Midterm Exam

Midterm Exam

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Topic 1-Background 

  • The Sociological Imagination
    • Definition: what makes sociology different from other disciplines?
    • Who coined this term?: C. Wright Mills
  • Social structure VS. agency: what do we emphasize?
  • Theories VS. theoretical approaches (or orientations)?
  • Microsociology VS. macrosociology

Topic 2. Sociological Theories

  • The background of early sociology
  • Who created a term, sociology?
  • Three classical sociologists
    • Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber
  • Emile Durkheim
    • Social facts
    • Social changes: Mechanical solidarity → organic solidarity (see the difference between two terms)
    • Division of labor: why is it important to understand modern society?
  • Karl Marx
    • Social and economic changes
    • Capitalism VS. Communism
    • Two main classes and conflicts between two.
  • Max Weber
    • How he criticized Karl Marx: social status VS. class
    • Rationalization
    • Bureaucracy
  • E. B. Du Bois
    • Double consciousness
  • Modern theoretical approaches: remember main points and differences and think about how we use each theory to analyze current issues.
    • Symbolic interactionism
    • Functionalism
    • Marxism
    • Feminism
    • Rational choice approach
    • Postmodern theory
  • Macrosociology VS. microsociology: this brings us to the second topic – methods.

Topic 3 – Sociological Methods

  • Sociological questions : understand each question through examples.
    • Factual question
    • Comparative question
    • Developmental question
    • Theoretical question
  • Scientific methods: why is sociology science?
  • Quantitative method VS. qualitative method
  • The research process
    • You do not have to memorize each step, but try to understand how we, sociologists, plan for our own research and come up with outcomes.
  • Causation VS. Correlation
  • Variables
    • Independent variable VS. dependent variable
      • You should be able to identify independent and dependent variables from research questions.
    • Hypothesis
    • Methods in sociological research
      • Ethnography
      • Survey
      • Experiments
      • Remember these three sociological methods and advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Topic 4-Culture

  • Culture and society
    • See the difference between two; and how they are related to one another.
  • Sociological study of culture
  • Started with Emile Durkheim. See topic 1 for further information about Durkheim.
  • Connect the earlier studies to European colonial expansion.
  • Material VS. Nonmaterial culture
    • Nonmaterial culture
      • Values VS. norms
    • Material goods
  • New terms: cultural universals, cultural turn, cultural appropriation, cultural appreciation, counterculture and subculture.
  • Assimilation and multiculturalism
  • Ethnocentrism VS. cultural relativism
  • Sociological debate: nature VS nurture
  • Do sociologists highlight nature or nurture?
  • Types of human society: each society’s traits.

Topic 5-Socialization

  • Terms
    • Socialization, life course
    • Primary socialization VS. Secondary socialization
    • Agents of socialization
    • Family, school, peer, media, and work
    • Social reproduction, resocialization
  • Identity: self identity VS. social identity
  • Social roles and status
  • Role conflict VS. role strain
  • Theories
    • George H. Mead
      • Theory on social self
      • “I” and “me”
      • Generalized other
    • Charles Horton Cooley
      • The looking glass self
    • Jean Piaget
      • Stages in childhood – don’t have to remember all of them, but just try to understand Piaget also focused on stages of development.
    • Gender socialization and race socialization

Topic 6. Social Organization

  • Groups
    • Social group
    • Social aggregate
    • Social category
  • Groups
    • Primary groups VS. Secondary groups
  • Conformity
  • Organizations
    • Organization
    • Formal organization
  • Networks
  • In-Groups and Out-Groups
  • Reference Groups
  • The Effects of Size
    • Dyads
    • Triads
    • Larger Groups
  • Theories
    • Bureaucracy
    • Granovetter: The Strength of Weak Ties
    • The “McDonaldization” of Society
  • The Internet as Social Network