Tabarka Tamkin- April 28

According to Heller, the mainstream  and underground. During the 60s’ psychedelic movement the concept of Underground was a culture that started to grows fast in youth market. Major corporations were giving contrasts and them and wanted to them to have important market share with them. In return, they would advertise and packaged their bands using the codes to promote and growth. Psychedelic design was their code that means is sex and drugs and it was rejected by the society. Those all actions were threatening to the mainstream-is the visual artists, musicians, and designers developed means of expression that helped define the culture’s distinct characteristics. 

As for the Contemporary design, a mainstream is what’s new trend  and whats society thinks and it includes all popular culture and media culture, typically disseminated by mass media. Heller said in his article that “Indeed the mainstream embraces almost anything “edgy,” although once the label is applied it is no longer on the edge”. This quote that the trend takes up almost anything like avant-garde that Marie Victoire Winckler does by combining the oriental and occidental style to create the design.

Mainstream will shape it where Calkins said, inventing something entirely new when the most experimental artists and designers of the age were already testing the tolerance of new ideas on their own dime. He order commercial artists to appropriate and smooth out the edges of Contemporary art, add an ornament here and there to make it pleasant for the consumer class and instant attraction.

Heller, Steven. “Underground Mainstream.” Design Observer,

Steven Heller, from 2008, entitled The Underground MainstreamHeller_UndergroundMainstream2008

Tabarka Tamkin-May5







Anker, Peder. “The Bauhaus of Nature.” Modernism/modernity, vol. 12 no. 2, 2005, p. 229-251. Project MUSEdoi:10.1353/mod.2005.0051. 

Rowbotham, Sheila. “Arts, Crafts & Socialism.” History Today, vol. 59, no. 2, Feb. 2008, pp. 44–50. 

The Three Bauhaus 


“Walter Table Centre.” 

“Marie-Victoire Winckler.” 

Bayer, Herbert. “Bauhaus, 1919-1928.” MomaBauhaus, 1938, 

Smock, William. Bauhaus Ideal Then and Now : An Illustrated Guide to Modern Design, Chicago Review Press, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central. [City Tech Library Card Required] 

Ross, Rodney. “Diversity in Graphic Design,” Pulse VCU (blog), 2012. 


Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus (1923): Gropius_Bauhaus 

Tabarka Tamkin- March 31

Etymology – etymology means the study of root of linguistic change, especially as manifested in individual words.

Polysemy – the ability of a word to posses several meaning.

linguistic sign – a sign is a combination between a concept and a sound image.

Connoted – imply or suggest.

Denoted – indication

Decipher – Convert into normal language.

Assonance – the repetition of the sound of a vowel.

Anchorage- frequent function of the linguistic message and commonly found in press photography and advertisements.

mythical idea of Life. it means that the linguistic nature image is being presented again and finally it takes action 

There are 3 messages.

The linguistic Message, Denoted Image and Rhetoric of the Image.

1st message is produce by the image and linguistic is the medium and captions, labels and marginals supports the linguistic.

The linguistic message is a sign or indication and suggested or the concept.

The reading discuss about the sign stages that the first sign of the image is idea and how it represented the product. Second sign talks about the it is more or less equal to noticeable to bring together the signifier for the product. As they explore the image, they discover the two other sign. 1 is a collection of different  object that transmit the idea that is different service. In other sign, it is about the composition of the image that is an illustration that express in other language is “still life”. 

As reading goes on the photograph analyzed that the messages 1 is linguistic message, 2 is coded iconic message and a non-coded iconic message. 

Denoted Image is that image is speaking the distinction between the literal message and the symbolic message and it is operational. 

Rhetoric of the image is where the sign of the 3rd message were message cultural that  on and off when the signifier become enlarge over the whole image however a sign is separated from the others than the composition that carries a set of principals of signified.

Tabarka Tamkin- March 24

Airbnb is an online marketplace that connects people who want to rent out their homes with people who are looking for accommodations in that locale. Airbnb comes up with an idea about an ad campaign about the #weaccept. This ad is about the accepting diversity and acceptance. Today they are setting a goal to provide short-term housing for 100,000 people those in need in the period of five years. In this ad they are using differnet cultural identities to express and letting people know they are not alone. This ad campaign is a video that include various races, ages and different religious people’s close up that tells many things by looking at them. Airbnb is helping them to find a place to stay and also making then feel connected, respected, and a part of a community again.

Loreal is the world’s largest cosmetics company and they concentrate on cosmetics, beauty and Make-up products . The ad campaign that they work on is make-up ad and their headline is “This is an Ad for men”.This ad is rewarded with international awards.  In this ad, Loreal is giving both gender equality and diversity. It encourag the women to have measurement of the power of female leaders. As Germany became aware of giving equal pay and equal career opportunities. Loreal Paris also started this by giving the power to female leaders to run International Women’s Day in business magazines and economic online news.  As for men, they have the power to make decision. it shows the benefits of a more diverse leadership increase in profitability, more creative changes and higher employees opportunities.

This is a magazine cover of a National Geographic where they use a picture of a biracial twin sisters who were fraternal twins but non identical twins. However, two sisters are as genetically similar to each other as any other pair of sisters. Millie’s hair and skin became black, while her sister Marcia become pale and blonde. Marcia inherite more of her mother’s physical characteristics, and Millie more of her father’s. The magazine cover has title about the twins sisters “Black and White” with with explaination “These twins sisters make us rethink eveything we know about race”. The National Geographic is focusing on the issue to talk about the race and they also shared twins sisters experience on race in magazine and they also made a video on it.


Tabarka Tamkin- March 17

Media extend human beings or humainty by the medium that is technology that gives us the opportunity to use it to communicate with other by using it and also to spread those  message to ourself. In the article by McLuhan’s influential 1964 book Understanding Media: “The Extensions of Man” says that “characteristic of all media, means that the “content” of any medium is always another medium”. This quote means that medium is the message wheather it is verbal or written that is also medium that has message to share with others.  

The hazards that  technological progress might bring for individual and society in electric age or in the current age are that one is human jobs that might replace with technology and the second is that people communication will be depend on technology too. As in the reading the author says that “It is not an exaggeration to say that the future of modern society and the stability of its inner life depends in large part on the maintenance of an equilibrium between the strength of the techniques of communication and the capacity of the individual’s own reaction”. This quote explains that people in modern lifes of communication depends on the the medium of the technology the techniques they use to communicate and that it takes the strength to in their inner life this techniques is the important part of their life.

If “the medium is the message,” The  role of the artists and designers play in creating new ideas and those are that they use technology and the medium to shape and influence  the society as they share the message. As it goes on, in electric age, “the medium is the message,” becomes the basic idea and design that people normally use to spread the educational theory.  It may means that now days, media is everywhere people use the technology to spread the content or message to make an awareness or educate people on some issues either usung the written words or the design. 


Tabarka Tamkin- March 10

According to Jan Tschichold, Karl Gerstner, and Josef Müller-Brockmann, artists should design their creative designs by using their knowledge, ability and mentality that gives clarity.  New Typography that allows us to such variation of asymmetry movements in typography. In the reading by Jan Tschichold, “The New Typography(1928)”. Tschichold talks about the New Typograophy that “the principle of asymmetry gives unlimited scope for variation in the New Typography. It also expresses the diversity of modern life, unlike central- axis typography, which, apart from variations of typeface , doesn’t allow such variety”. In this quote Tschichold talks about that New Typograpghy has asymmetry that gives limitless of range for many variation of typeface that helps us design the creative work in the diversity of modern life. Variation of typography allow us to play with typography that it has clarity and its legible. However in the Old typography, there is only central- axis and it is opposite to New Typography  that it doesn’t allow many variety in typeface and its bacially the known as only one basic form that is center. 

As we talk about the design, In the text by Josef Müller “Brockmann, Grid and Design Philosophy(1981)” talks about the grid system for design that every creative designers needs to have the will to submit their work and  to have a constructive and creative spirit towards their designs. Muller says that “ Every visual creative work is a manifestation of the character of the designer. It is a reflection of his knowledge, his ability, and his mentality”. This quote explains that designers have the will to use their creative knowledge, ability to support and justify the creative and technical production process and thier mentality to design it.

However, In the text by  Karl Gerstner, “Designing Programmes(1964) talks about combining the art and science to create an art.Later he developed a system and this system evolved is computer programming. By that he also said  design is method that pick out the element and combine those elements to create the creative design. So he came up with the “Morphological box of the typography”. He said to use “ The basic unit is 10 points; the size of the basic typeface including the lead. The text and picture area are divided at the same time into one, two, three, four, five and six columes”. This quote explains that Getstner is using the Computer programme as grid to design the text and picture amd making the 6 columes to divide it.

Tabarka Tamkin- Februray 25

The key elements of art are color, form, line, shape, space, texture, and value. According to authors of these 3 readings, the key elements that they mostly talk about color, line, form, shape and value. But they least talk about the texture and the space. As in the reading, Herbert Bayer; “On Typography” (1967) talks about that in the past, they also “ lack concern with the alphabet, writing, and typography”. Where as that alphabets, writing and typography has become an art and it is going to be the idea to still develop in 21 century. 

The necessary for making art in the future is that the art has the power that it can bring one’s attention to make them aware of the world’s issue. They also has the power to make other truly feel the ideas, preception and give them knowledge. In the reading, Walter Gropius; “The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus”(1923) talks about the conception and visualization that “Only the individual’s capacity to feel, to know and … In a work of art the laws of the physical world, the intellectual   and the world of the spirit function and are expressed simultaneously”. This quote explains that the idea of creating art and in work of art. It has the power to make one individual can feel physically and emotionally.

Education or the academy should teach artists about their field  that the responsibilities that artists’ ideas can be the key to contact with world. The idea sometimes can emotionally and physically connect and others can relate and share thier experience to it. In the text by László Moholy- “Nagy; Typophoto”(1925) says that “The preliminary work in this field was done by the illustrated papers, posters and by display printing”. This quote tells us that the initial work of this artists field is done by the illustration of paper and posters and display printing can inspire the community and culture.

The idea that continues to be important in 21st century for art and design is Typophoto. Typography is communication and has been use in type and Photography is the visual art and their portmanteau is Typophoto. This idea is still going to develop in 21st century as the László Moholy- “Nagy; Typophoto”(1925) says in the reading that “ In the future every printing press will be posses its own block- making plant, and it can be confidently stated that the future of typographic methods lies with the photomachinical  processes” and so on. In the text Moholy is saying that not only the printing press changes but also the typography and the photography will change and the technique of typography and photography will be electronic. This process is going to be called photomechanical. 


Tabarka Tamkin- February 18

The new possibilities that the authors of these texts envision for the new century. The authors predict the dematerialization of the technologies that as the time goes by the new invention of technology evolove and its increasing the digital world or the production of instruments; making the use of less material. As El Lissitzky, “Our Book (1926)” said in her book about dematerialization “ Then comes further growth of the communications network… then radio eases the burden”. This quote tells us the technology changed over the time. El Lissitzky also discuss about the the process of the machines such as the invetor of the printing press system printed few books and its success in book art. After that, photography invention came and soo on till today its Digital Media is on top. 

These artists anticipate the art and designs that would follow the distinctive style that will be vision for society. The art and design will change the society for better like this in reading Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism (1909)” talks about the Manifesto of Futurism no 9 “We want to glorify war- the wonly cure for the world- militarism, patrotism, the destructive gesture of the anarchists, the beautiful ideas which kill, and contempt for women.” This quote is positive for country where they devote thereself for country and can die for the beautiful ideas and at the same time negative for women. On the other hand Aleksandr Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, Aleksei Gan, “Who We Are: Manifesto of the Constructivist Group (c. 1922)” talks about the use of technology in to give revolutionary concept of Functionalism, economy and also to Soviet citizens as well.

The ideas of the these authors that intersect is the use technology. Wheather its use for the war or artists to use to shape the society to make new world. Aleksandr Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, Aleksei Gan, “Who We Are: Manifesto of the Constructivist Group (c. 1922)” talks about first few lines poem “ We didn’t create technology we didn’t create man But we, Artists yesterday constructors today,” I agree with this that we can’t create man and all but we as artist can design the art or the vision ideas that we have.

 The ideas where the authors might diverge is that the technology is changing over the time. El Lissitzky predicted the dematerialization in digital world. Lissitzky says “I submit these analogies in order to demostrate that as long as the book is of necessity a handheld object,…recordings or taking pictures, we must wait from day to day for new fundamental investion in the field”. I think nowdays, it happen where as new invention come we forget the old one like the book then the printing system then the technology comes.