Professor Montgomery

Author: fareezmohammed (Page 2 of 2)

How would you describe the sense of place when walking through 19th century New York City neighborhoods? What qualities are particularly notable?

I believe walking through Greenwich Village in the 19th century in New York City was very different from how it is today. In 1811 the grid plan was developed and still exists in the neighborhood today. Also still has the old streetscape architectural style. We also saw how SOHO is different from Greenwich Village and Washington Square Park.

Washington Square Park was in the heart of Greenwich, it was the largest single open space in the 1811 grid map, it was called the Parade. Before it was called the Parade, it was a potter field a place where people got buried if they had little to no money. The view from this area allows people to see Harlem. Greenwich Village’s irregulated streets have remained unchanged from the past to the present date. This experience of walking through these streets has enabled me to see how old New York was before the grid plan in 1811.

Many developers who had capital in New York City brought 4 – 5 lots at a time. Developers designed row houses that had a similar layout and used the same building materials.  Manufacturers used iron as a primary material for decorative gates and metal gates for homes. In the 19th century, the most common building materials for houses were brick, stucco, and stone. During this time developers would continuously sell most of their properties and keep one for themselves.  Throughout the area of Greenwich Village, you see properties with gigantic entrances, large streets, and building with a short stature

The area of SOHO is vastly different than Greenwich Village. In this part of the city, there is a heavy emphasizes of Italianate architecture. There is more commercial building than residential homes. As a result of the use of elevators, the building gained height with additional floors being added. SOHO building used cast iron for its decorative style. Manufacturers created moldings for ornamental cast-iron patterns. The Corinthian styled columns became a trademark of SOHO buildings.

Assignment 4

How does the design of the park impact visitors? What features of the park are particularly notable? Describe these features and why you are intrigued by them.


Central Park is a National Historic Landmark in New York City. Central Park’s design features have a positive impact on visitors; visitors can enjoy leisure walks in a scenic environment. Central Park raises the value of New York. In the 1850s only rich people lived near 5th Ave on 59th street. The population for this area was very minimal. This resulted in cleaner air quality and more open space for horses and people to utilize.

In 1857 Frederick Law Olmstead was the winning designer for Calvert Vaux which we know as Central Park. The park itself had a natural and soft look to its design. At the same time, they had been looking at London, France for landscape ideas for the park to fit in its environment. Eighty-three people had entered the competition for the park design. The major components for the design of the park included a fountain, ice skating rink, and an exhibition area.

Central Park design was a naturalistic design that has many ponds, bridges, and rocks. The naturalistic design keeps the park feeling natural and has a soft look to the eye. One feature of the park is The Dairy store. The park also incorporated a gothic style architecture that can be seen after walking a little future from the entrance. The benches around Central Park gives visitors a welcoming feeling to sit down and enjoy the scenery. I enjoy the feeling that Central Park gives off, it allows you to slow down from your daily life and gives you a feeling of tranquillity.

Assignment 3

What factors precipitated housing crisis for immigrants and the working poor?

What needed to change? How does this crisis mirror/relate to current conditions of housing in New York?



The population of immigrants in New York City increased during the 1850 – 1880. During this time, many people were coming to the United States, especially New York. As a result, of the inflation of immigrants in New York, it caused overcrowded and housing issues arise in the heavily populated areas. Many single houses became multifamily homes by extending the property line and increasing the lot sizes. This led to various problem dealing with sanitation, plumbing, overcrowd building, lack of natural sunlight and poor air quality.

Immigrants faced challenging living condition when they arrived in the United States. Landlords permitted 8 to 9 people to live in a single room going against the law. This law was often ignored because building owners paid off city officials to look the other way. Homeowners would max out their housing capacity so more individuals can live in it. Immigrants didn’t have much of a choice but to live in these houses with limited space. People started to buy more land and capital in the 1840s because a lot of people were coming around the world to live in the United States to get better jobs.

One of the main problems with overcrowded buildings was the sanitation and plumbing. There was garbage on the streets for days and sanitation workers would need at least three to four trips a day to get rid of the waste. Plumbing wasn’t any better, for every twenty people they had to share one water closet. The rooms had no vented air or natural light coming in making the environment very hard to breathe in. The streets were grimy and covered with horse manure. When a horse would die on the street, it would be left there for weeks. These poor living conditions lead to disease and other illness that caused people to get sick and die. One change that was needed was for sanitation to do frequent pickup days to get the trash. Plumbing can be improved by increasing the number of bathrooms available to the tenants. The venation systems in the building can be improved by adding windows and working venation systems such as central air.

Currently, in New York, there are housing situations like tenement building from the past. In Chinatown’s Lower Eastside chinses immigrants are forced to live in cramp rooms measuring 54 square foot cubical that they often share with another person. Tenants have shared the same bathroom, laundry area, and cooking space. These immigrants typical make a low income by working low wage jobs.

Compare Early New York/Brooklyn Architecture and Streetscape

There were similarities and differences in Early New York and Brooklyn architecture and streetscape. They both had different ideas on how they should build their city. Brooklyn architecture was based on ideas from Neoclassicism, Greek Revival, Italianate, Romanesque, Victorian Gothic.

Early Brooklyn used many different architectural styles. For example, Neoclassicism is architectural style seen in Brooklyn structures such as on Saints Annie’s preschool on Willow street and the columns/ exterior of buildings on porticos ST. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the Greek Revival style can be seen in the Brooklyn Heights historic district. This style was used in the construction of the Dime Saving Bank in Brooklyn. The bank has a combination of Doric and Ionic pillars. Another architectural style used was Italianate. One defining characteristic of this style is connecting arch windows. Brownstones house from this period were row houses it utilized the Italianate style. Brooklyn also has elements of Romanesque. This style is comprised of high circular arched windows. The US Post office in Cadman Plaza uses this style. Elements from the Victorian Gothic style can be seen on St. Nicholas Antiochian church. The church as dormer windows a component of the Victorian Gothic style.

Early Manhattan mainly used stone and brick for construction for wood-frame houses, until the Great Fire of 1835. After the Great Fire, brick became the central material used in building houses. Federal-style came to the United States in 1780 – 1830. In 1811 the federal style became part the commissioner’s plan to use in building such as lighting houses, harbor buildings, and hospitals. South port was the earliest places to get developed. Manhattan shoreline had a trading post and warehouses. Outside of most building and warehouses, it was made from stucco and rich material.

Assignment # 1

Compare New York and Brooklyn Urban Growth and Planning

New York and Brooklyn both went through urban growth and development at different paces. These two properties were both owned by Native Americans who sold it to the Dutch. The British later gained ownership of the land.

London designs heavily influenced Manhattan construction. Manhattan has developed at a quicker paced then Brooklyn. Manhattan was a key area ship used to port and dock their cargo. Manhattan utilized both pathways and waterways as a trading route to transport goods. Manhattans foundations consisted of bedrock making it easier to construct buildings. As a result, Manhattan has many commercial buildings. In 1811 John Randall developed a grid plan for lower Manhattan and then upper Manhattan.

Brooklyn architecture designs were also influenced by London’s ideas in 1776. Brooklyn developed at a slower pace than Manhattan. Brooklyn area consisted of a land with apple trees, peach trees, wetland areas, and rough terrain filled with hills. Brooklyn did not receive a grid plan and was forced to rely on routes based on property lines from farmers. The wetland areas and hills hindered urban development and planning because traveling routes were made longer. Later, a grid was created in Brooklyn and Manhattan to help develop a better urban design. Brooklyn has a Square Water symbol landmark that is currently still there.

New York and Brooklyn both underwent urban growth and planning at different rates. The speed of progress and development depended on various components like foundation and the area.

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