, CyberTech Publishing, 2008, pp. 209-238. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX2864600020/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=9c1aab30. Accessed 5 Dec. 2021.

[3]“What is a Firewall?,” Cisco, 23-Jun-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/firewalls/what-is-a-firewall.html. [Accessed: 06-Dec-2021].

[4]“NGFW Enterprise Firewall,” Forcepoint, 03-Nov-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.forcepoint.com/product/ngfw-next-generation-firewall. [Accessed: 06-Dec-2021].

Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 14

For this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment, add a comment to this post in memo format that describes what you have contributed to your team’s collaborative project. Include any writing drafts and/or research that you have done. This is a way to maintain accountability for each team member’s contributions and to keep Prof. Ellis apprised of the work that your team members are doing to help bring the project together. Watch this week’s lecture for more details.

Instruction Manual on how to hack your Nintendo 3DS system

To: Prof Jason Ellis

From: Shemei John

Date: 11/17/2021

Subject: A Nintendo 3DS hack Guide

[1.0 Introduction]

This is a guide to modify your Nintendo 3DS system with custom firmware in order to personalize and customize the device. The perks of having a custom firmware are developer level and administrative level skills and access to a system, giving you more control of the devices potential capabilities, by unrestricting certain features, or accessing them otherwise. The then unrestricted firmware gives you access to custom software, applications and software themes created by others on the internet. This is for creative purposes, since you can create and install your own apps and features, as well. There are several methods to achieve this. I will be using the one most familiar to me.

[1.1 Purpose]

The purpose of this instruction manual is to practice and demonstrate administrative techniques that are familiar with Computer Information Systems. While there are a few methods to achieve this, this manual’s purpose is to also convey and explain what is being done. Popular uses for custom firmware include:

  • Bypassing the region lock, allowing you to play games from other regions
  • Home menu customization, using community-created themes and badges
  • Modification of games (“ROM hacks”) through LayeredFS
  • Save data editing, backup, and restore
  • Emulation of older consoles, as well as native playback of DS and GBA games
  • Installing your physical cartridges for digital use

[1.2 Intended Audience]

This manual is intended for anyone who own a Nintendo 3DS system or any student who declares a Computer Information Systems major, and are looking for practical experience learning about a computer system. It is similar to any computers system.

[1.3 Scope]

The scope of this mission is to download and install custom firmware on a stock or factory Nintendo 3DS system and proceed by performing specific functions to unlock and access restricted functions of the 3DS.

[1.4    Safety and Disclaimers]

Whenever performing any restricted tasks of any kind on any computing device there are always risks involve. It is imperative that you read and follow this manual correctly to minimize the chances of bricking.

“Bricking” is a terminology used by the computer community. Bricking means the device becomes unusable after a software, or more specifically, a firmware update was not successful. For example, the device powers on but the screen is blank and the Operating System doesn’t load. Now whenever you turn on the device the lights are on, but the screen is off forever! The risks of bricking your 3DS device has been reduced over the years significantly but there is still a chance of it happening even when you do everything correctly. This can be because of the custom firmware that was edited by others. Please be aware that you are attempting this at your own risk of bricking or voiding any warranty you may still have on your device by titivating with it. Also please be aware that since this gains restricted access to the system’s capabilities, if you attempt this method to download illegal games you could be banned from it’s network features or punished even worse.

[2.0 List of Materials and Equipment Needed]

  • Computer device [a laptop is fine]
  • Micro SD card reader for your computer device
  • Micro SD card with at least 8G [I recommend more if you’ll need space to install more data, like downloading soft copy games. I have a 32G]
  • Any unmodified Nintendo 3DS, 3DS XL, 3DS LL, 2DS system, with system firmware version of 1.0.0 – 11.3.0, anything higher will need a different method than the one in this instructional manual.
  • A #00 cross-head (+) should do for the Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo 3DS XL, and Nintendo 2DS, to open up the back panel to retrieve Micro SD card.

[3.0 Directions]

[3.1] Prep devices. Check and make sure your device is compatible with this method before attempting. Make sure your devices are fully charged while performing tasks.

  • Turn off your Nintendo System device and expose the Micro SD card located inside by removing the back panel screws with the mini cross head screwdriver. The screws are attached to the panel itself so be careful not to break it.
  • Remove the Micro SD card and mount it to your computer
  • Open the root folder of the SD card on your computer. The root folder is the main folder, or first folder of the device.
  • Create a separate folder on your desktop and copy the root folder on your Micro SD card to the newly created folder on your desktop. Backing up your data before performing any kind of work on a computer is a Computer specialists’ bread and butter.
  • You will then need to format your SD card to FAT32/MBR

[3.2] Acquiring boot9strap via soundhax. This is the easiest way to hack the system. Download these files from the internet. You can find them anywhere, just make sure it is the latest version. I use Github since it’s a peer-peer sharing website by users like you and I.

  • Create an additional folder called boot9strap and download and extract files here
    • I suggest you create a folder for each to avoid any confusion of files
  •  Download the latest release of SafeB9SInstaller
  • Download the latest release of boot9strap
  • Download the latest release of Luma3DS
  • Download the latest release of universal-otherapp

[3.3] Open up your folder containing the boot9strap files and located each of the following:

  • Copy the Soundhax .m4a to the root of your SD card
  • Copy otherapp.bin to the root of your SD card
  • Copy boot.firm and boot.3dsx from the Luma3DS .zip to the root of your SD card

[3.4] Create a folder named boot9strap on the root of your SD card. The root of the SD card is the area that the root folder is located in. Basically, the SD card itself.

  • Copy boot9strap.firm and boot9strap.firm.sha from the boot9strap .zip to the /boot9strap/ folder on your SD card
  • Copy SafeB9SInstaller.bin from the SafeB9SInstaller .zip to the root of your SD card

[3.5] Reinsert your Micro SD card into your 3DS system and power it on

[3.6] After you power on your device, several applications should be visible in your library, install the boot9strap by:

  • Launch Nintendo 3DS Sound
  • Locate /SDCARD, then play “<3 nedwill 2016” This can take several tries to be patient. If the program freezes, soft reset but powering off your device using the power button and repeat. If your versions are 9.4.0, 9.5.0 or 9.6.0, and you experience this problem, you will need to sounhax using the homebrew launcher (Separate manual). Once successful, wait for all checks to complete then press the (A) button to reset device.

[3.7] After resetting the device should be in a Luma3DS configuration window. Configure Luma3DS by:

  • Using the (A) and (D-pad) to maneuver the menu, highlight “NAND or user string in System Settings” and press (START) to save and reboot if you receive an error just continue

The system will now boot to the custom firmware (Luma3DS) by default as long as the SD card is inserted. Luma3DS does not look any different from the normal HOME menu. This instruction manual is demonstrate how to apply custom firmware to the 3DS. The 3DS is now unlocked you can install additional applications that vastly simplify the loading system of the firmware. Your Device can now load the custom firmware but only from the SD card. Some additional applications essential to the firmware that will be useful can now be installed and used, such as:

  • FBI (installs CIA formatted games)
  • Themely (installs custom themes)
  • Luma3DS Updater (updates your CFW installation easily)
  • GodMode9 (multipurpose tool which can do NAND and Cartridge functions)

These are all user created programs and files shared by the community. For instance,  FBI can allows the user to install files directly to your SD card simply by scanning a QR code.

4.0    Glossary

Brick – The new or expensive device that no longer works turns into a simple paper weight. The computer community uses this term to describe the result of an action taken to cause a device to stop functioning, not physically, but by loss or corruption of firmware, that causes the device to stop working.

Emulation – A reproduction or function of computing program. Often used in the video game world for old video game consoles that are now considered so small they can be replicated on a computer laptop because they do not take up a lot of space.

Firmware – specialized software created specifically for a particular device. Firmware is similar to software, the only difference is that firmware is physically written into the hardware of the device. For this reason, firmware does not require the use of an operating system to function.

Boot9strap – This program installed on your SD card allows the system to run these applications free without the use of an emulation

NAND – A chip used to store the firmware of the system

Root – The SD card itself and not the folders that is already on it. When you open or mount your SD card, that visible area is the root. The root folder is the folder that is located in this area

Boot – A term that came from the term “bootstrap” or getting your first orders. Today it essentially means to turn on your device but to boot simply means to give your computer instructions to turn it on

Soundhax – This refers to the homebrew application. This exploit gives you entry to the homebrew application that this custom firmware is basically built on without any outside assistance.

7.0    Reference List