Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 2

This week’s writing assignment will help you develop the scaffolding for your 500-word summary project by creating a reverse outline of the article that you find in your research on a topic related to your field of study and eventual career field. This is due by our next week of lecture on Wednesday, Sept. 22.

Watch this week’s lecture and make notes before proceeding!

For this Weekly Writing Assignment, do the following (detailed in this week’s lecture):

  • Find an article in the library’s databases on an appropriate topic and of sufficient length (Remember: go to library.citytech.cuny.edu > Find Articles > click on “A” for Academic Search Complete and Academic OneFile or click on “I” for IEEE Explore)
  • Create a new document in your word process of choice (Google Docs, Microsoft Word, Apple Pages, LibreOffice, etc.).
  • Write a memo addressed to Prof. Ellis with the subject “Reverse Outline.”
  • Under the memo header, type “1.” followed by one sentence in your own words summarizing the first paragraph of the article that you chose. Then, type “2.” on the next line followed by one sentence in your own words summarizing the second paragraph. Write an enumerated sentence for each paragraph until you reach the end of your selected article. Do not make the mistake of using the author’s words in your one sentence summary–put away the article when you write each summary sentence so that you express the main idea of each paragraph using only your own words.
  • Conclude with a section titled “Reference” followed by an IEEE formatted reference entry for the article. See my example in the lecture, and use this, this, and this for additional help.
  • Copy-and-paste your memo into a comment made to this Weekly Writing Assignment post.

Also, you have some homework to accomplish before Wednesday, Sept. 22.

First, “reply-all” to the “Team Assignment” email that I will send you during the next two weeks. Follow the directions contained in the email to meet your fellow teammates and to show Prof. Ellis that you are actively taking part in establishing rapport with your teammates.

Second, take your reverse outline that you prepared for this week’s Weekly Writing Assignment and paste it into a new document on your computer or in the cloud. Remove the numbers before each summary sentence. Consolidate the sentences into paragraphs or one large paragraph. Read the sentences and edit as needed to create flow from one sentence to the next. Then, add a memo header as shown below (edit the subject according to my directions in the lecture or as you see below–meaning the main topic of your selected article), add an introductory sentence explaining what the document is (see the example first sentence below), and add a significant quote from your selected article with an in-text citation in IEEE Style as shown in the first paragraph below. This will yield a rough draft of your 500-word summary for the first project, which we will conduct peer review on during the week beginning on Sept. 22. Save this document until Sept. 22. We will use it for that week’s Weekly Writing Assignment

TO:       Prof. Ellis
FROM:     Your Name
DATE:     Oct. 6, 2021
SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Virtual Reality

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about tracking human bodies in virtual reality. The authors discuss the body tracking software that they developed called Pfinder by showing how the software was developed, tested, and improved. According to Wren et al., “To  address  this  need  we  have  developed  a  real-time  system called   Pfinder   (“person   finder”)   that   substantially   solves   the problem  for  arbitrarily  complex  but  single-person,  fixed-camera situations” [1, p. 780]. 

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[1]     C. R. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell, and A. P. Pentland, (1997). “Pfinder: Real-time tracking of the human body,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 780-785, July 1997, doi: 10.1109/34.598236.

18 thoughts on “Weekly Writing Assignment, Week 2”

  1. Name: Brandon Sosa
    ENG 2575 OL70
    A Memo to Professor Ellis

    1. Making Information and information systems understandable to people.
    2. Teaching participants how to use and understand what Computer network is.
    3. Having students memorize the teaching learned in the course and in the textbook.
    4. Computer network has evolved over time and the course might need to be re-edited to make the updated technology.
    5. Focus merely on what the student is going to be doing such as “Local Area Network”.
    6. With online learning, the basic teaching norm is thrown out the window because students are forced to learn online instead of face-to-face interaction.
    7. Classes are not up to par with the computer network for students to use online learning.
    8. The teacher/professor’s lack of experience in Computer networks can be hurtful to students.
    9. The work given to the students are broken down into 3 types which the student can use to understand Computer Network.
    10. Content Architecture includes 5 parts (Sketch, Physical Layer, Data Link Layer, Packet Switching, Transport Layer, and Application layer network.
    11. Teaching is the most important element a teacher can have to be able to pass on the knowledge they have.
    12. Case-based teaching is a method used by teachers and students use this method by researching and training capacity through cases under their guidance.
    13. Exposing students to other Computer networks such as Cisco, Linux, and Lenovo OS
    14. Case teaching by selecting teaching is a way the students can master the information that has been taught to the students.
    15. Network simulation is defined as using computer technology and creating a topology of other computer networks.
    16. Network simulation is used in the network to structure the topology and simulate the network traffic.
    17. Network simulation is great for students and another way to teach the students.
    18. Students change from passive learners to active participation inquirers.
    19. Hire people from companies to come in and teach the students what needs to get taught to ensure employment is met after graduation.
    20. Due to the online teaching situation, we must adapt to this new trend if the students are going to be taught efficiently.

    [1] Yong-min Lin and Wei-dong, “Research on computer network course in information management and information system,” 2010 2nd International Conference on Education Technology and Computer, 2010. doi: 10.1109/ICETC.2010.5529707.

  2. From: DeAndre Badresingh
    To: Professor Ellis
    Subject: Reverse Outline

    1. Since transportation becomes more intelligent, it leaves it more vulnerable to cyber-attacks.
    2. There has been many times where users have lost control of their vehicle due to someone attacking this system.
    3. Malicious software replicates an already authorized software for self-driving vehicles.
    4. Methods and experiments have been put In place to analyze detection of compromised self- driving cars.
    5. Security technology is analyzed and scans the security of the car for intrusion detection.
    6. Vehicle to vehicle protection is important because it allows external connections to not only provide comfort for the driver but also update the security.
    7. The main method for hackers getting access to information is through the use of malicious code which allows them to gain or deny access to a user’s system.
    8. Machine learning algorithm using the software called Adware and General Malware (AW&GM) is used to differentiate normal code from malicious code used by hackers.
    9. A method which involves reconfiguring electronic control units uses a control module known as mitigation manager that scans for cyber-attacks.
    10. Another method for controlling these types of attacks involves an algorithm that scans for unusual patterns in within the vehicles network.
    11. Furthermore, another concept in mind was the use of cloud defense framework which allows only one gateway to monitor all traffic going into and out of the network.
    12. Attempted breaches come in many forms which includes malicious messages, denial of service, or even adware.
    13. Since self-driving vehicles are usually connected to public networks security is key to protecting them due to higher chances of having the operating system compromised.
    14. On a most recent machine learning algorithm study, intrusion detection was installed into the vehicles which allows the unit to actively see real-time changes in behavioral rhythm.
    15. With this new software, the algorithm can determine the intrusion more accurately by learning, verifying, and evaluating messaging patterns.
    16. Because the data reported back comes in bulk, there needs to be a way to reduce it and be able to understand the crucial aspects of it. This is done by a form of validation known as correlation-based feature and entropy-based information.
    17. Improved feature selection, also known as IFS, is important to identifying malware in a system because it filters out irrelevant features within the algorithm. As a result, it makes the data set more understandable, effective and reliable.
    18. In the previous proposed methods, there are 79 features which allows them to operate. The CPS feature is responsible for identifying verified features while the IG finds the top 20%.
    19. IFS methods have proven overtime that in-vehicle systems can be tampered with via wireless or wired connections.
    20. In the event of unusually high network traffic, intrusion detection relies on scaling. Scaling prevents under or overflow of data when undergoing experiments.
    21.When the environment is right, the multiple rounds of test begins.
    22. More tests are required during the experimental phase because they may come back as false positives.
    23. To conclude, IDS go through the three phases of data preprocessing, modeling, and detecting.
    24. Simulated results are compared to proposed algorithms.
    25. Benign code, adware, and general malware are known as classification scenarios.
    27. There are many different models that can be used to determine real-time detection accuracy.
    28. Using random forest, also known as RF, has been proven to have a higher predication accuracy.
    29. It has been concluded that using an algorithm with short learning time can use used to prove the mode accurate results.
    30. Receiver operating characterizes are also used to calculate the results from the tests.
    31. Each use of these methods revealed to have a different success result.
    32. Since transportation is ever-changing, security has to keep up to protect users.

    [1] S. Park and J.-Y. Choi, “Malware detection in self-driving vehicles using machine learning algorithms,” Journal of Advanced Transportation, vol. 2020, pp. 1–9, 2020.

  3. TO: Prof. Ellis
    FROM: Kanak Das
    DATE: Sep. 15, 2021
    SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Article About Network Wireless Security

    When we talk about network in computer, it also include huge responsibility in security as well as wireless security. It is one of the most important and fundamental topic in Networking. The reason this is an essential research in this topic is because Network security helps in protecting personal data, files, and others important information that is connected to devices. Increasing network security, you decrease the chance of privacy spoofing, identity or information theft and so on. Wireless network has become one of the fastest technologies for everyone’s benefit, which is a Computer Network that allows computing devices to communicate with each other without being connected through physical communications medium, such as networking cable or any involvement of wire. It is usually reply upon radio communication and wireless Network are implemented at the physical layer which is Layer 1 of the OSI model. The importance of wireless security is that it is all in one person under control. The owner can control it from anywhere nearby, without any need of wire or cable. Some of the reasons are, trusted video security solutions, commitment to quality with superior service, for personal protection.
    Wireless technologies use radio frequency transmission as the means for transmitting data, whereas wired technologies use cables. Wireless technologies range from complex system, such as WLAN which is Wireless Local Area Network, when we use cell phones and have wireless headphones, through the use of Bluetooth to listen to songs, and other small devices that does not require wire. moreover, we also have, WPA which is wireless Access Point, is hardware device that allows properly equipped computing device to connect wirelessly to a network. Which can be used through router including a radio transceiver to enable wireless communication with client, and where we all use it every single day, commonly known as Wi-Fi. The transport mechanism between devices connect can also have impact on the all devices that connected to each other and any information can be shared easily through this process. Encryption is one of the major subject to talk about in wireless security, Because, all wireless computers are radio transmitters and receivers , anyone can listen to the information that are being transfer or received, that’s why it’s important to have encryption enable on wireless network. So, that way even if the other people hears about the information, they would not be able to see the information. Only people will have access are the ones with proper passwords or proper wireless configuration.
    Another major topic in wireless network is Hacking. For example, if you connect to public network, it can be easily intercepted by cybercriminal, where your personal data could be at risk. Whenever there is free public wi-fi, once you connect to these fake network everything you do online is monitor by cybercriminal. Who can scan your activity such as social media log in information. Cybercriminal can even easily transfer viruses, or other unnecessary software to your computer. That can cause serious damage to your computer and can get through your personal information.


    Biersdorfer, J. “The Security of Cellular Connections.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 Aug. 2018, http://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/10/technology/personaltech/security-wifi-lte-data.html.

  4. Name: Shuaixiang Feng
    ENG 2575 OL70
    Professor Ellis
    Subject: D2D communication

    1. Following the increased number of devices, we require for a faster, extensive, and reliable network. In fact, 5G network can satisfy the demand.
    2. D2D communication used for the “physical proximity” of communication devices. In D2D communication, devices will skip the indirect connection between device to Base Station and direct connect with another device.
    3. D2D communication is a versatile person. Such as it contributes a lot in the concept of IoT.
    4. “D2D functionality supports high baud rates and reduces latency between devices, making it particularly important in meeting the standards set for 5G network deployment.” Especially for resource utilization and security aspect.
    5. The authors discuss the D2D is one of the most potential wireless communication technologies in the 5G network.
    6. The main feature of the D2D communication make different with traditional communication is avoid the Base Station or Access Point if two devices enough close.
    7. The authors list 4 possibilities to explain the difference between traditional wireless communication and D2D communication in a two-layer 5G cellular network.
    8. The first part is devices must establish connection with Base Station at first that they can make a connection with others. The second part is devices also controlled by Base Station, but they direct connect with other because of D2D communication.
    9. The third part of image means devices require much more relays to transfer source to destination if the connection without inclusion the Base Station. The Fourth of image show 2 devices still direct connecting without Base Station.
    10. In the recent decade, such as WIFI and Bluetooth those offer some D2D communication functions in our life, but they are working in a non-licensed and insecurity scope.
    11. D2D classification can be described as Out Band and In Band, also Underlay, Overlay, and Cellular Mode are including in In Band.
    12. D2D communication has more advantages besides the higher security and reduction of costs. It has better coverage, great speed of data transmission, reliable communication, using the same radio frequency transfer more data than others, higher energy efficiency, heterogenous linkage, and low latency.
    13. The authors state 5G network is an implementation of a heterogenous network of using numerous technologies include D2D communication.
    14. For improving resistance to noise and the system capacity, the D2D communication adds to the HetNets and massive MIMO of the enabled BS.
    15. In the future, D2D network focus on developing sensors and sensor-base systems which contribute to expand IoT.
    16. D2D networks can be used in M2M communication in IoT for responses in real time and support a low latency. Also, the D2D communication can contribute to IoT in smart city as its efficient usage of radio source and small energy cost. Further, between the vehicle-to-vehicle data transmission of data sharing, D2D communication can be used for the V2V communication.
    17. Following the advantage of D2D communication in 5G, it can be used for so many areas, such as local service, case of emergency, and enhancing IoT.
    18. On the basic functions of D2D application, users may find each other for using social application and transmission data.
    19. Services on HD video recording device set high requirements for the base network and the spectrum resources. Therefore, D2D enable in reducing the transmission pressure of network.
    20. In the area of network may be crash of natural disasters, the D2D communication can assist to establish the emergency network in a short time.
    21. In the IoT aspects, such as an auto-driving car, D2D communication can assist car system connect with front car to calculate the distance further slow down or keep the speed.
    22. D2D technology has numerous of advantages but security aspect also its disadvantage.
    23. Between two devices established connection by D2D, devices need to detect each other, establish the connection and data transmission. During established phase, there is no application for the verification of the identity of the device, the attacker may carry out attacks during this phase.
    24. The authors of the paper identify the potential security vulnerabilities and classify the attacks, such as Impersonation and IP Spoofing those may create a serious security threat.
    25. The authors research on the characteristics of DoS attacks in the D2D network and it can damage or even completely block the connecting of devices in the network.
    26. D2D necessary to enhance the regular security system prepared for every threats.
    27. Symmetric key cryptography is one of great way to improve the D2D network security.
    28. The cryptography of the elliptical curve, AES-128 and access points are used for protecting the privacy of users of D2D communication model.
    29. The author of the paper discusses a suppression of attacks targeted at the user man in the middle.
    30. Currently, D2D security are created by many of cryptographic algorithms such as Diffie-Hellman and River Shamir Adleman.
    31. The optimal energy consumption and a great access D2D link channel will contribute to increase in the mobile services and the physical layer security.
    32. D2D is one of the key technologies in 5G network which enable to support a low latency, fast transmission speed, wide coverage, and low energy consumption.
    33. D2D communication is new wireless technology which can reduce the load on the network and become a new social networking tool.
    34. Providing complete security is a main question on D2D communication. The authors discuss security threats and offer some solutions, but it is difficult to achieve because of the mechanisms used for authentication vary.

    [1] Čaušević, Samir, Adisa Medić, and Nedžad Branković. “D2D Technology Implementation in 5G Network and the Security Aspect: A Review.” 2021-05-27, TEM Journal 10.2 (2021): p.987–995. Web.

  5. From: Mohammed Sakib Islam
    ENG 2575 OL70
    To: Professor Ellis
    Subject: Reverse Outline

    1. Whilst making a functioning electric vehicle, safe and sustainable battery technologies could be denoted as the prior important thing to be noted of.
    2. This tech is going to be on demand to fulfil Europe’s transition towards a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy.
    3. To guarantee the safety and sustainability of customers of Europe, Government and Industry needs to come together into making a certain list of testing procedures to ensure safety of customers.
    4. Testing a certain battery before launching into the market and making sure it needs no correction which could have an impact on customers is a crucial step to follow.
    5. If a battery can be hazardous to customers testing are done in controlled environments so that further improvements can be done before deployment into the market.
    6. EVs are the next big thing to “Go Green” for the environment and to make sure their lifespan is up to the mark testing of batteries can be defined as an important procedure to ensure the battery’s lifespan.
    7. The testing procedures are set up to a certain international level standard that can keep up to the mark of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
    8. Several examples of IEC and ISO standards are given to give a brief specification on the need for testing of batteries.
    9. EUROBAT and the JRC-IET both have the same belief that all the batteries are manufactured under a certain set of standards worldwide before assembling it into an EV to ensure safety.
    10. To raise awareness at an international and a national level EUROBAT worked in collaboration with EU institutes, and they even took part in formal meetings between European and Chinese regulators to increase their awareness on safety.
    10. EUROBAT and JRC-IET came to sign a Memorandum of Understanding which dictates their cooperation in research of battery performance test and evaluation along with regulations for clean, efficient, and safe electricity storage particularly for transport.
    11. Cooperation from mutual partners results in better opportunities to face issues during battery testing to ensure that the issues can be addressed in BESTEST’s battery testing activities.
    12. EUROBAT and the JRC-IET came to an understanding that such collaboration can lead to a better future of Europe’s transition to a low-carbon economy along with a much better relationship between US and Europe can be grown regarding the safety of batteries in EV before deployment into the market.

    [1] A. Westgeest and L. Brett, “Improving safety and performance testing for EV batteries,” 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013, pp. 1-4, doi:10.1109/EVS.2013.6914940

  6. 1. Computer systems have many vulnerable points with the most vulnerable aspect being the system administrators.
    2. A very common attack is known as a man-at-the-end attack (MATE) is performed via tampering based on information obtained by reverse engineering (which is highly illegal).
    3. In order to stop these types of attacks from occurring, we try our best to ensure all items are in proper order by verifying their signature.
    4. We implement obfuscation in order to prevent (or at least slow down) the reverse engineering process and to preserve integrity of the software.
    5. In order for a MATE attack to process, the malicious user must get their hands on the software and is required to reverse engineer it but with software protection being implemented, it makes their task much harder.
    6. Utilizing a MATE attack could be just something to assist you from paying your bills to something catastrophic especially when is it utilized as a terroristic attack.
    7. Today, the video gaming market is one of the most significant aspects of the US economy but with cheaters producing their own virtual in-game item (which has value in the real world), they essentially devalue the economy as a whole.
    8. The major issue with these attacks is that all of our information is stored digitally including military secrets and if someone could get their hands on this information especially if it is an outside party, could cause severe damage to us.
    9. Software protection isn’t a full-proof way to stop these sorts of attacks, it only delays the inevitable.
    10. There are four basic categories in which software protection falls under: code obfuscation, tamper-proofing, watermarking and birthmarking.
    11. Code obfuscation makes it much harder to reverse-engineer software.
    12. Tamper-proofing has the basic purpose of ensuring the file has not been modified in any such way via implemented checks.
    13. Watermarking allows for a fingerprint on the software indicating who is the owner of said reverse-engineered software and is often times combined with tamper-proofing
    14. In a sequence of articles, Mariano Ceccato and Paolo Tonella wrote an article detailing a concept which allow the client to have a stub which when ran would stream the real code from the server to the client but each time it would be streamed, it would be mutated so that you could never pull the original code out.
    15. Following that article’s release, another article was developed showcasing the new Trusted Platform Module chips which are found regularly on computers these days and allow for more effective use of tamper-resistance.
    16. As a method to avoid others from stealing proprietary code, open-source development allowed for a license in-place to prevent others from stealing your code.
    17. Since code didn’t have a proper means to be copyrighted, a new license was introduced which was a service license based on ODRL-S.
    18. While software protection is a must these days, the major downside is performance taking a hit when using many security methods.

    [1] Falcarin, Paolo et al. “Software Protection.” IEEE software 28.2 (2011): 24–27.

  7. Name: Ulises Mora
    To: Professor Ellis
    ENG 2575 OL70
    Subject: Reverse Outline about animation design.

    1. Lately, the opportunity to program in 3D environments through, video games or programs, allows children and any audience that is a student in the fields of computing, have an additional opportunity to learn, engage and see programming as something more dynamic and effective.
    2. Mostly of the time, the people who have more interaction with 3D animations, are those who end up interested in programming; but when they start to study it and go in depth, they realize that programming is just a part that does not meet their expectations.
    3. The authors sought a high number of 2D and 3D programmers and teachers to create video games and simulations in order to complete a study.
    4. There are differences, and advantages between 2D and 3D. They are mainly related by three things in computing which would be ownership, spatial thinking, and synchronicity.
    5. Through ownership, it stands out as motivation. If there is no motivation or interest, students simply will not succeed in a programming or computing fields.
    6. Through the 2D drawing editor “AgentSheets,” many students were interested in programming because it was something they made themselves, regardless of the draw resolution or such a basic animation; since it does not exceed the resolution in 3D, the students were satisfied.
    7. Using a 3D editor is much more complex and contains a professional interface which makes it difficult to start using it.
    8. The authors implement a model to create an editor in a way to draw in 2D and then inflate the drawing to convert it to 3D, dissimilar in complexity from simply just using a 3D editor.
    9. Many students found motivation in creating 3D models that were not systematic but mostly basic in shapes. Teachers were unhappy about this program called “AgentCubes” because students spent so much time creating these models.
    10. For being able to create 3D video games and 3D models, inflating 2D images is not enough; students must do more to understand the three dimensions through spatial thinking.
    11. Students have not had so much discomfort in controlling the camera and design in three dimensions, this is due to the experience they have had in different-sophisticated 3D video games.
    12. In some cases, 3D design can be easier than 2D design depending on the type of game programming errors that go unnoticed.
    13. But in 2D these errors can cost a lot, since they can end with lag and low performance.
    14. 3D visualization is essential for better performance. Students should not settle for only programming codes but also think about possible errors.
    15. Syntonicity is an important term to understand that, in order for people to be able to program, they must conduct themselves onto the object. Becoming what you want in order to build would help to complete this task and understand the object.
    16. The authors implemented a program in which the syntonicity was used so that the children understood in first person mode what the program would feel or live since the formulation of the codes would be complicated and, in this way, it would be easier to interpret.
    17. Therefore, they created a syntonicity of the “AgentTalk” program, in which the commands that it gave were given in the first person mode so that the addresses would sound as if you were the one who had to give them.
    18. Beginning programmers loved this program, but advanced ones disliked because of the amount of unnecessary command voices.
    19. The authors decided to implement a syntonicity in their own “Agent-Cubes” program so that all programmers were comfortable to use it.
    20. A high resolution for the development of 3D animation is important for the motivation of computer students. Additionally, a teaching implementation that is dynamic and does not bore the student.
    21. A very high number of students have helped “AgentCubes Online,” a 3D modeling and visual browser-online tool for programmers.
    [1] A. Repenning et al., “Beyond Minecraft: Facilitating Computational Thinking through Modeling and Programming in 3D,” in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 68-71, May-June 2014, doi: 10.1109/MCG.2014.46.

  8. From: Ron Bepat
    ENG 2575 OL70
    To: Professor Ellis
    Subject: Reverse Outline
    Topic/Major: CST, Cyber Security & Networking

    1. Cyber security is the protection of an individual’s information from hackers, and it has improved as time went on for many different fields of work.
    2. the increasing importance of Cyber protection has gone up as of today as more attacks have plagued the cyber space. As technology advances there are still many vulnerabilities that are created throughout the years.
    3. Many new doors opened as the cyber space have been building up however many attacks online to different societies have suffered in the cyber space. Great changes are coming to understand the importance of security.
    4. Different ways have been created to prevent any future cyber-attacks these ways aren’t foul proof but they’re helpful. Businesses are required to go through yearly (or frequent) updates to their Networks.
    5. Governments started to focus on cyber security and examined what the situation has become for example with Russian hackers creating havoc during the Presidential Elections. With the increase usage of the internet in the modern day it has been basically implemented to many people’s daily lives.
    6. Governments around the world are warned about the constant cybers attacks by the NCSS or National Cyber Security strategies to make sure cyber risks are reduced.
    7. A United States government entity called NATO, or the Northern Alliance Treaty Organization has the purpose to help protect NATO countries in cyber-attacks and risks. They regulate policies around the internet to make sure NATO countries aren’t attacked.
    8. Some countries may be powerful in national security in fields such as land sea and air but have tend to neglect the importance of Cyber security. Hackers would see these vulnerabilities and take advantage of the situation.
    9. The internet as gone through constant changes over the years this had made it even harder for many people to protect themselves. To figure out how hackers are disrupting the flow of the internet cyber security professionals would have to understand the logistics of hackers and use the same tools hackers use to figure out solutions to protect themselves from these threats.
    10. There is not much regulation as it appears to be on the internet but there are military cyber experts cracking down on hackers. It is important for the internet to have a military presence observing the networks for suspicious activities.
    11. Network penetration tools are all over the internet to manipulate people’s data if a country has no cyber deterrence to protect themselves then they will have to plan out how they will protect their country from cyber-attacks.
    12. Legal action must be taken to stop cyber criminals from running rampant on the internet because one of the top threats in the modern day are cyber-attacks.
    13. If there were more policies to protect users and more regulation on the internet to protect users then the internet would be safer. Cyber-deterrence should be encouraged but many people would think the internet would not be as “free” if the cyber-deterrence policies were made.

    Senol, Mustafa, and Ertugrul Karacuha. “Creating and Implementing an Effective and Deterrent National Cyber Security Strategy.” Gale Academic ONEFILE, 30 June 2020, go-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T002&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&hitCount=1170&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm¤tPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CA632058071&docType=Article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=ZONE-MOD1&prodId=AONE&pageNum=1&contentSet=GALE%7CA632058071&searchId=R7&userGroupName=cuny_nytc&inPS=true.

  9. Memo To: Prof. Ellis
    From: Hamzat Olowu
    Date: Sep. 19, 2021
    ENG 2575 OL70
    Reverse Outline
    1. The complexity of programming projects led to the popularity of the Object-oriented programming (OOP) approach, this because the approach breaks down a complex problem into smaller, simpler problems that are isolated and solved. This makes OOP approach much easier to understand and read.
    2. OOP quickly rose to fame after it was devised, the invention of C++ and Object Pascal made the concept break into the technical community and more articles have been written that surrounds the OOP approach.
    3. OOP is an important concept and should be taught to upcoming programmers before the traditional programming concept becomes old news.
    4. Applications without OOP concepts are not as consistent and as flexible as the ones made with OOP concept, this is making programming more difficult because technologies will always keep expanding and the current approach to programming can’t keep up.
    5. OOP has many benefits, not only for programmers but for the users as well, these benefits include manipulating objects easily, system-level services users don’t know about, and control of apps with scripts.
    6. For developers, using OOP will allow them to improve productivity and development of graphical interface will become easier.
    7. Although a power user will not recognize the programming concepts they will still realize that problems are easier to solve and their jobs is easier.
    8. General business programmer will have a better time when developing graphical based application and database applications, because they will be developing these applications with ease unlike before.
    9. Systems-level developer are the ones that fully understands the full capabilities of OOP, through that they will contribute the most to the expansion of the computing industry.
    10. Traditional procedural programs are too linear in nature to be used when there is interaction with the user or other programs.
    11. Traditional programming can get repetitive when trying to accomplish the same task but on different objects like delete character, delete word and delete paragraphs.
    12. A difference between the traditional approach and the OOP approach is that the object is selected first before the action in OOP approach.
    13. Object-oriented approach files know how to display themselves regardless of its format.
    14. The primary approach to OOP is to enclose data into what is known as classes, which are a group of objects sharing the same methods and information. Classes can have subclasses that inherits data and methods from the parent classes, this concept is called Inheritance.
    15. This makes it possible to reuse software codes which simplifies integration of other applications which also increases productivity while decreasing programming time.
    [1] Hinsch, Kathryn, et al, (1990). “Object-oriented programming: its role in computing,” Library Software Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 18+, Jan.-Feb. 1990. Gale Academic OneFile.

  10. To: Professor Ellis
    From: Jiaqi Huang
    Date: Sep.20, 2021
    Subject: 500-words summary about the SYVR system.

    1. The SYVR virtual assembly 5g integrated system has multiple functions, it can construct stable virtual scenarios, capturing multidimensional industrial data, simulate virtual assembly process, and presenting the data visualization result based on its physical simulation which can save time and cost, create more value, improve the quality of product and more efficiency for industrial areas.
    2. With the 5G high-speed networks, mainstream VR graphic engines are mainly focused on games, movies, and education areas, the results achieved in industry areas are slightly less and can not meet demand, and are not being diverse enough.
    3. The performance of virtual technology with 5g high-speed networks in virtual manufacture industries are not mature enough and there are many important problems that need to be solved, like the transfer of the real-time data, the generation and visual display under high-speed networks, the build models in a virtual sense, and the implementation of high-level physical simulation techniques, etc.
    4. The system can build virtual environments by using realistic physics simulation and real-time rendering techniques for various industries.
    5. We can adjust data in real-time, present complex scenes, and build the interactive system under the 5g high-speed network environment.
    6. The industrial virtual manufacturing system can import models, process data, and provide visual presentations to users.
    7. The SYVR engine saves a lot of time and cost and brings more value to industrial production and the equipment manufacturing fields by providing virtual test and design simulation because it can construct virtual experiment scene based multi-dimensional industrial data input and processing, also can show user effect in visual and create interactive simulation system but all these functions need to under the 5g high-speed network and the virtual environment.
    8. The SYVR system supported real-time operation guidance, daily inspection, dynamic 3D production display, and employee training which means users can get enough training in the simulation of the realistic industrial production line so as to reduce the number of accidents and improve the quality of products with higher efficiency.
    9. One of the advantages of the SYVR system is it can provide a high quality of industrial VR/AR while keeping the high bandwidth and low delay based on its strong calculation and real-time simulation, it also can build the industrial digital application system by using its data simulation platform to help 5g high-speed network make contribute in different areas.
    10. The development of 5g high-speed network technology also can help the SYVR system make advances on its high-performance industrial real-time simulation graphics rendering engine so that they have a higher level of simulation effects.
    11. The SYVR project can improve the safety and correct percentage of key operation by using its functions like virtual operation guidelines, daily inspections, 3D display of production processes, and real-time data visualization effects and the need of this system also can speed up the development of 5g virtual technology which expand its applied in industrial, medical areas.

    Y. Liu, Y. Tang, J. Zhao, O. Sun, M. Lv and L. Yang, “5G+VR industrial technology application,” 2020 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization (ICVRV), 2020, pp. 336-337, doi: 10.1109/ICVRV51359.2020.00090.

  11. Name: Shemei John
    To: Professor Ellis
    ENG 2575 OL70
    Subject: Reverse Outline

    1.Information Technology has proven the use of its existence in each and every aspect of our society.
    2.Through the sharing of information, technology is even more important for distance learning, as a result of the covid-19.
    3.The pros of distance learning are beneficial in that it challenges the individual to grow and mature by learning differently from the classroom.
    4.Since learning is based on this whole premise of information, we benefit greatly from the use of technology in our homes, schools and workplace environments.
    5.It is imperative for the use of technology to become standard criteria for anyone, and self-taught/Self reliance is the greatest tool to learn anything.
    6.Some areas of the debate, however, needs further investigation.
    7.Innovation in technology and it’s use in education works hand-in-hand with educators and students who are in tuned with the latest of technology devices.
    8.Even though they are a lot of pros for technological learning, keeping the methods we used in the past or even now are still beneficial to our society.
    9. Never has teaching and learning been more profitable than it is today because of the rise and use of technology like our internet.
    10.Not having the right or no technological support can hinder or put most institutions in a deficit.
    11.The entire goal is to improve and progress not just to solve today’s problems but also tomorrows.
    12.innovation in technology can help us achieve this goal faster, competently and effectively.
    13.Innovative education is like a nuance that grows and changes with out every changing world.
    14. Innovation is education and educating is progress.

    15.If a state’s success if determines by its innovation then the same can be said about the technological innovation of our education.
    16.Research is currently being done to determine better ways to motivate educators towards technological innovations.
    17.Indepent individual work, through the use of information technology, has proven beneficial through a group of students who were given asynchronous work.
    18.The necessity of computers and the use of information technology in teaching and educational purpose is imperative in today’s times.
    19.educational methods are changing or updating since the introduction of information technology.
    20.Every professional should have foundational principals of communication and informational technologies.
    21.Our technological advances may have modernized society but the most influential effect is as of recent or current events in our world.

    [1] V., Nemchenkol, G., Pchelianska, T., Markova, O., Volodina, “INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE USE OF INNOVATIVE TEACHING METHODS – AS A TOOL FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.” Academic Search complete (EBSCO) on Food Industry Economics. 2021, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p105-111. 7p.

  12. TO: Prof. Ellis
    FROM: Norbert Derylo
    DATE: Sept 22, 2021
    SUBJECT: Big Data in Cloud Computing Reverse Outline

    1.A major challenge of working with big data is using cloud computing.
    2.Cloud computing provides many benefits that can help with big data.
    3.The study focuses on the various interactions between cloud computing and big data.
    4.Big data is data that is difficult to store due to its volume and variety.
    5.Big data can be described with four metrics: volume, variety, velocity, value.
    6.Big data can be classified by five aspects: data sources, content format, data stores, data staging, data processing.
    7.Each classification of data has its own characteristics and complexities.
    8.Cloud computing is the next generation of computing in professional settings.
    9.Cloud computing has many advantages over current computing methods.
    10.The increased popularity of wireless devices has allowed cloud computing to become extremely useful.
    11.Cloud computing and big data work hand-in-hand.
    12.Cloud computing is the base on which big data thrives and expands.
    13.Due to the variety of big data, different forms of cloud computing will not work for all forms of big data.
    14.The two sets of data on the relationship between big data and cloud computing come from scholarly sources and the different vendors of cloud computing.
    15.Case studies from vendors demonstrate the extensive variety of research that uses cloud computing.
    16.Swift Key used cloud computing to scale its services for demand.
    17.343 Industries used cloud computing to make their game more enjoyable.
    18.redBus used cloud computing to improve customer service for online bus ticketing.
    19.Nokia used cloud computing to process petabytes of data from their phone network.
    20.Alacer used cloud computing to improve response times to system outages.
    21.Scholar studies also used cloud computing for big data projects.
    22.Scholars studying DNA have used cloud computing to dramatically increase the speed at which they analyze DNA sequences.
    23.A case study showed that cloud computing can acquire and analyze extremely large data sources, for example data from social media.
    24.A study of microscopic images used cloud computing to submit data processing jobs the the cloud.
    25.A study used cloud computing to show that you can use cloud computing as a backup to massive failures of other computing services.
    26.Big data storage is another constraint to the computing of its data.
    27.There are various different storage technologies that all have their advantages and disadvantages.
    28.Hadoop is a project that focuses on processing big data while storing it at the same time.
    29.HDFS is the part of Hadoop that allows for large storage that is quickly accessed.
    30.MapReduce is the part of Hadoop that allows computers to quickly process data into the cloud.
    31.MapReduce is the preferred method of computation model due to the speed and its scalability.
    32.Cloud computing is still in its early stages and can be improved.
    33.Scalability is important in cloud computing and is why some programs are chosen over others.
    34.NoSQL databases are extremely flexible and easily scalable making it popular.
    35.Availability is how easy data can be accessed and is a concern in cloud computing.
    36.Data integrity is a data security concern and can be a concern in cloud computing as well.
    37.Transforming big data for analysis is a challenge and one of the reasons big data is not as popular as it should be.
    38.Data quality can be quite variable and cause concerns with big data.
    39.Big data allows for various different sources of data which might not follow the same structure.
    40.Privacy is one of the biggest concerns of cloud storage.
    41.Encryption is the most popular way to keep cloud data safe.
    42.Data that is encrypted is not scalable and the computation time used for it is not practical for big data.
    43.Another possible solution is using programs to determine how to give out data to prevent leaks.
    44.Due to cloud data being used world wide, there can be legal issues due to different laws in different countries.
    45.Governance of big data is important due to the nature of the data being collected.
    46.Currently there is a recommendation to balance risk exposure and value creation with big data.
    47.Although studies have addressed multiple issues with cloud computing, there are few tools that can patch up the problems.
    48.Data staging is an issue involving the various different formats big data collects.
    49.There have been solutions to improve distributed storage systems, however they dont fix all the problems with optimization and accessibility.
    50.The current algorithms from data analysis are too unoptimized for the scalability of big data.
    51.Data security still and always will be an ongoing problem in cloud computing and big data.

    Hashem, I. A. T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N. B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A., & Ullah Khan, S. “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information Systems” Information Systems. 2015 Vol. 47, p98–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.is.2014.07.006

  13. To: Professor. J. Ellis
    From: Quazi Hedayet
    Date: September 22, 2021
    Subject: Security in Social Networking Reverse Outline

    1.Various sorts of social networks are used by millions around the world because they empower people to interact with family members and friends while also collaborating and sharing personal data.
    2. Platforms for social networking have long been thought to be simple to use. This is why social media sites are gaining popularity and capacity at an enormous speed. The fundamental components of social networks, as well as the domains in which they play a significant role.
    3. Social networking can be utilized for a variety of purposes, including enjoyment, business development, professional advancement, social skill development, and improving interpersonal relationships with others.
    4. Day by day the security is getting stronger which is really good.
    5. New technology and the integrity, confidentiality, and usefulness of all software and hardware technologies used in computer networks and data makes people’s lives easier.
    6. Protect the security more often and manage the privacy setting, hide personal information and use strong passwords.
    7. Hackers can not hack accounts and it’s saving the person from the threat.
    8. Data from digital platforms gathers information on people’s social behavior.
    9. Nowadays social media is really popular and some groups of gangs are trying to play bad influences.
    10.The advancement of key enabling technologies for recognizing and assessing security events, such as natural language processing, social network analysis, location inference and geospatial analysis, and picture or video interpretation and visual analysis.


    Han, Z., Li, S., Cui, C., Han, D., & Song H. (2019). Geosocial Media as a Proxy for Security: A Review. IEEE Access, 7, 154224-154238. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2949115

  14. Name: Bryan Hill
    ENG 2575 OL70
    Memo to Professor Ellis

    1) Technology is becoming a bigger and bigger part of our everyday lives, especially in first-world countries such as America.

    2)The use of technology has an adverse effect compared to its definition.

    3) Technology is beginning to shape how we go about in forming, developing and strengthening relationships.

    4) The growth of technology has been frantic and hectic as there was no official guideline on how to properly use and establish it.

    5) All aspects of modern technology, both negative and positive, need to be known and understood fully for it to be utilized to its fullest potential.

    6) The issue with the widespread use of modern technology is that it leads to a plethora of problems including the spreading of false information.

    7)Research on modern technology includes knowing the negatives, understanding the upswing of technology use, seeing the correlation between technology use and passage of time, and establishing ways to reduce the negative impacts that modern technology has on society.

    8) The research being done looks to accomplish increasing the knowledge and understanding of positive modern technological techniques to the betterment of society.

    9) The rapid growth and use of modern technology has led to hectic relationships via social uses.

    10) The ease of access that people have to other people across the world, a positive on its own, has led almost directly to self-isolation.

    11) The strongest effect modern technology has had on society seems to be split between the speed and efficiency that we can stay up to date with our information, and the fact that it has left us socially and emotionally distant from one another as a society.

    12) The negative effects of technology on society and families are plentiful. Families are hit financially, emotionally, spiritually and mentally, as well as having to deal with the fact that the growth of children becomes stunted.

    13) To balance and counteract these negative effects, families have to find the happy medium between the use of technology and the physical and spiritual positives of spending time with each other.

    14) In 2002, Khulafi determined that internet users choose to focus more on the practical and positive uses of the internet versus the negative aspects.

    15) Lailah determined that family interactions were chipped away through modern technological uses, which play a major negative part.

    16) Bryant had determined in their studies that there was little to no crossover in friendships made over the internet via social media and friendships made in person.

    17) Al Aga confirmed that the use of technology is dependent on the behavior of the individual at hand: delinquents will use the technology given to them for negative purposes.

    18) Al-Majali’s studies of Jordinian students determined that they mainly use the technology given to them to further their studies.

    19) Al-Gammal sought out to engineer modern technology and the usage of it to promote moral values among the youth.

    20) In conclusion, technology must be used for the betterment of society as a whole, but in order to achieve that, all parties involved must come together in an universal understanding of what it takes to achieve it.


    [1] Mohammad Bani Younes and Samer Al-Zoubi, “The impact of technology on societies: a review,” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vol.20 issue.2 version.5, pp 82-86, 2015

  15. TO: Prof. Ellis
    FROM: Rameen Khan
    DATE: Sep, 23, 2021
    SUBJECT: Operating System (Reverse Outline)

    1. An operating system is the primary software that manages all the hardware and other software on a computer. The operating system, also known as an “OS,” interfaces with the computer’s hardware and provides services that applications can use.
    2. An operating system is the core set of software on a device that keeps everything together.

    3. Operating systems communicate with the device’s hardware. They handle everything from your keyboard and mice to the Wi-Fi radio, and storage devices.

    4. The SoCLC, SoCDDU, and SoCDMMU are among the RTOS hardware IP accessible in the framework. In a shared memory multiprocessor SoC, the SoCLC stores lock variables in a separate lock cache outside the memory system, decreasing lock latency, lock delay, and bandwidth usage.

    5. A SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP (SoC) architecture with reconfigurable logic and multiple processing elements sharing a common memory.

    6. An operating system handles input and output devices. Operating systems use device drivers written by hardware creators to communicate with their devices.

    7. In general, an operating system (OS) is in responsible for managing a computer’s hardware resources and hosting applications that run on the device.

    8. An RTOS (Real Time Operating System) performs these functions while also being uniquely designed to run programs with high accuracy timing and a high degree of consistency.

    9. Applications invoke these routines through the use of specific system calls. This underlying structure and its design are called the system architecture.

    10. The kernel mode components of Windows 10 include: Windowing and graphics- implements the windowing interface or GUI.

    11. The hardware/software partitioning process is a critical component of the codesign technique. It is involved with determining whose functions will be implemented in hardware components and which will be implemented in software components.

    12. This partitioning technique seeks to identify the best exchange among competing criteria in order to enhance software quality.

    13. SoC target operating model that address people, Processes and technology, along with business-aligned goals and applicable metrics.

    14. A SoC provides centralization and consolidated cybersecurity incident prevention, security event monitoring, detection and response capabilities, and supports other in business unit requirements.

    15. This research helps security and risk management leaders’ identity the best SoC model for their organization

    16. Conclusion: In case of computers, the entire hardware is supplied varying voltages due to which different components get activated at the same or different time instances and achieve a task. The entire sequence of events that occur for hardware and software interaction is under the control of OS. All the driver software helps the OS to communicate with the hardware, to execute the application software. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner.

    [1] V. J. Mooney, “Hardware/software partitioning of operating systems [SoC applications],” 2003 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, 2003, pp. 338-339, doi: 10.1109/DATE.2003.1253630.

  16. To: Professor Ellis
    From: Jun Gao
    Date: Sept 22, 2021
    Subject: Reverse Outline
    Topic/Major: CST, Cyber Security & Networking

    1. There has been a rise in different variants of Android malware and there needs to be new and improved methods to combat this malware.
    2. There is this new tool developed called DroidMorph.
    3. Multiple reports have stated that Androids are still the main target of malware attacks with malwares cloning themselves and there are a lot of data to support that claim.
    4. Malware creators use stealthy mutations to make clones of malwares.
    5. To combat malware clones, we need to study how they are generated.
    6. DroidMorph is a Android APK morphing tool, which can be used to create Android application clones.
    7. It turns out that even top of the line anti-malware programs are susceptible to attack by these transformations.
    8. They tested 10 anti malware programs and repetitive transformations were used to fool the anti-malware program.
    9. During the tests, it was discovered that AntiY AVL which is a anti malware, performed better than the others.
    10. Protsenko et al tested against data and object-oriented design obfuscations against the top 10 anti malware and found inadequacy in them all.
    11. These four examples of anti-malware testing proved that all of them have some deficiencies and it is time to introduce the tool DroidMorph.
    12. Droidmorph is implemented on the Soot Framework which is an improvement over the old implementations.
    13. Droidmorph provides support for analysis, modification, and generation of Android bytecode.
    14. Droidmorph provides morphing of APK at different levels of abstraction.
    15. Figure shows the archtitectural design of DroidMorph.
    16. The current design of DroidMorph has three levels of abstrations when it comes to morphing, class, method and body.
    17. They conducted a study to analyze the efficiency of DroidMorph.
    18. The dataset has 848 Android malware programs which was collected from two different sources.
    19. They explained in table 1 it shows distribution of the malware samples.
    20. Table shows the number of variants generated for each level of abstraction.
    21. Table 3 shows the detection results of the 17 commercial anti-malware programs tested with 1771 variants of 7 malware families generated by DroidMorph.
    22. Results show that 8 out of 17 anti-malware programs could not detect any morphed APKs.
    23. End results show that DroidMorph was successful in bypassing the security in multiple anti-malware programs.
    24. DroidMorph’s detection average proved to be significantly better than many antimalware programs.
    25. DroidMorph and the research into developing and improving the program is still a work in progress.
    26. With the development of DroidMorph and its ability to morph different malware into different clones, the developers hope that DroidMorph will be used in the future for research of new malwares and their clones.
    27. In the future, there will be many more improvements and updates that will be made to DroidMorph, hopefully making it the industry standard for fighting malware and its clones.

    S. Alam, M. Z. ul Abideen and S. Saleem, “DroidMorph: Are We Ready to Stop the Attack of Android Malware Clones?,” 2018 2nd International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT), 2018, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ISMSIT.2018.8567059.

  17. TO: Prof. Ellis
    FROM: Haider Ali
    DATE: Nov 10, 2021
    SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Article About Humans and Robots

    The following is a 500-word synopsis of a studied article about humans and robots.

    Machines have replaced men, and they assist us in every field of our lives, including helping us to drive safe, be more active and intelligent. Robots are human-made and not to replace humans. They aid in lifting heavy subjects, accounting for mass numbers and all that the human mind can’t do quickly and effectively. Human beings are more creative, sharp and intelligent; walking side by side with robots will help both improve their capabilities. Time is not so far when robots will be as expected and as essential as today’s smartphones and computers. Technologies that compose themselves within the demand of daily life and can’t be separated through them lead to rule the system just like robots will do.

    Article 2:
    There are fewer jobs left for humans, and robots occupy more space. Being more active and up to mark, they perform perfectly as compared to human beings. Every business prefers machines to save time, money, and energy with zero fear of failures. Old days are gone when man used to build cars, and nowadays heavy appliance is created by machines, they are fitted with Artificial Intelligence that helps develop and run the vehicle. Few people are now settled down for jobs in banks and commercial areas as computers and machines like ATMs efficiently do human beings work. Writers are also being replaced by new software that autogenerates the required text.NASA has developed artificial astronauts that helps them to gather information at different levels. Drones are also used to collect pictorial details. Robots can’t replace artists as they deal in creativity, imagination and natural emotional-based content. Creativity is God gifted and only comes with the power of the soul and not the mind. Robots fail to deal with the relations and their sensitivity, as they are emotionless and can’t beat humans in expressing emotions. Empathy, flexibility, trust and acceptability are the basic three eras where humans left robots and machines far behind. Robots are very flexible as they keep on updating themselves and keep on accepting the change. We human beings are more likely to get used to all these machines involved directly in our daily lives. We can’t imagine a day without them as they have served us with infinite comfort, ease and accessibility to count on them whenever we use them.

    Reference articles:
    1. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/fora94&div=85&id=&page=
    2. https://medium.com/digital-reflections/humans-vs-robots-bfbad96c678c

  18. To: Professor Ellis
    From: Edwin Ascencio
    Date: 9/22/21
    Subject: Deep Space Exploration Space Transportation Systems and Control Technology Reverse Outline

    1. Space exploration is important to human resources development because it will encourage us to advance space science and technology. Space transportation system, guidance, and control technologies development are required to be optimal for space exploration.
    2. The strategy that the US was using had lead space science and technology into investigating new energy system and demonstrating that Space Exploration is a primary objective.
    3. Since the late 1950s space exploration activities have been carried out with other countries participating and creating their own objectives.
    4. Space exploration are partners with international cooperation and organization. They hope to make space exploration cost efficient and explore deeper in space.
    5. China’s Lunar exploration contained 3 mission that used Long March 3A(transportation system) and it successfully carried out its mission.
    6. China’s main goal is to explore the sun and other planets for space science.
    7. Space transportation consist of rockets, and Reusable Launch Vehicles to enter space.
    8. US use a specific pathway to travel from the Earth to the moon.
    9. Russia’s Energy rocket is made of liquid boosters from different model rockets which also contain different carrying capacity. It can store more fuel that allow rockets to go deeper into space.
    10. In the 1950s the US and Soviet Union began the Space Race. Intensive research and development were conducted to demonstrate superiority in spaceflight.
    11. Space transportation is very important because it demonstrate the ability of a country’s free access to space. If a rocket can perform well, they will be able to travel further in space.
    12. New models of rocket will be created to reach deep space exploration.
    13. Space exploration could impact countries research on the universe and the origins of life and encourage their citizens to be interested in space.
    14. Space explorations will help space transportation system development. Control development will also be developed.
    15. Rockets contain basic level flight segment, segment docking in orbit segment and target transfer orbit segment.
    16. Reliability of the control system are faulty and require several maintenances.
    17. Faults and emergency are more complex. Fault identifications are required to determine the effect of the control system reconfiguration.
    18. Multiple mode redundancy is used to ensure the control system can be operatable to complete certain task with abnormal operating conditions.
    19. Typical fault model libraries is performed to check for engine failure, actuator failure, sensor failure and computer malfunction.
    20. Fault isolation allows a system to be separated from a different system to gain control using reconfigurable control module.
    21.Adaptive gain feedback control technology to regain control of the model aircraft model state.
    22. Robust control scheme is designed to ensure the stability of carrier flying in different configuration.
    23. Online trajectory planning reconstruction is required to ensure stability.
    24. The biggest challenge is the advance guidance and control technology Validation Method because it is difficult to verify advanced algorithms for advanced flight control technology.
    25. Thrust regulate, and control technology create different loads and when adapting to different orbits. Thrust can be reduce and reduce control in aerodynamic loads.
    26.Research on autonomous system is required for deep space exploration.
    27. The length of the rocket makes deep space exploration more complex. More vibration is created when traveling over long distance and need anti-coupling to decrease those vibration.
    28. Rockets need reliable electrical system. This will allow the rocket to relay information easily, create a formation of the electrical system integration and achieve information sharing.
    29. Rockets need a good control system to provide accurate simulation. To achieve this, it will require to have many types of sensors and redundancy control.
    30. Foreign deep space exploration autonomous control technology has entered the testing and validation phase to meet the development needs of future space exploration.

    [1] J. Cao, G. Xu and F. Xu, “Overview of deep space exploration space transportation systems and control technology,” Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Chinese Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, 2014, pp. 2433-2438, doi: 10.1109/CGNCC.2014.7007551.

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