Islam Mahrouss- March 31/ April 14

“The image immediately yields a first message  whose substance is linguistic; its supports are the caption, which is marginal, and the labels, these being inserted into the natural disposition of the scene, “en abyme”. “

“Putting aside the linguistic message, we are left with the pure image (even if the labels are part of it, anecdotally). This image straightaway provides a series of discontinuous signs.”

“The signifieds of this third message are constituted by the real objects in the scene, the signifiers by these same objects photographed, for, given that the relation between things signified and image signifying in analogical representation is not “arbitrary”.”

Three Main Messages Messages:

  1. Linguistics – The text that appears anywhere in the image.
  2. Coded Iconic Message – what the image implies and its cultural value. It is what the advertisers are trying to say to us and what we were meant to draw from the image. 
  3. Non Coded Iconic Message –  It is the message that you are processing based on the communication through a system of signs.
  • Denotational – Is based on what is present in front of us  and what we see.
  • Conotational – Is based on putting certain ideas together from the information we gathered in the image. 
  • Anchorage – Brings things to your understanding. How the text supports (anchors) the image. 
  • Relay – Makes you ask questions about the image, and opens new doors for what the picture could mean. It also leaves room for interpretation. 

This is the information that I understood best from the reading and what I was able to clarify more of. From what it seems the three messages are the most important thing understanding how to break down an advertisement image. What I found interesting was how most of the information based in an advertisement is based on what we know culturally and how we associate different objects with different cultures. For example the brand name of the pasta indicates to us that it is somewhat Italian and we see different objects in the bag  that is next to the pasta like the tomato which indicates to us a classic spaghetti dinner. For people that don’t know the cultural meanings of these objects would be able to understand the ad as well as we do. I think this is how advertisers are able to communicate with us and is what gives an ad its power. 


March 31st Reading

The author offers a delving into linguistics as far as it relates to advertising, discussing not only the more obvious decisions that we as viewers make on a image, but goes so far as to further break down and specify the layers to our perception of advertisement, frankly, in a way that is important to much more then just advertising. The reading, though difficult, is an important study on what advertisers are truly doing on a technical level, and what the viewers are doing as well. This knowledge is, while not perhaps applicable to every situation, is important back-hand knowledge to understand what it is a designer must aim for in their projects.

The author states “Thus there are four signs for this image and we will assume that they form a coherent whole” here he expresses that though there are multiple ways in which to convey a  message, there can be multiplicity as well as singularity in an ad. For example, an ad for coke might show someone drinking it in a glass filled with ice on a beach and the text reads “DRINK COKE” here we have two signs, one is the coke in the glass informing the reader it is a refreshing beverage good for the hot weather, the second, is the command to buy and consume that product. The author identifies four total ways of speaking or rather, conveying meaning to the viewer, but this does not undermine the singular plot of the advertising agency. This basic affirmation, seems to be the continuous plot of the entire writing.

One manner in which the simplicity and complexity of language can be observed in the reading is where the author states “An advertisement… shows a few fruits scattered around a ladder; the caption… banishes one possible signified,” here the author demonstrates how the written language can clarify and constrain the possible interpretations of the art, thus it is important if not needed for proper art.

While this information is less important for junior designers it offers invaluable knowledge for art directors and those who want to become them. One might be able to design well, but not understand the linguistic underpinnings and rules to what they do, thus, in a leadership role they might falter.

Tabarka Tamkin- March 31

Etymology – etymology means the study of root of linguistic change, especially as manifested in individual words.

Polysemy – the ability of a word to posses several meaning.

linguistic sign – a sign is a combination between a concept and a sound image.

Connoted – imply or suggest.

Denoted – indication

Decipher – Convert into normal language.

Assonance – the repetition of the sound of a vowel.

Anchorage- frequent function of the linguistic message and commonly found in press photography and advertisements.

mythical idea of Life. it means that the linguistic nature image is being presented again and finally it takes action 

There are 3 messages.

The linguistic Message, Denoted Image and Rhetoric of the Image.

1st message is produce by the image and linguistic is the medium and captions, labels and marginals supports the linguistic.

The linguistic message is a sign or indication and suggested or the concept.

The reading discuss about the sign stages that the first sign of the image is idea and how it represented the product. Second sign talks about the it is more or less equal to noticeable to bring together the signifier for the product. As they explore the image, they discover the two other sign. 1 is a collection of different  object that transmit the idea that is different service. In other sign, it is about the composition of the image that is an illustration that express in other language is “still life”. 

As reading goes on the photograph analyzed that the messages 1 is linguistic message, 2 is coded iconic message and a non-coded iconic message. 

Denoted Image is that image is speaking the distinction between the literal message and the symbolic message and it is operational. 

Rhetoric of the image is where the sign of the 3rd message were message cultural that  on and off when the signifier become enlarge over the whole image however a sign is separated from the others than the composition that carries a set of principals of signified.

*Assignment for April 21 (Part 1)*

Please note that we will have a full Webex class session on April 14. (Spring Break is shortened because of the Recalibration Period.) You should complete the Roland Barthes reading and post your notes before the 14th.

The second short paper, is due on April 21, and there will also be two short texts to read for that class. I will assign the texts in class on the 14th. Please use the time until then to work on the paper and to research your Final Project.

The second 2-3 page paper is a response to Roland Barthes’ Rhetoric of the Image. The objective for this paper is to analyze the rhetorical elements of a recent advertisement. Ideally, the ad should be from a print magazine.

The advertisement should use photographic imagery, and should include text. Begin by describing the image in as much detail as possible, examining the characteristics of the objects, models, environment, etc. pictured; and the layout, typography, interaction of picture elements, image quality and composition of the entire ad. Try to identify all of the signs at work in the image.

Make your best attempt to articulate the meaning of the image, using Barthes’ terms. What is the linguistic message? What are the non-coded iconic messages? What are the coded iconic messages? Identify the denotative and connotative aspects, the use of anchorage and relay, the semantic and lexical components, etc. Consider the effectiveness of the advertisers’ rhetoric, and the ideological metalanguage employed.

This response will be submitted as a 750-1000 word typewritten paper, double-spaced in 12 pt. Times New Roman. Include images of the advertisement under consideration and any other relevant illustrations. All references and quotations, including image sources should be properly cited in MLA format. Upload a PDF to a new Post on OpenLab before class on the 21st.

Nirel Escalante – March 31st

Words to learn

etymology: the study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history.

agglutination:  a mass or group formed by the union of separate elements.

phonemes: any of the abstract units of the phonetic system of a language that correspond to a set of similar speech sounds (such as the velar \k\ of cool and the palatal \k\ of keel) which are perceived to be a single distinctive sound in the language

ineffable: incapable of being expressed in words

ontology: a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being Ontology deals with abstract entities.

quasi: seemingly; apparently but not really.

tautological: A statement composed of simpler statements in such a way that it is logically true whether the simpler statements are factually true or false; for example, the statement Either it will rain tomorrow or it will not rain tomorrow.

polysemous: Having or characterized by many meanings, as the words play and table.

Needs Clarification: 

The Three Messages:

1st message is linguistic ; the captions, the labels. being inserted in the natural disposition of the scene In Western art history, ” en abyme “( is a formal technique of placing a copy of an image within itself, often in a way that suggests an infinitely recurring sequence.)

2nd message is the pure image ; provides various signs aka the signified (return from the market which is a signified itself that implies the freshness of the food and the preparation of the food to make a meal.) Another sign is the the tricolored foods (red, green, white)which are the signifiers, and Italy would be the signified.

3rd message is cultural, the composition of the vegetables and the can and spaghetti in the markey bag are composed in a manner that looks like a still life.






Gelek Samphel March 31

Barthes believes that in mass communication, linguistic messages are in fact omnipresent. It buried into images, such as captions attached to illustrations, subtitles on films, dialogues in short films, etc., writing and speaking continue to dominate the functioning of information structures. For the connection between images and verbal messages, Barthes proposed two concepts, anchorage, and relay.

Because of the polysemy of symbols, the multiple and constantly changing meanings are often hidden under the same signifier. Therefore, if the language information is not “marked”, the meaning of the image will be difficult to establish. In order to overcome the uncertainty of the symbol, The language was used as a tool to identify, interpret, and stabilize the meaning of the image. Roland Barthes called this function “anchorage”. The language helps readers identify the explicit meaning of the image. (Denotation), at the same time limit the hidden meaning of the image (connotation), and even try to package the implicit meaning of the image into self-explanatory meaning.

As a means of reproduction, images do not objectively and fairly reflect the real world. Their meaning has yet to be further stabilized, decoded, and interpreted. Images can also be regarded as the perspective of the photographer to understand the world. When analyzing an image, it is necessary for the viewers to consider both the social and cultural context of the photographer and the context in which the image is applied, so as to understand the cultural meaning and hidden ideology symbolized by the image itself.

Another Quick Update

I hope everyone had a chance to look at my message (sent via OpenLab on the 27th at 12:24) regarding schedule updates. Please take a look if you haven’t had a chance yet.

Due to the Recalibration Period, there are no classes this week. But if you would like to work on your second 2-3 page paper, I’ll host a short Webex session tomorrow morning to discuss the Barthes reading and the paper. This is optional, but I hope it will be beneficial.

Please also note that we will have class on the 14th, as the timeline for Spring Break has been changed.

There will be a new post with details for the second paper tomorrow morning.

And if you’d like to review the agenda for the rest of the semester, our Syllabus Page has been updated to reflect these changes.

Be well!

March 31st

Roland Barthes was analyzing an image in regards to an illustration or a representation of something. Barthes also analyzes how meaningful are associated with specific images.

The word linguistics means the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics. Language plays a very important role in human lives. It is a social phenomenon. One of the main goals of language is  communicate with people and to understand them.

As Barthes was trying to say that “Archorage is the most frequent function of the linguistic message and is commonly found in press photographs and advertisements.” the ad that is shown in the beginning of the chapter represents pasta noodles, opened string bag that is falling from and tomatoes. The message is displayed by an image, and a series of signifiers pertaining to an intended signified.

We denoted image that was communicated well the literal message and symbol message is operational. the message speaks evicted corresponds to virtuality that is an absence of meaning.