Final Exam

Final Exam 

  • When: 2:30 pm- 3:55 pm, May 19
  • Where: Blackboard   

Topic 6. Class and Social Stratification

  • Social Status VS. class
  • Social stratification
  • Structured inequalities
  • Intersectionality
  • Karl Marx VS. Max Weber
  • Systems of Stratification: three characteristics
  • Stratification systems
    • Slavery
    • Caste system: India and South Africa
    • Class systems
    • What makes class systems different from slavery and caste systems?
  • Indicators
    • Income VS. wealth
    • Education
    • Occupation
    • Cultural factors
  • The U.S. class structure
    • The upper class
    • The middle class (the upper middle class and the lower middle class)
    • The working class
    • The lower class
    • +The underclass (The “new urban poor”)
  • Social mobility
    • Intergenerational mobility VS. Intragenerational mobility
    • Structural mobility VS. exchange mobility
    • Upward mobility VS. downward mobility
  • Poverty in the United States
    • Absolute poverty VS. Relative poverty
    • Poverty line
    • Who are the poor?
      • Working poor
      • Minority groups
      • The feminization of poverty
      • Children
    • Homelessness
  • The sociological debate
    • “Blame the victim” theories
      • Culture of poverty
      • Dependency culture
    • “Blame the system” theories

Topic 7: Race and Ethnicity

  • Race VS. ethnicity
    • Remember that race is NOT just about biological difference, but classification system.
  • Racism
    • Overt racism
    • Microaggression
    • Color-blind racism
    • Institutional Racism
    • From old racism to new racism
      • From biology to culture
    • Three reasons for the rise of modern racism
    • Racialization
    • Stereotype: positive and negative
      • We talked about various racial stereotypes, including positive stereotypes of Asians. Yet, remember that positive stereotypes could harm other racial minority groups.
    • Cultural appropriation & cultural appreciation
      • We talked about various examples of cultural appropriation.
    • Situational ethnicity
    • Symbolic ethnicity
      • Remember one can celebrate their ethnicity without hurting or losing anything.
    • Intersectionality
      • Remind yourself of a definition of intersectionality and think about how you could use this term to understand current social issues.
      • Gender, race, and class?
    • Racial categories
      • Not fixed but have changed over time.
    • The one-drop rule
      • Think about Tiger Woods.
    • Antiracism
    • Prejudice VS. discrimination
      • Thoughts VS. actions
    • Scapegoats
    • Minority Groups
    • Ethnic conflict: see these different terms.
      • Genocide
      • Ethnic cleansing
      • Segregation
    • Models of ethnic integration: these terms sound very similar, but different. Understand the difference.
      • Assimilation
      • Melting pot
      • Pluralism
      • Multiculturalism
    • Global migration
      • Immigration VS. emigration
      • Push and pull factors: what causes to push people out or to attract people into a new country?
      • Diaspora

Topic 8. White beauty

  • Intersectionality  
  • Global white beauty standard 
  • Why do middle-class women try to have lighter skin? 
  • “White is right” ideology
  • Racial capital

Topic 9. Gender inequality

  • Gender differences: Nature versus Nurture
  • Sex VS. Gender
  • The biological and anatomical differences VS. The psychological, social, and cultural differences
  • Gender socialization
  • The learning of gender roles with the help of social agencies such as the family and the media.
  • Gender is NOT biological! (by Margaret Mead)
  • Evidence in New Guinea: think about what we learn from her work.
  • Gender boundaries?
  • Cisgender, transgender and intersex
  • Forms of Gender Inequality
  • Patriarchy
  • Gender inequality
  • The Gender Pay Gap: The Sociological Debate
  • Sex segregation
  • Gender typing
  • Glass ceiling: racial inequality as well.
  • Glass elevator (or escalator)
  • Sexual harassment
  • Violence against Women
  • Rape
  • Rape culture
  • Sociological Theories of Gender Inequalities
  • Functionalism
    • Think about why functionalism has been criticized by feminists.
  • Feminism
  • Liberal feminists
    • What they focus on?” social and cultural attitudes
    • Instead of focusing on issues of patriarchy, they concentrate on issues of sexism and discrimination in the workplace, educational institutions, and the media.
  • Radical Feminism
    • Inequality results from male dominance in all aspects of social and economic life.
    • How to solve these problems?: Revolution
  • Black Feminism
    • Intersectionality: gender, class, and race combine to create multiple disadvantages for nonwhite women.
  • Postmodern Feminism
  • Reject one grand theory explaining the position of women.
  • They encourage the acceptance of many different standpoints

+ Transnational feminism and socialist feminism 

Topic 10. Urban Issues

  • Urbanization
  • Suburbanization and race
    • White flight
    • Ghettos
    • Racial discrimination
  • Gentrification