Assignment 4

   The reason why key elements are lacking in art of the past is because they are color, form, line, shape, space, texture, and value. There are different types of art such as visual, fine, animation, graphic, culinary, and etc. The subject art has existed for many decades and comes in all forms from shapes and sizes, and years. However, the purpose of art can also be political, spiritual or philosophical ideas, to create a sense of beauty to explore the nature of perception, for pleasure, or to generate strong emotions. Art is an act of expressing feelings, thoughts, and observations.


     In the article “Typophoto” by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy”, “ typography was for the first time seen not as an isolated discipline and technique, but in context with the ever-widening visual experiences that the picture symbol, photo, film, and television brought”.  The term typography, is the art or procedure of arranging type or processing data and printing from it. However, typography was used in many ways. Such as, adjusting the text within the design while creating powerful content. It provides an attractive appearance and preserves the aesthetic value of your content. Typography attracts readers attention, gives medium communication, It conveys a certain mood or feeling and it establishes an information hierarchy.


       Education should teach artists that the idea is up to them to choose the type of ideas that they want you to do. We should also learn as beginners which bring back the more traditional aspects that the Bauhaus was influenced from, the arts and crafts movement. Also, the design disciplines together as opposed to separately which was the more traditional way of doing it. It is a good idea to communicate with people in the same field as you so it can help you to network and get connections throughout the long run. 

      The ideas should be important for the 21st century art and design is typography because we can use it in many ways such as social media, photos, posters, and text. Good typography can make people write better, allowing the reader to focus on the substance behind the written word.   On Typography by Herbert Bayer “new concepts will not grow on mere design variations of long-established forms such as the book. the aesthetic restraint that limits the development of the book must finally be overcome, and new ideas must logically be deduced from the function of typography and its carriers.”  Using new ideas can help us to have a better artwork, and a better idea to promote our artwork.


Art was Seventeen thousand years ago, humans painted realistic images of bulls, bison, stags, horses, and other animals on the walls of the caves. Art is not only drawn figures, art is colors tint even shades. Art can be an abstraction of shapes done in a composition.

In the first reading by  “Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus (1923): Gropius_Bauhaus” he states that forms and color gain meaning only as they are related to our inners self like for example that color Red it reflects a meaning of emotion than blue or yellow.

In the second reading by László Moholy-Nagy ,it talks about typography and typo photo and how typo photo gives the typography for meaning.  Photographyis highly effective when used as typographical material. It may appear as illustration beside the words, or in the form of “phototext” in place of words. I think its simple to what designer do in advertisement that the photograph basically speaks for than the word.

In the 3rd reading by Herbert bayer i reaaly like his statement which is “typography is a service art, not a fine art” i think by which he means that typography is a way that communicates the meaning through geometric shapes but  not fine art.



assignment 1

The reason why Rudimentary communication methods are relevant when it comes to contemporary information systems is because designers today create and communicate has quietly thrust universality back into the foundation of our work. Technology is empowering a new collectivist, in order to understand how this crucial design concept is evolving. However, we need to take a look at how it initially emerged.

Contemporary designers concern themselves when it comes to writing or techniques. A form of expression was working for pictures and videos. Although, directed craft objects that are both tools for design and tools for exploration towards a number of projects, spanning a decade, centered on self-identity and personal significance. The punctuation was used individually to spread grammatical and typographical standards prior to printing throughout region to region.

What provokes new ideas are the typeface Helvetica, generation after generation, yet nearly anyone living in a literate, urbanized part of the world has seen this typeface or characters inspired by it. In the reading “Graphic Design Theory by Helen Armstrong” Design is a social activity, which is rarely working alone or in private. Besides working alone or in private, as designers were able to communicate with clients, audiences, publishers, institutions, and collaborators. While our work is exposed and highly visible. As individuals we often remain anonymous, our contribution to the texture of daily life existing below the threshold of public recognition.

Assignment 2

What distinguishes semiology from linguistics is that we have already drawn the line. We determine the exact place of semiology which is the task of the psychologist. But the task of the linguist is to find out what makes language a special system within the mass of semiological data. Although, it is distinct from linguistics despite the points of contact between the two sciences and mutual services that they provide.

During our everyday language we use signs by communicating with people. Language is a physical form, no less so than speaking; and this is a help in our study of it. Linguistic signs, though basically psychological, are not abstractions; associations which bear the stamp of collective approval. The subject matter of linguistics comprises all manifestations of human speech, whether that of savages or civilized nations, or of archaic, classical or decadent periods. In general communication, Language is checked not only by the weight of the collect but also by time.

As of language, graphic communication, and visual arts are related, considering language in time, without the community of speakers. Imagine an isolated individual Uving for several centuries. Although, we probably would notice no change and time would not influence language. Conversely, if we considered the community of speakers without considering time. We would not see the effect of the social forces that influence language. It changes in time takes many forms, on any one of which an important chapter in linguistics might be written.

Assignment 3

As we get older technology tends to change everyday and makes it easier for everybody. There’s some people that are old school and still do not keep up with technology. For an example, it’s difficult for my parents and my family to keep up with technology since they grew up in an older generation where technology did not exist and do take care of almost everything in person such as paying the bills physically, shopping in person. The only thing that existed for them to use technology is a flip phone or a house phone that has a cord. On the other hand, there’s people that don’t use technology the proper way such as using it for illegal things, or posting inappropriate things.

According to the article, Our Book by El Lissitzky. “The hieroglyph is international: that is to say, if a Russian, a German, or an American impresses the symbols (pictures) of the ideas on his memory, he can read Chinese or Egyptian (silently), without acquiring a knowledge of the language, for language and writing are each patterns in themselves.” The writing is completely different compared to English, Spanish, Italian, German, and French. What makes it unique is that not a lot of people are able to visualize different languages besides English and Spanish. The progress of the letter in relation to the hieroglyph is relative.

The author in Constructivist Manifesto emphasized these things because he wanted to utilize Graphic Design as a profession to bring society. Also, He was really big on social issues and supported the use of technology, design and industrialism to fix society for the better. Besides as a designer, he was as an engineer and inventor as well. As designers we have a potential to utilize the skills much better compared to people in the older generations. Since people in this generation and other potential generations have better tools and better technology.

In the article, The Futurist Manifesto Filippo by Tommaso Marinetti. These artists anticipated the art and design that would follow is that they are Truly identical in their sinister juxtaposition of bodies that do not know each other. However, public dormitories where you sleep side by side forever with beings you hate or do not know. The Reciprocal violence of the painters and sculptors who murder each other in the same museum with blows of line and color.

The ideas where the authors might separate is that technology sometimes forgets people how to do things physically and visually such as reading stuff in a newspaper, communicating with people more in person, watching the news more often, learning off a textbook, etc.

Jessica Lee- Feb 25th

Art students are constantly struggling to create art that allows them to express themselves, due to the rules that have been implemented in their education from the beginning of their learning. In “Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus,” he talks about how the Bauhaus starts off their students in a preliminary course, with practical and theoretical studies which gets the students’ gears going. This also leads to breaking down conventional patterns of thought so that the artist  can access personal experiences and discoveries and see what they can do and can not do. He also talks about how students are taking the preliminary course under instructors and then in the next class they are acquainted with an apprentice to learn. There was also a mention where schooling alone is not an option to creating art, which means that you have to have talent and motivation along with the knowledge of school teachings to create artwork. 

When I was reading, “László Moholy-Nagy; Typophoto” I had asked myself, what is a typophoto and what does it do? For starters, typography is a way of communication that is composed in type. Photography is a visual of that can be a visual perception. Together it means that you have typography and photography in the document, examples of this are illustrated papers, posters, and display printings. In typographic material, photography is usually the most highly effective in trying to send out a message. Meaning that, since it appears to be an illustration beside the words or a form on phototext, which replaces word, this makes it a precise form of representation, leaving no interpretation. 

Today, artists are producing typophotos and are inspired by the Bauhaus’ radical movement. However the medium of art is not limited and because design is unlimited it can be applied to many things, such as architecture, furniture, and fashion. The Bauhaus has influenced all of these different areas and it continues to inspire many artists and designers today, as we still co-influence from this school. 

Ruimel Graham – February 25th

Art can be expression through human creative skills and imagination. Art can come from different forms and elements like three-dimensional, encloses volume, having length, width, and height, shape. One important movement was”Bauhaus”. Bauhaus was created in 1919. Walter Gropius was the founder and director for Bauhaus. In the reading, Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus (1923), Gropius explain on one of his theory that being isolated when creating art can you become a better artist. Being a self taught artist can make you not forget concepts , see your mistakes, and become more aware.

In the reading, László Moholy-Nagy; Typophoto (1925), the author explain his theory on typophoto which is type mix in with photos. What is typophoto? “Typography is communication composed in type. Photography is the visual presentation of what can be optically apprehended. Typophoto is the visually most exact rendering of communication”, according to the reading. Typography was used a lot in posters, ads, and photos. The author shows the reader that using typophoto can communicate with humans. This is another way of art. During the Bauhaus era, this help Typophoto to expand.

Lastly, in the reading , Herbert Bayer; On Typography (1967). Bayer was graphic designer, painter, photographer, sculptor, art director, environmental and interior designer, and architect but he is mostly known for his type Bauhaus. Bayer is one of the creator for the Bauhaus font. The font looks like geometric shapes.  On the first line, the author said “typography is a service art, not a fine art” this can mean that this type of font is worth paying then worth free. Service is paying. Paying for art means it has value then compare to something that is free which is express freely.


Islam Mahrouss February 25

Art can come in so many forms and can be expressed in so many ways. However most importantly it is about an individual’s self expression. Reading “Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus”, I saw how the Bauhaus reshaped art and creativity. Many  artists were trained in fine arts or architecture but many of them did not go into those fields after they finished their education because according to Gropius, “Unequipped to function successfully in the struggle for existence, they found themselves numbered among the social drones, useless, by virtue of their schooling, in the productive life of the nation”. The Bahuaus focused on not only creativity but also the industry that surrounds it and creating artists that can create that new industry one made for them. What I liked the most about reading this article is that I saw how students were free to create and express themselves outside of any art movement or trend. I also found this particular quote interesting, “Schooling alone can never produce art!What are the finished products is an exercise in ingenuity or a work of art depends on the talent of the individual who creates it”. I found this interesting because I thought that it was very relatable to art schools now. What we learn in school will help us be better designers but we also need talent and creativity.

As design and technology continue to evolve, new ways of creating art emerge. Inventions such as photography, printing, and movable typography have been incorporated with design to create a stronger and more impactful design. Reading,“László Moholy-Nagy; Typophoto ”, discusses the use of photography and typography.According to Moholy-Nagy, “Photography is the visual presentation of what can be optically apprehended. Typophoto is the visually most exact rendering of communication”.  Both of those elements combined together create a visual and informative design. The same thing can also be achieved with illustration as well as photography, but most importantly it’s the idea of the image and typography being a link to each other making the design and the message being communicated stronger. 

Although Moholy-Nagy showed us that typography and imagery are strong together, typography on its own is just as impactful. In, Herbert Bayer; On Typography, he discussed how typography itself can be a visual image. In a way typography is an illustration but with words. Its purpose is to communicate a message but how that message is communicated is based on how its designed.According to Bayer, “It is a fallacy to believe that styles can be created as easily and as often as fashion”. Typography is expressive and during the time Bayer was writing this reading type was being reinvented in a new and exciting way where it is modern, expressive, and it opened many new design opportunities.

Nirel Escalante- February 25

The founder and first director of the Bauhaus was Walter Gropius. He developed his own theory and structure of what “The academy” or education on the topic of art should be. His main concern came from over abundant modern soul-less machine manufacturing that replaced the hand made artisanal objects. He was also concerned with art being less relevant in society which I believe he attributed that to technological advancements in society as well as how everything become so industrialized that the craftsmanship of what it used to take to make objects has left. Regardless of the negative outcomes of mass production he understood the benefits of it and wanted to use it in a way that gave it a bit more “soul”.  His aim was to reunite fine art and functional design as well as making them practical, giving objects the soul of the artist.

I agree with the Bauhaus approach to teaching art and design and several other design disciplines together as opposed to separately which was the more traditional way of doing it. Students also learned through apprenticeships which bring back the more traditional aspects that the Bauhaus was influenced from, the arts and crafts movement. This is one key aspect that I believe was a game changer fro students. Interacting with other people from their field, as well as apprenticing under a master in their field teaches you more than what an art school can.

The bauhaus movement was mainly about problem solving and experimenting. We can see that as well in Lazlo Maholy Nagy’s essay “The Typophoto”. He coined the term typophoto, and described it as visually the most exact rendering of communication possible. He came to predict the importance of the combination of words and images to communicate, the main practice in graphic design itself. Herbert Bayer predicted having access to information available and ready whenever needed, and also predicted that people will read and write less, possibly eliminating the need for books. Herbert Bayer was also interested in solving universal communication, and sought out to create a universal typography. Most Interestingly to me is when he talks about Square Span, which is the layout of words by putting them into thought groups of two or three short lines as opposed to reading a continuous horizontal sequence. There was an example of the square span and as I read it, I found it to be much easier to read. This goes to show that any form of communication can be improved upon.

Tabarka Tamkin- Februray 25

The key elements of art are color, form, line, shape, space, texture, and value. According to authors of these 3 readings, the key elements that they mostly talk about color, line, form, shape and value. But they least talk about the texture and the space. As in the reading, Herbert Bayer; “On Typography” (1967) talks about that in the past, they also “ lack concern with the alphabet, writing, and typography”. Where as that alphabets, writing and typography has become an art and it is going to be the idea to still develop in 21 century. 

The necessary for making art in the future is that the art has the power that it can bring one’s attention to make them aware of the world’s issue. They also has the power to make other truly feel the ideas, preception and give them knowledge. In the reading, Walter Gropius; “The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus”(1923) talks about the conception and visualization that “Only the individual’s capacity to feel, to know and … In a work of art the laws of the physical world, the intellectual   and the world of the spirit function and are expressed simultaneously”. This quote explains that the idea of creating art and in work of art. It has the power to make one individual can feel physically and emotionally.

Education or the academy should teach artists about their field  that the responsibilities that artists’ ideas can be the key to contact with world. The idea sometimes can emotionally and physically connect and others can relate and share thier experience to it. In the text by László Moholy- “Nagy; Typophoto”(1925) says that “The preliminary work in this field was done by the illustrated papers, posters and by display printing”. This quote tells us that the initial work of this artists field is done by the illustration of paper and posters and display printing can inspire the community and culture.

The idea that continues to be important in 21st century for art and design is Typophoto. Typography is communication and has been use in type and Photography is the visual art and their portmanteau is Typophoto. This idea is still going to develop in 21st century as the László Moholy- “Nagy; Typophoto”(1925) says in the reading that “ In the future every printing press will be posses its own block- making plant, and it can be confidently stated that the future of typographic methods lies with the photomachinical  processes” and so on. In the text Moholy is saying that not only the printing press changes but also the typography and the photography will change and the technique of typography and photography will be electronic. This process is going to be called photomechanical.