Professor Montgomery

Author: fareezmohammed (Page 1 of 2)

The Woolworth Building – Research Paper


Fareez Mohammed

Professor Jason Montgomery

History of NYC Arch 3522

December 11, 2019

The Woolworth Building





One of the earliest skyscrapers designed in New York City was the Woolworth Building designed by Cass Gilbert. Gilbert designed other buildings such as the United States Supreme Court building in Washington, DC, the state capitols of Minnesota in St. Paul, and in West Virginia and the Saint Louis Art Museum and Public Library (Totten & National Trust, 2015).

The construction of the Woolworth Building started in 1910. The building officially opened on April 24, 1913. In 1913 the Woolworth building was one of the tallest building in the world measuring 60 stories high and 792 feet above the ground (Totten & National Trust, 2015).. It is still considered to be one of the tallest buildings in New York City . Throughout history, it has transformed from a commercial building to a residential building. This building contains office spaces, a health club, a social club, a barbershop, restaurants, and a shopping arcade when it was first completed. (Jacobs, 2017).

One aspect of the historical significance of the Woolworth Building is its use of steel frame construction that makes possible the building’s vast height (Herman 1). This building is important to study because it is both a National Historic Landmark and a New York City designated landmark. In 1939 the first Jazz recording for Original Dixieland Jazz Band was recorded in the Woolworth Building. In the late 20th century Kellex Corporation developed nuclear weapons for the Manhattan Project in this building ((Levine, 2018). The Woolworth Building also rented property to different educational schools such as Fordham University Graduate School, other Business Schools, Law Schools, Sociology departments, and Social Service departments were also located there. In 2012 the top 30 floors of the building were sold to the Witkoff Group. The Wikoff Group turned the office floors into a residential area for people to live in.

I chose to write about the Woolworth building because of its striking appearance. I admired the Neo Gothic architectural features showcased on the exterior of the building such as the flying buttresses and the thirteen different terra cottas. I have always had a deep appreciation for the early American skyscrapers. Skyscrapers have allowed cities to expand upward instead of outward. Skyscrapers enable people to reach to the Sky. The Woolworth Building is an icon for New York City. I was mesmerized by the building’s sheer height and how it was the tallest building in existence when it was constructed. Cass Gilbert is my favorite architect because his classical designs displayed in architectural work. This building used high tech technology in an innovative way.


General Context

The first skyscraper in New York City was the Tower Building (Figure 1). The architect who designed this building was Bradford Gilbert, and construction began April 17, 1888. The building was 11 stories tall and it was 128 ft in height.  Stone and brick were some of the main materials that were used for this building, because after the Great Fire in 1835 they had to think about the materials that were going into the building to prevent what happened from wood-frame construction. The Tower Building is not a load bearing masonry structure. The next tallest building in New York City was the Little Singer Building, it was designed by Ernest Flagg in 1904. It was the tallest building in the world in 1908 when it was completed. The building was in Lower Manhattan, in the Financial District.  The building facade was made from red steel, steel, and reddish terra cotta. Red steel is manufactured with no rush or it can also be a red coating on the steel. The Woolworth Building then became the tallest building in the world in 1913. The Woolworth was the tallest building until the Chrysler building was built. In 1930 the height of the Chrysler building measured 319 m tall with 77 floors. The skyscraper is characterized by its Art Deco-Style, the roof has a decorative metal cladding that was not common during this era.  In 1931 the Empire State Building later became the tallest skyscraper measuring 443 m tall with 102 floors. The skyscraper is composed of a distinguished Art-Deco facade. This building was completed in record time under fifteen months.

The Woolworth Building was designed as a vertical thrust unlike earlier skyscrapers in New York and Chicago that are horizontality orientated (“Gilbert, Woolworth Building” 2019). The Woolworth Building heavily influenced later skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building and the World Trade Center “The Woolworth Building at 100” 2018).

The Empire State Building measured 1, 454 ft. with the antenna, the roof height was 1,250 ft. The Chrysler Building measured 1,046 ft. and the 40 Wall Street Building 925 ft. (“The Empire State Building: Race to the Sky” 2019). As a result, the Woolworth building looks shorter compared to other buildings in Lower Manhattan.






Figure 1. The Tower Building was the first skyscraper in New York City, it was 7-stories tall and pointed archer on top of the building as seen in the photo.


Figure 2. 1The Little Singer Building was the was next tallest building in New York City. The roof of the building is flat, and it was the next tall skyscraper in New York City in 1904.


Figure 3. The Chrysler building roof has a decorative metal cladding that was not common during this era.


Figure 4. For the Empire state Building the way it the ended the roof was by adding an Antenna which made the building 1,454 Feet (443.2 m) tall. stands a total of 1,454 feet (443.2 m) tall, including its antenna.


The Woolworth building remains in the top 40 tallest buildings in New York City. In 1915 the Woolworth building received the Medal of Honor in San Francisco. Fifty-three years after the building was officially opened the building became a National Landmark. The skyscraper later became a New York City Landmark in 1983.

The general architectural period surrounding the Woolworth Building was characterized by the revival of old architecture and Historicist Skyscrapers (Miller, 2014). In 1910 American homes featured neoclassicism with different architectural styles such as Bungalow, Prairie School, and Queen Anne (Miller, 2014). Skyscrapers became very popular during this period. The Woolworth Building contributed to the start of the “architectural race” where architects attempted to build higher than before (Miller, 2014).

The Woolworth Building is in Lower Manhattan between 233 Broadway and Park Place. The base of the building is extended over the full block on Broadway in the middle of Park Place and Barclay Street (Harvey, 2016). The building was constructed across the street to the Post office and near the main passageway to the shopping center in the past. The Woolworth Building was also close to City Hall Park. In the 1920s and 30s, the Woolworth Building had a 400-square-foot observatory where visitors were enthralled by the picturesque view that they could see in every direction. The observatory allowed tourists to see a panorama view of the coastal shoreline, the geographic area of lower Manhattan, East River, and New Jersey (Alexander, 2017). In this century the Woolworth Building is considered to be short compared to the surrounding building.


*Building environment(micro) The Woolworth Building was constructed opposite the Post office and near the main passageway to the shopping center. It was also close to City Hall Park (Sutton, 2013).


*Key relaxed building (Macro) The Woolworth Building West side view of the coastal region (Sutton, 2013).


Theoretical Context

Frank Woolworth wanted the building to be designed with Neo-Gothic style because he wanted the skyscraper to have a luxurious look showing his wealth and success. The Gargoyles on the building came from European medieval architecture which was eye-catching. The lobby had regal mosaics and stained glass which was from early Christian art and architecture.

The theoretical underpinning design for the Woolworth Building was based on Louis Sullivan’s vertical aesthetic. Vertical aesthetic emphasizes vertical components and downplays horizontal features (Koeper 2019).  Gilbert uses this concept of building vertically for the construction of the Woolworth building. The vertical aesthetic is also characterized by “deep decorative frieze and a projecting cornice” (Koeper 2019). The cornice of the Woolworth building is the decorative trim on the exterior ledge of the building. According to the book Skyscraper Gothic Medieval Style and Modernist Buildings architect Cass Gilbert examines Sullivan’s ideas of vertical and “modern theoretical underpinnings” as a feature for skyscrapers. Woolworth and Gilbert also use Beaux-Art designs with baroque Gothic elements (Murphy & Reilly, 2017).

The Woolworth Building creates a precedent that other building designers followed. Gilbert used steel frame construction techniques for the Woolworth building (“Gilbert, Woolworth Building” 2019). The steel frame construction enables the building to gain height and stability.


Building Analysis

The Woolworth building used a Neo-Gothic architectural style, it has arches and flying buttresses, and on the top of the building there are gargoyles. The facade is made from the light gray, limestone-colored glazed, terra-cotta facade. Gilbert also had an idea to design eight different types of terra cotta motifs designed for the window spandrel, each had a different style but were all Neo-Gothic architecture. In 1977 and 1981 the building had renovations which removed and replaced the Terra-Cotta panels with concrete panels. The lower portions of the Woolworth Building are limestone. The height of the building is 792 Feet | 241 Meters which is 1.3 Million Gross Square Footage. The Woolworth Building had over 2,000 offices which ranged from 11′ feet to 20′ feet high.

The structure of the building was made from 24,000 tons of steel girders. The building sits on top of bedrock for its foundation. The materials that were used for this building were 17,000,000 bricks, 87 miles of electrical wire, the plumbing had 53,000 pounds of bronze and iron hardware, 3,000 steel doors, 7,500 tons of terra cotta which was used for the building facade, and 28,000 tons of hollow tile (Herman & Herman). The exterior of the building included subtle hues of color and a picturesque white terracotta façade.

The lobby is made from Syros-veined marble, sculptures, and architectural touches. The ceiling is vaulted and painted with Mosaic Art on the wall. When you enter the building the first thing you see is a Mosaic laid tile on the wall which makes the room appear brighter. The bronze decor in the lobby, aesthetically pleasing. The building’s inner exterior has luxurious gold-decked plaster coffered ceilings, sculptures, and mosaics. There are a few amenities in the building as well, such as a barbershop, restaurant, and a social club. On the 57th Floor there is an observatory, but it is now closed for viewing. There is a private swimming pool located in the basement, which is used for the owners of the building and private clients.


Figure 5 Interior lobby


Mr. Woolworth wanted to install air cushions into the elevator shafts after the construction has finished in order, to provide a much safer and more protected ride for passengers when taking the elevator. The building’s elevator was tested to make sure it was safe to ride. The way they tested this was by putting a ballast of 7,500 pound of weight in the elevator dropping from the forty-sixth floor to the first floor. It was a successful test and the air cushions were very strong which helped make it safer for passengers ( Editors, 2010). The building has a total of 34 elevators, which is 13,200,000 cubic sq.  The elevator system that was used was “Otis Elevator Company” which provided the building with very high-speed elevators that went (210 m) per minute. During the 1900s that was considered very fast and safe at that rate ( Editors, 2010).



Figure 6. This is one of the general plans that was used in The Woolworth Building, as we can see in the photo it is the 51St floor.


Figure 7. This is one of the cross sections of The Woolworth Building, in the image it is 750 feet tall.



Figure 8. This image shows us three sides of The Woolworth Building elevation. It is a very beautiful building as we can see.






Historical Evaluation

            The Woolworth Building has significance because of the historical events that occurred in the building. For example, Kellex Corporation had offices for the top-secret Manhattan Project which dealt with nuclear weapons. (“Manhattan, NY”). The Woolworth Building nickname is, The “Cathedral of Commerce”, which had a cathedral style lobby. The Woolworth skyscraper is considered to be an icon because it was the tallest building from 1913-1930 and it has a magnificent inner and exterior appearance (Jacobs, 2017). Numerous skyscrapers after the Woolworth building used this as a blueprint model for their own skyscraper designs.


The Woolworth building is innovative because it was one of the first skyscraper to utilize steel frame construction techniques. The Woolworth Building used fireproofing techniques. The building’s inner structure is composed of steel beams enclosed with terra cotta clay material that is heat resistant (Saraniero 2019).  The bottom exterior level of the building contains limestone which also is a fire repellent material (Saraniero 2019). The decorative ceiling is made from painted plaster coffered; it is noncombustible. Another innovative feature of the Woolworth building was the elevators. The building had the quickest elevators in the world (Saraniero 2019). It is a self-sufficient building with its own water supply, electrical power, and fire protection techniques. During the opening ceremony of the building, President Woodrow Wilson used an innovative technique to illuminate the building. From the White House, he clicked a button to light up both the exterior floodlights and interior floors of the building (Boys, 2018).

The Woolworth Building is different compared to other buildings during this period. For example, the sheer purpose of Chicago skyscrapers was commercial office use only (“Gilbert, Woolworth Building” 2019). The Woolworth building had offices and other uses such as a health club, social club, restaurant, and shopping arcade ( Editors, 2010). The Chicago skyscrapers were horizontality orientated with a separation between the tower and the base. However, the Woolworth skyscraper has no separation of the tower and base, so it continuously flows vertically. During this time other buildings used wood as a primary material in construction. The Woolworth skyscraper was the second tallest structure in the world, the first being the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

The Woolworth Building created a subsequent architectural design by starting the first race of the sky (“Race for the Sky – Part 1” 2014). Skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, and the 40 Wall Street Building competed with each other to have the tallest structure. The architects kept restructuring the building by adding additional floors and altering the building’s design. The winner of the race to the sky was the Empire State building.


Overall, it may be stated that the Woolworth building is a remarkable icon for New York City because it was one of the earliest skyscrapers that utilized revolutionary technology and set precedent standards for future skyscrapers. The building massing and detailing design is elegant. The Neo-Gothic style of the building creates a unique design for the building. The building inspired a movement with “the race to the sky” where building designers re-thought the concepts of how skyscrapers are supposed to look and function.






Works Cited

Alexander, H. (2017, September 20). Penthouse in New York’s Woolworth Building goes on sale for $110 million. Retrieved from

Boys, B. (2018, April 24). The Woolworth Building at 100: How they partied in 1913, with the “highest dinner ever held in New York”. Retrieved from

Dailey, J. (2014, August 21). Mega Floorplan Porn: Floorplan of Woolworth Building’s $110M Penthouse, Revealed! Retrieved from

Empire State building. #Manhattan #NYC: Empire state, Empire state building, Vintage new york. (n.d.). Retrieved from

“Gilbert, Woolworth Building.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, 2019,


Harvey, I. (2016, December 28). A photographic journey of the construction of the Woolworth Building, New York. Retrieved from

Herman, M., & Herman, M. (n.d.). Cass Gilbert, Woolworth Building. Retrieved from Editors. (2010, April 22). Woolworth Building. Retrieved from

Koeper, H.F. “Louis Sullivan.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 30 Aug. 2019,

Levine, L. (2018, May 7). Going nuclear: The Manhattan Project in Manhattan. Retrieved from

“Manhattan, NY.” Atomic Heritage Foundation,

Miller, M. (2014, February 17). AD Classics: Woolworth Building / Cass Gilbert. Retrieved from

Murphy, K. D., & Reilly, L. A. (2017). Skyscraper gothic: medieval style and modernist buildings. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Jacobs, S. (2017, March 16). Take a rarely seen look inside New York’s famed Woolworth Building, which is now home to multimillion-dollar condos. Retrieved from


Saraniero, Nicole. “5 Places to Spot the Woolworth Building’s Innovative Fireproofing

Methods.” Untapped Cities, 13 Aug. 2019,


Schuyler, Montgomery. “The Woolworth Building.” Priv. Print., 1913.


Sutton, Philip. “The Woolworth Building: The Cathedral of Commerce.” The New York Public Library, The New York Public Library, 23 Apr. 2013,

“The Empire State Building: Race to the Sky.” Pucuda Leading Edge, 29 Aug. 2019,


Totten, N., & National Trust. (2015, September 23). Five Buildings Designed by Cass Gilbert: National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved from


“The Woolworth Building at 100: How They Partied in 1913, with the ‘Highest Dinner Ever

Held in New York.’” The Bowery Boys: New York City History, 24 Apr. 2018,


“The Woolworth Building.” The New York Landmarks Conservancy,





Figure 1.

“Tower Building (New York City).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Aug. 2019,,_building_and_architecture_in_New_York_City_during_the_last_quarter_of_a_century_(1898)_(14587355647).jpg.


Figure 2. New York Architecture Images- The Little Singer Building,

Figure 3. Van Alen, The Chrysler Building. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Figure 4. “Empire State Building. #Manhattan #NYC: Zeppelin, Empire State Building, Vintage New York.” Pinterest,

Figure 5. Figure Lobby Woolworth Building Lobby Tours NYC: WoolWorthTours. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Figure 6. Dailey, Jessica. “Mega Floorplan Porn: Floorplan of Woolworth Building’s $110M Penthouse,  Revealed!” Yahoo! News, Yahoo!, 21 Aug. 2014,


Figure 7. The Woolworth Building [cross-section, with floors labeled], from The Woolworth Building (Highest in the World), illustrated with details f…: Woolworth building, Building drawing, Building. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Figure 8. Studio Esinam, New York Elevations. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Describe the impact on your education of studying New York City architecture out of the classroom. Should more students get this opportunity? Why or why not?

I like this class it is very benefit official to me because we went on trips weekly learning about the different types architectural building in New York City.

I greatly benefited from studying architecture outside of the classroom. The weekly class trip taught me about the different types architectural building in New York City. I believe more students should get the opportunity for studying building through observing them firsthand. Than in the classroom student are only able see and learn about building looking at 2-dimensional drawing. However, by partaking in the class trips student such as myself can see the buildings in 3 dimensions. I am able see how the different elements interact with the buildings.

The outdoor trips are more engaging than inside a classroom. The architectural structures that we learn about from the textbook become real when see it in person. Studying outside the classroom making me more engaged and motived to learn. I can explore building from different angles and see how the open space interacts with the environment. I was very motivated to attend class every week because I was going to a new location to learn new facts. Through the outdoor classes I was able to enjoy the fresh air and exercise while traveling to places all over NYC. Another benefit is the free places I get to learn from as a student.

Overall I am happy I took this class to learn more about the outdoors of New York City, instead of staying in a classroom.

How does the MoMA garden relate to other spaces in the city? What makes it special? How does the architecture relate to the space?

The Museum of Modern Art has a beautiful interior design. The layout design of each floor of the museum is unique. Inside each room of the exhibit has an open creating an aesthetically please look for visitors. The Museum of Modern Art garden is spaced out creating a calm atmosphere for the spectators. The sculptures in the garden are arranged in different angles so visitors can see can enjoy its beauty from different perspectives. The green grass contributes to the tranquil feeling in the garden. Grand Central Station is an open space in New York that is visually pleasing to visitors. The interior design of the station includes massive columns and a mosaic ceiling that draws in a visitor’s eye. Grand central is spaced out evenly like the open space at the MoMA.

I think the Museum of Modern Art can improve its viewing experience for its members. The Museum of Modern Art should create rules that limit the number of people allowed in the exhibit at a specific time. For example, when I was viewing the photographs in the museum, I was not able to see all the images collectively. The crowed room blocked my view of the other photos. The attractiveness of the room can be improved with fewer people observing in the art exhibit

The United States of America’s existing culture is accepting of different gender identities. However, the Museum of Modern Art bathrooms does not reflect this ideology and bathrooms they are gender-specific. This creates a barrier for potential visitors to the Museum.

Museum of Modern Art has contributed to my knowledge of how different buildings are constructing to show art to the public

Compare the Lincoln Center urban renewal planning to Battery Park City’s planning. How does the spatial experience of the Tower in the Park differ from the urbanism of Battery Park City?

I will be comparing The Lincoln Center to Battery Park City renewal plan to the City planning. They are very similar because they are both open spaces and the architecture design is open to the public, Battery Park is mainly a green space and Lincoln Center is for the performing arts.

Battery Park City plan is very open with space and it is near the harbor. Battery Park City has 92-acres of land. It is located on the west side of the southern tip of New York City and one-third of development is for parks. For the open space, they are many benches, seating areas, and walkable spaces. Battery Park City has a beautiful waterfront that has an amazing view of many high-rise buildings in New York City as well as the waterfront in New Jersey.

As for Lincoln Center, I believe more people who go there are into artwork, musical plays, and Opera as well as the performing arts. It is also open to the public. When entering Lincoln Center, the first thing you see is a beautiful water fountain in the center of the plaza. Lincoln Center has a unique design and inside of the building is it very decorative. I believe this is for the upper-class people to come and visit, unlike Battery Park City which is more of a casual atmosphere for the public to enjoy on a beautiful day.

Lincoln Center relates to the city by having many local businesses and stores nearby. Battery Park City is made up of more high-rise buildings and is for people coming to the waterfront on a nice day.

How do civic centers like Lincoln Center relate to the city around them? Describe the nature of the public plaza in this civic center.

When walking through the Lincoln Center I saw many different views of the buildings that were surrounding it. When entering the main entrance of Lincoln Center, there is a beautiful water fountain in the center of the plaza. To the left, there is the Metropolitan Opera House of the Fountain, the Lincoln Center Theater straight ahead and the David Geffen Hall is on the right.

Lincoln Center is surrounded by multiple schools, many being high schools and colleges. Many students come to visit after school or during their break to enjoy the open space. It has many wonderful views and areas to sit and eat during the summer.

Many people come to Lincoln Center to see the Metropolitan Opera House enjoy the show. Lincoln Center’s is a unique design and is inside the building it is very decorative. Across the Opera House, there is a theater where people come to see many different plays and shows. Many times, both the Opera House and Theater let out at the same time at night. There are a lot of people coming out of all 3 buildings including David Geffen Hall. During the evening you can have a wonderful experience with all the people surrounding you and watch the lights come on at the center.

The way Lincoln Center relates to the city is by having local businesses and stores nearby. This entices people to come freely and visit the plaza. People coming from the local restaurants, bars and cafe’s, shopping areas, pass by often.

Compare the evolution of the exterior skin of these modern office/institutional buildings. Compare their massing strategies.

The exterior skin of the office/institutional Buildings that we looked at during our trip was the Lever House, Seagram Building and Lipstick Building. Each has its own different façade. For example, the Lipstick Building was oval and had a different setback. The Lever House, it had a public open plaza and one tall building which didn’t use all their FAR space. The Seagram Building, was a more simple but unique design.

The Lever House had a nice exterior skin to the building. On the second floor, it had a green roof, where people can come out during their lunch break and enjoy the fresh air with the natural feeling of being in an urban environment. Also, there are two different types of glass being used in the. One was a greenish glass which makes it so you can see through the building helped cover up the HVCA. The other type of glass was tinted green which made it not as see through. The exterior of the building is a curtain wall hung system.

While looking at the Seagram Building the transparent glass is yellow. It also has a curtain wall system but has many structural elements on the first floor that are seen from the exterior of the building. It has a very sleek design and brings out the beauty of the building, with its yellowish transparent glass and its black panels. The building has a relief from the first floor to the second, which provides more open space.

Looking at these two buildings it has a very different look to them, and it shows us different exterior finishes. Along with the different materials and massings of the buildings, it shows us how two buildings are doing the same job but giving us a different feel to the environment that we live in.

How do the Chrysler and Empire compare? Describe the massing, materials, and detailing of each?

The Chrysler Building was made in 1930 it is 319 m tall with 77 floors. The building is located on 42nd street and Lexington avenue. This skyscraper is characterized by its Art Deco-style. The top building has a unique style designed. The roof has a decorative metal cladding that was not common during this era. Throughout the building, it is constructed with a steel frame that has masonry in it. The amount of steel used for the structure was 20,961 tons, also 3,826,000 bricks. The building currently has 3,862 windows. The Chrysler skyscraper was the tallest building around until 1931 with the opening of the Empire State Building.

The Empire State Building is 443 m tall with 102 floors. The skyscraper is composed of a distinguished Art Deco façade. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon. The building is in Midtown Manhattan on 5th Avenue between 33rd and 34th street. The Empire State Building and Chrysler building were both in competition for being the world’s tallest building. Empire State Building was completed in 410 days after construction began. The building was completed in record time in under fifteen months. That is the fastest building that has ever been made in New York City up to this day. All new buildings that are being built today take more than 2 – 3 years to be completed. Despite the same materials being used combined with better technology. The Empire State Building weighs about 331,000,000,000 grams and 4% of its weight is the facade of the building which is designed out of limestone. Surprisingly only five people died from its construction while being built.

Both buildings were built from the Golden Age of the American car industry and were owned by different car dealerships. Both car industry owners wanted to be the tallest building in New York during the 1930s. The massing of the building were different and the Chrysler Building had different setbacks and the Empire State Building had a large open storefront on the first floor.

What is important about the way civic infrastructure is developed in a city? How do Penn Station and Grand Central reflect New York City’s civic architectural culture and history?

The civic infrastructure was impacted by the architecture that was in the neighborhood. The designs of the Architects and the Contractors who lived and worked in the area of Grand Central Station and Penn Station Inspired the city to grow and land was developed. Grand Central and Penn Station were a part of New York City’s history because the architecture of both buildings influenced the design of future buildings.

The open spaces of Grand Central Station appealed to commuters to come and use the station to get to other places. The design of the station with its huge columns and its mosaic ceiling were a sight to see places, which drew people to visit and travel through.

Penn Station is also an underground train terminal and it has a lot people traveling daily to New Jersey, PA, and other nearby states. It’s not as busy as Grand Central but many people commute daily. The MTA subway has a lot of connecting lines also to Penn Station, which makes it easier for people to make connections throughout the city.

Grand Central kept its old look with the huge columns, open spaces and added more underground stations connections to other places. Penn Station is under major renovation and has added more tech for the future so that eventually it will be very efficient and be state of the art.

Describe the unique urban composition of key landmark buildings in lower Manhattan, with analysis of sight lines and urban streets and spaces

Landmark buildings of lower Manhattan are very important to New York City history because it helps us to remember the unique things that happened in the past. We visited landmark buildings throughout the semester such as the U.S Custom House, and the Woolworth Building. Both buildings were designed by Case Gilbert.

The U.S Customs House has an open view to lower Manhattan, and the building around helps make the view even better. The facade of the building is very different and has very engaging Corinthian columns. The columns are made from marble, and it is two stories high and is very spaced out from each other. The doors to the main hall of the building are made from bronze. It is a steel-framed building and it is 7 stories high from the south side of Bowling green. The interior and exterior of the building are both New York City Landmarks, it’s a Beaux-Arts and the main materials used for the building were Granite and Marble.

Standing within the Woolworth Building a person can see the coastal shoreline of the geographic area of lower Manhattan, the East River, and New Jersey. The Post Office was nearby at the time and it is close to the city hall park. It also has many different characteristics of the 19th century. It was one of the first buildings to use steel frame construction. In 1913 it was one of the tallest buildings in the world which were 60 stories high. It was important for New York City designated landmarks because it was the tallest building to use a steel frame. Its neo-gothic style architecture was unique to the design of the building as well as being very massive in size. This led to the race to the sky which led other buildings wanting to build higher and be in competition at the time for getting to the heaven of the sky.

To conclude the Custom House and the Woolworth building created landmarks for New York with its architectural styles that are still used today. Later builders designed buildings in New York City to be modeled after theses two historic landmark buildings.

Compare the viewing of art in a house museum (Frick) to a designed museum (Guggenheim). Compare the spaces and movement through the galleries.

In the 1900s the First Collection house was built, and it is one of the oldest houses that still exist today. In 1931 Mrs. Frick had passed on and the family had decided to turn the house into a Museum in New York City. The Frick museum has a massive structure and it has beautiful gardens all around the building which gives it a welcoming look to the public. The Guggenheim Museum attracts the public’s view because of its unique design, which is circular, it entices the viewer to go inside the building to see the works of art.

I had a wonderful experience visiting the Frick Museum. The building in the entrance had many welcoming spaces which made you feel at ease when entering. The building space created a unique design of the rooms. The museum consisted of exceptional sculptures and paintings. After leaving the lobby one of my favorite rooms in the Frick Museum is the Garden Court. I loved the natural light that was coming in, which lit up the room. The fountain in the middle of the room was nicely placed and I liked the ionic columns they had all around the room. The Fifth Avenue garden was also very large and consisted of open spaces. The huge ionic columns and glass windows made the space seem very pleasing to the eye. The facade of the building was made from limestone which was very nicely shaped and proportioned. It is one of the largest gardens I have ever seen in New York City.

The Guggenheim Museum had a beautiful spiral design which showcased us many paintings of art around the wall going upwards. The interior of the spiral going up is very nice and has a sleek design. I liked the white color of the design and open spaces so everyone could see every floor. As seen from the exterior of the building you can see it’s a circular size and this shape is retained when you are inside the museum. I enjoy this Museum because it gives you a sense of space and freedom.

I like the experience of both Museums because each of them has their personalized style and feel to them. The Frick Collection Museum is very special because it connects a lot with nature and has a lot of garden space. The Guggenheim Museum has a lot of spaces for the public to see paintings and sculptures. Many people enjoy this Museum because of its circular shape unlike anything else in New York City, it stands out to the public.

Both Museum is similar because they both show paintings, sculptures, and design from different artists. They are different because the Frick Museum gives us a lot of garden space and natural light wherein the Guggenheim Museum, we can see experience works of art in a more modern state of architecture design

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