Nicole Harripersad

ARTH 3311

Pro Marianna Trofimova

April 18th, 2018



     Throughout history, the term “Graphic Design,” is used as part of the art and profession of the designing era. Using different types of media such as typography, photographs and images, iconic symbols, and colors to send a message to the attention of the audience. Graphic design is also known to be called “Communication Design,” a definition that highlights its form in products and culture. Today in history, the Graphic Design that we use today has been practiced in various forms throughout history. Even using regular ink and mixed media products can be used as art to be called communication design. Simples uses of graphics before technology came to play there were illuminated manuscripts, printing with the Gutenberg press, and the creation of bibles. Preferably, Manuscripts are currently used today as designs for churches, and some are still apart of the museum. Even artifacts and handcrafted pieces are still contributed because of craftsmanship from famous artisans from the late 15th to the 17th hundreds.  And so, the evolution of graphic design has become a frequent practice and profession amongst artisans, and multimedia designers, which has been closely bound to technological modernizations.

Whenever I think of illuminated manuscripts, I also think of culture, and fantasy mixed together as one. Manuscripts tell a short story while being drawn with its shiny and unique colors, and large text. Illuminated manuscripts are texts that are complemented with decorations such as initials, and color. Sometimes Illuminated manuscripts don’t even have text and they just tell a story from the image itself. One designer that I am fond of and their work on illuminated manuscripts is Giorgio Giulio Clovio. Giulio Clovio was an Italian painter, an illuminator, and a priest. Born in 1498, and died in 1578, he studied in Rome under the watchful eye of Giulio Romano, another Italian painter. Giulio’s work mostly consisted of being modern and traditional, his work looking related to the Famous Michelangelo artist. As expected as creating something so amazing for the High Renaissance movement, a movement which flourished for nearly about 35 years, which started from the early 1490s to 1527. Clovio’s masterpieces are kept in Florence, Naples, Venice, Torino, Paris, London, Vienna, New York currently today. His pieces decorated many famous museums and galleries. While painting in Italy, his paintings and manuscripts were recognized by many other elite artists, later on, he was established as a member of the Elite of the High Renaissance.



Another movement was the “arts and crafts movement”, which was appeared during the late Victorian period in England, which was the most industrialized country in the world at that time. During that era, there was a lot of negativity, but then fueled a positive revaluation of handmade artisanship and pre-capitalistic forms of culture and society. This movement was able to advocate as a reform as part of philosophy and instigated critique of industrial labor. Soon modern machines started to replaced workers, it was then that Arts and Crafts advocation called for an end to the labor and advanced in better for the designer as a craftsman. One artist apart of this movement was Charles Robert Ashbee. Charles was an English architect and a designer who was a major movement advocate for the Arts and crafts movement. After college Charles went on to involve himself in social work. He later founded a school architect and a school of arts and crafts. He founded the school of arts and crafts because of his notable handcrafted work in decorative art. His creations would consist of more than just painting but of hollowware, jewelry, and furniture. He was a promoter for the arts and crafts movement for creating schools dedicated to arts and crafts.


Both artists Giorgio Giulio Clovio and Charles Robert Ashbee, are both talented artists. Even though they have very completely different art styles. Clovio does paintings and manuscripts. Ashbee does handcrafted arts. But they both were able to contribute to movements to help their era and country. They also created handcrafted pieces in their movements that helped flourished and ended harsh labors too. Therefore; Both men, from the past, have contributed to movements, and as of mankind today, we still contribute to different movements today even art movements. Both have been contributed as graphic designers, just like how others are today. The evolution of graphic design is slowly changing today. Graphic Design, is a definition that highlights its form in products and culture.