Annotated Bibliography

Seidman, Gwendolyn. “Self-Presentation and belonging on Facebook: How personality influences social media use and motivations.” (Elsevier): 1-6. Print.

Self-Presentation and belonging on Facebook: How personality influences social media use and motivations

Gwendolyn Seidman’s motivation behind her article stems from a survey conducted to analyze in what way personality effects incentive to fulfill belonging and self-presentation on Facebook.¬†The article suggests that there are five distinct traits that make up the notion behind personality which include, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism. In concluding the article, Seidman goes on to elaborate on her results from conducting the survey and what it meant or potentially meant in getting at her ideas.

The article focused on one particular networking site, Facebook which could be useful in conducting an updated version of the survey for 2015 or even contributing another networking site besides Facebook. The idea of conducting a survey is a great way to collect data and come up with numbers that can answer questions pertaining to the way users of the web practice self-presentation on social media. Conducting a survey online, would essentially be a multimodal composing tactic that is quick and easy than a print version. With data collected from a survey, anyone can get a sense of how the internet acts as a safe haven to display alternate selves.


Hogan, Bernie. “The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online.” SAGE (2010): 1-10. Print.

The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online

With social media at an all time high and it’s continuance to grow, self-presentation continues to be a factor in the practice of social networking. Hogan sets the tone of the article by evaluating and analyzing the work and ideas of Goffman who proclaims that people’s interactions online attribute to space and time. The idea of practicing the timing of producing content for a specific social media platform affects the impression one may receive from viewers, followers, ¬†or friends. The space of the medium and timing of the content correlate to impression management.

Opinions individuals may have about persons with multiple social media accounts putting up a front or facade is generated by the specific details that one may share in order to portray a likeable impression along viewers. This begs the question, how much detail does an individual reveal or conceal to illustrate their desired outlook on their social medium?


Kramer, Nicole C. Kramer & Winter,¬†Stephan. “Impression Management 2.0.” Journal of Media Psychology (2008): 1-11. Print.

Impression management influences users to actively participate in social networking sites and the article by Kramer and Winter, highlight the significance of impression management by conducting a survey. The study shows the relationship between individuals actions both offline and online to differentiate self-presentation. Self-efficacy is the driving force behind impression management as it correlates to the number of friends, followers, or like an individual may receive on their social platform.

There are many factors that may explain why an individual presents themselves in a specific way, self-efficacy being one of them and impression management is another. One may ask, how much of both factors play a role and why?


Is Your Social Media Presence An Accurate Portrayal of Who You Are?

Suchanek, Anne Marie. Is Your Social Media Presence An Accurate Portrayal of Who You Are? Blog. Syracuse: Information Space, 2012. Print.

Suchanek poses this question to her readers: ” Is the person we present ourselves to be on the internet who we really are?” (1). There is no wrong or write answer to this question as everyone’s interpretation varies. However, Suchanek reminds us that social media is booming and is no where close to dying down which allows users of the web to be more inclined to share digitally than in person.This notion then reminds us that it is easier to write something online than to say it out loud, which then allows for false or “tweaked” self-presentation online.


3 Keys for a Successful E-Portfolio Implementation

Nelson, Sharleen. 3 Keys for a Successful E-Portfolio Implementation. The Journal. 2011. Print.

The article focuses on not only what is well known of an e-portfolio to do,  but also highlights three significant elements that are crucial if institutions are looking to implement e-portfolios into the classroom. These elements include:

  1. Students must understand the standards
  2. Students must understand what it means to reflect
  3. Students should think about additional audiences for their work

With these elements in mind and put into practice, students can share their goals and growth.

E-portfolios are not only a technology but an educational tool to enhance one’s ability to learn. Similarly, LinkedIn serves as a tool that displays one’s abilities and attributes documented over time.


Ten Tips to use LinkedIn Succesfully

LinkedIn is a great platform for networking. However, a weak profile could be more damaging than not being on there at all. Hence this article aims to inform readers of the best strategies in order to create a successful profile. Following these steps are important in networking and seeking career opportunities. Beginning a LinkedIn account it is important to know what content a user will and will not display as well as what the user deems worthy of being seen to potential employers. Without the proper steps and guidance, viewers will be quick in judging the profile the wrong way that the user did not intend to be viewed.


Annotated Bibliography

How to Start a Successful Blog Today” | The Minimalists.” The Minimalists. N.p., 11 Apr. 2011. Web. Nov. 2015.

The Minimalists are bloggers Joshua Fields Millburn & Ryan Nicodemus who write about “living a meaningful life with less stuff”. Their work has been featured on ABC, CBS, NBC, BBC, TODAY, NPR, TIME, Forbes, The Atlantic, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, and National Post. This essay speaks on what it to create a successful blog.

Some of the tips included in the post are how to decide if you are creating the blog for the right reasons (none of them being money, notoriety, and viewer traffic) and recommendations on how to start and maintain a blog. The most helpful information pertained to being transparent while still being interesting.

The First Step To Building Your Personal Brand.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 14 Feb. 2012. Web. Nov. 2015.

The Forbes article touches on the foundation of personal branding in the professional world. Employers will Google someone before the interview and the digital footprint left is a key part in personal branding. This article focuses on creating and maintaining the best footprint possible.

Some of the ley takeaways are self-promotion and becoming an expert in the field that is being explored. These are some questions that were posed in the article:

  • How do I make people feel?
  • How do people benefit by working with me?
  • What words do others use to describe me?



Cohen, James & Kenny, Thomas. ‚ÄúThe Online Personal Brand.‚ÄĚ Cohen, James & Kenny, Thomas. Producing New and Digital Media. Burlington: Focal Press, 2016. 220-228. Print.

‚ÄúThe Online Personal Brand‚ÄĚ by Cohen and Kenny gives a thorough view on the creation and maintenance of a personal brand. The chapter provides¬†examples using successful blogs and vlogs¬†across different platforms. The entire chapter gives information that will help with the advancement of this¬†project.

The general idea that is given throughout is to be genuine, transparent, and to pay attention to the image that is being promoted. In the particular section about the digital footprint, there will be much emphasis on this information throughout the development of the project.


“26 Tips to Strengthen Your Social Media Marketing.” Social Media Examiner RSS. N.p., 24 Nov. 2014. Web. Nov. 2015.

This particular piece goes into detail on having a strong social media presence. Key points included describing the brand in a way that adds value to the viewers, boosting visibility with plugins, and encouraging blog comments.

This article will be critical in the integration into an already developed community. Getting the blog to my ideal point will require using every tip that was in this piece. While some of the other articles said the same thing, there was little to take from regarding social media.



Going through articles and preparing to dive into the project gave many different prospective into how a brand, blog or any online presence can be elevated. The information available was slightly repetitive but allowed me to shift through everything to get what works best with my particular project. Going forward I will be paying close attention to details being that that is a key point that is stressed throughout.

I will be paying close attention to critical thinking as I go forward because there are many places to fall short in the early stages of this project. This was a good experience and I will be adding more research as I go forward.

Annotated Bibliography

Hariman, Robert and Louis, John. ‚ÄúVisual Rhetoric, Photojournalism, and Democratic Public Culture‚ÄĚ Rhetoric Review. Web. Indiana, 2001.

The article ‚ÄúVisual Rhetoric, Photojournalism, and Democratic Public Culture‚ÄĚ by Robert Hariman and John Louis analyses how Rhetoricians have traditionally directed their attention on the power of ¬†words in a ever-changing digital space. The assessment provides an insight to the role that iconic photographs are portrayed within American culture. Many photographs reflect a unique visual literacy, which shape our understanding towards specific events in each of our lives. By doing so, visual images tend to influence behavior, identity, but they are paramount ¬†in photojournalism as we shift into the Age of New Media.

The article is useful for providing a unique perspective on photojournalism and suggest how iconic images can affect the viewer’s emotional reservations. Although, visual images intensifies the visual experience of a viewer, it can present an unwarranted challenge.¬†Perhaps this could be useful to think about the visual structures and their positioning in American culture and how it shapes our perception of certain individuals and events.


Abbott, Tristan. ‚ÄúThe Importance of Storytelling, Big and Small.‚ÄĚ ¬†Econtentmag. Web. August 2014.

Econtentmag‚Äôs writer Tristan Abbott, provided an in-depth look at the importance of storytelling for the reader and the writer regardless of mediums. The ability to tell a good story is paramount for a writer to be heard while getting their opinion out. The article claims ‚Äúlarge, macro-level facts supporting stories, such as nation-wide economic data, are effective in demonstrating large problems, but can often feel empty and leave readers or consumers of content feeling like the story lacks a personal touch.‚ÄĚ

This article is relevant because it mentions the importance of storytelling which is key to understanding in the creation of content. It is the writer‚Äôs discretion for the type of style they use to tell a story but effective storytelling is prefered. This is also useful for anyone who wants to learn the basics of telling a story whether for their personal use or for their professional careers— it‚Äôs an important skill for all.


Riesland, Erin. ‚ÄúVisual Literacy and the Classroom.‚ÄĚ John Hopkins School of Education. Web. ¬†

The article ‚ÄúVisual Literacy and the Classroom‚ÄĚ is a thoughtful article that explores visual literacy within education while also shedding light on what it means to literate in the new of technology. The shift to mass technologization has led to unprecedented shift to new media and multimedia applications being used. Erin Riesland suggests we should redefine visual literacy while accounting for the new types of technology that have visual literacies embedded in them.

Understanding and exploring new technologies that can help redefine visual literacy in the classroom and beyond is key to progressing in the new age. This content of this article is useful for professors, teachers, educators who work with students in higher education and in traditional schools because they can reshape their curriculum to integrate more visual literacy modules and best practices for their students. While some techniques may not work depending on the course description or the professor’s discipline, it does provide students a chance to become familiar with the changing world of new media from earlier on so that they know what to expect.


‚ÄúWhat is Photojournalism?‚ÄĚwiseGEEK. Web

wiseGEEK, is a team of researchers, writers, and editors who offer clear answers on a variety of questions.  The wiseGEEK researchers offer a snapshot explanation of photojournalism,  it’s the most direct and clear explanation on the web. They describe photojournalism as “a branch of journalism characterized by the use of images to tell a story. Photojournalists are scattered all around the world within various careers such as documentary photographers or wedding photographers all with the purpose of capturing that kodak moment to tell a story.

wiseGEEK is a site used to simplify complex questions by provide clear and concise answers. This website is useful because it is easily accessible and the information is straight to the point.  Not only does wiseGEEK provide you with answers, it also provides you with hyperlinks to get more information and other similar interests. This can be a fundamental resource center if someone needs a simplification on a topic.


Jones, Corrine. ‚ÄúBrandon Stanton‚Äôs New York Stories.‚ÄĚ The Guardian. Web. November 213.

The article ‚ÄúBrandon Stanton‚Äôs New York Stories‚ÄĚ by Corrine Jones successfully paints a candid assessment of Human‚Äôs of New York‚Äôs Brandon Stanton. It highlight the popularity of Stanton‚Äôs blog which he refers to as ‚Äúmore of a storytelling blog than a photography blog.‚ÄĚ The story of Stanton‚Äôs discovery to his passion is very organic and commendable. He took a chance and tried something that was never done which worked out in his favor. This approach to storytelling is different, perhaps we are all a combination of the stories we have read or seen.

This article successfully showcases the ideal storytelling blog. It is a blog that with stories from people all around the world wanting to be heard. It gives these individuals a chance to have a voice, which is all most people want. Also, it is very useful because he asks his prospects very important interview questions. For beginners this may be a source to reference to for a few thought provoking questions.


Choi, Amy. ‚ÄúThe Art of Storytelling According to the Founders of Human‚Äôs of New York and StoryCorp.‚ÄĚ Ideas.TED. Web. July 2015.

TED Talks and TED Ideas are a division of TED, a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas around the world. The article examines the success of two powerful storytellers such as Human‚Äôs of New York‚Äôs Brandon Stanton and Storycorps‚Äô Dave Isay. These two pioneers have successfully give a voice to many once voiceless individuals and a chance to share their stories. One of the claims in the article from Dave Isay is to ‚Äúcreate an intimate culture where trust is paramount.‚ÄĚ By doing so, interviewees are in a comforting ecosystem where they are truly able to be themselves.

This article is useful for formulating your own storytelling channel. It can provide a general guideline of how to engage in thoughtful discourse while you interview someone. From an ethical standpoint it reminds interviewers to remember that they are building report with their interviewees who require an organic, comforting and trusting environment to successfully share their stories.  ____________________________________________________________________________

Cohen, James and Kenny, Thomas ‚ÄúProducing New and Digital Media- Your Guide to Savvy Use of the Web.‚ÄĚ Chapter 6: Multimedia Storytelling. Focal Press Taylor and Francis Group 2016

The authors Cohen and Kenny successfully introduces multimedia storytelling to novice individuals. The chapter goes into details about the ever-evolving storytelling ecosystem, the current age of multimedia storytelling medium. In the chapter, they introduce the idea of ‚Äúthe beta person,‚ÄĚ which is ‚Äúyou,‚ÄĚ someone you can relate to in the image. It give the beta persona a chance to connect through an image or traditional broadcasting. There are humanizing characteristic that makes the beta persona relatable. This provides an interesting look at a phenomena that no one discusses. It leads to ‚Äúare we searching for ourselves in other individuals? The ‚Äú beta persona‚ÄĚ is important to keep in mind because it can be used as a theory of how we relate to and interpret other individuals. Perhaps, examining this beta persona can shed some light on how it could possibly help reconstruct our biases.

This chapter is useful for various reasons such as the early stages of digital storytelling, the new age of digital storytelling, how to create a successful narrative within the new space, the personalities that are created within the new space, the virality of these online personalities, and businesses demand for successful multimedia storytelling just to name a few. In addition, it offers content composers a new perspective on the ever changing world of new media. This book will already be outdated because technology and information is instantly changing.


Blais, Caroline, Caldara, Roberto, Fiset, Daniel, Jack E., Rachael, ¬†and Scheepers Christoph. ‚ÄúCulture Shapes How We Look at Faces‚ÄĚ Plos. Web. August 2008

This article is incredibly insightful, it provides an exceptionally candid look at how culture has shaped how we look at faces. Over the span of our lives we have come into contacts with thousands of individuals of various background which has led to a categorization of those communities. A major factor that has led to this reinforcement of categorization is culture. Culture plays an unfortunate role and adds to our biases. Humanity has consciously and subconsciously conditioned ourselves to recognizing individuals based on their faces and in turn we have given them labels to make the categorization easier, which causes biases.

This article is useful for people who are interested in learning about the history of face recognition tools, the different face structures of certain cultures, why we are fascinated by certain traits of an individual.


Annotated Bibliography Reflection

The exercise in creating our annotated bibliographies was surprisingly useful. At first glance, I thought it would be a daunting task however, it was more useful and provided me a new way of how to accurately source information and look at it the content and context from critical point of view. Now I am a strong believer in annotated bibliography, if I knew this earlier in my career it would have changed a lot of things. Through annotating sources, I started to hone in on the idea of my project, the work, the research all became more meaningful. It eliminated a lot of my junk sources and forced me to look for more thoughtful resources to incorporate in my project. Each of the new sources I found, it created a more thoughtful approach to find other sources to connect all the ideas. With each new source, I started digging deeper into my mind to get clarity on what I hope to achieve with this project and especially why I am doing this project. This is not only a project but perhaps it can lead to a fully funded project or a dissertation topic or a TED Talk but essentially it allows the chance to communicate and bring new light to a topic by demonstrating that through storytelling we can begin to reconstruct our psyche and change our biases on certain individuals, if done well.

This is quite a task! Moving forward I would suggest doing this much earlier on because it really helps to mold your ideas and you look for sources that will successfully contribute and support your idea. 

Annotated Bibliographies

Becker, Joshua. “7 Important Reasons to Unplug and Find Space”.¬†becomingminimalist.¬†Becomingminimalist, n.d. Web. 11 Nov 2015.

Becker established the notion that users of technology and its various networking media related sites cannot disconnect themselves or in a way becoming unavailable from them. In the article, Becker stipulates that together we have all forgotten that there is the option to power-off and remove ourselves from technology and these mediated spaces. Becker goes onto stating the various reason as to why we should remove ourselves from the presence of technology and also the way in which it benefits us, for example, “Powering-down combats the fear of missing out”.

This connects to my project because as mentioned the project will honing in on not only the physical changes becoming unavailable has on an individual but also the psychological effects as well. This article correlates with the proposed theory and goes onto supporting and giving detailed descriptions as to how unavailability effects our ability to participate and engage with others, things, and places outside social media.

Chiou, Wen-Bin, Lee, Chun-Chia, & Liao, Da-Chi. “Facebook Effects on Social Distress: Priming with Online Social Networking Thoughts Can Alter the Perceived Distress Due to Social Exclusion.” Science Direct (2015): 230-236. Web.

‚ÄúFacebook Effects on Social Distress: Priming with Online Social Networking Thoughts Can Alter the Perceived Distress Due to Social Exclusion‚ÄĚ, ventures on the premise to explore social networking sites (SNS) and how they either interfere with peoples interpretations of social exclusion experiences such as disconnecting from these sites. The experiment conducted in this article goes onto indicate that the disconnecting act or loss of online social networking caused the test subjects the feelings of distress. This experiment went onto prove that the connection with SNS‚Äôs also influence how people interpret information, connection amongst other, and the act of participating as well.

This article will allow my project to not only justify claims but use already gathered data to nullify presented claims on these very topics mentioned. This article will provide my research with strong examples of how SNS encourage changing behaviors of participation and attention but go as far as to change the psyche of a person to believe that if they were to disconnect of becoming unavailable from a SNS that they would be missing out on not just a potential source of social reconnect but viable information needed to be in connection with people, places, and things.


Cohen, James & Kenny, Thomas. “Creativity in the Online Environment.” Cohen, James & Kenny, Thomas. Producing New and Digital Media. Burlington: Focal Press, 2016. 10-44. Print.

“Creativity in the Online Environment” by Cohen and Kenny offers insight into various components of how to cultivate an online following and how to engage in certain SNS platforms. However, the part of the chapter that offers the most information pertinent to this research project is the section, “Participation in the Online Environment”. This section is a critical turning point in the chapter because it helps to understanding how much it takes in order to be considered a part of a discourse community.

This chapter and section will help to create more understanding of the project because it will help to show that by disconnecting from SNS not only effect participation, but understanding, creativity, and connection. This chapter will also be helpful in making the idea clear that participation is defined differently on social media than it is else where.



Ferrara, Emilio, and Zeyao Yang. “Measuring Emotional Contagion In Social Media.” Plos ONE 10.10 (2015): 1-14. Academic ;Search Complete. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

Ferrara and Yang‚Äôs article, on ‚ÄúMeasuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media‚ÄĚ is an experiment measuring how content created online circulates and the way it changed how it impacts others emotions which goes onto to change how they interpret their surrounding people and things. This experiment embarked on premise that emotions created online are in a way spreadable in such a way that it takes on both negative and positive attributions as it circulates online. As mentioned in the article, the experiment raises ethical concerns due to its nature being a manipulation of people‚Äôs emotions as to accurately test the hypothesis of how social media influences emotions.

This article will help to justify the claim in the undergoing research project of the impacts social media has on the interpretations of people, places, and things. The article is a good source in helping establish the foundation for the research in the way it highlights that interaction online alters behavior and emotions. This will in turn help to further the research in helping to highlight the fact that it is SNS that change the way people express themselves and ultimately change the way they interpret emotions.


Jones, H. Rodney & Hanfer A. Christopher. “Attention Structures.” Jones, H. Rodney & Hanfer A. Christopher. Understanding Digital Literacies. New York: Routledge, 2012. 83-97. Print.

Jones and Hanfer’s take on “Attention Structures” allows their audience to understand all the parts of an internet that effect a persons ability to multitask and such forth. The chapter goes into deep detail about specific concepts such as cast switching, dual activity, and continual partial attention. All of these contribute to how the attention of individuals share or divide their attention in their space online. The way by which we grow and engage depends on the amount of time we spend giving certain allocations online different amounts of time. Attention structures online create a profile of your engagement and in turn creates a schedule of how one divides their attention.

This article is useful in providing a background of how an audiences attention structures are initially divided. In conducting an experiment of disconnecting oneself from SNS then there could be a record of how attention structures change and therefore give concrete evidence that a disconnect can and therefore will alter these structures.


Lee, Singyin. “Hongkait Techbology Design Inspiration.” Get Off The Internet: A ¬†Challenge to Reconnect With Yourself. N/A: Hongkait, 2012. Web . 6 Nov 2015

Lee’s article presents the idea of how disconnecting from online participation can open yourself to reconnecting with yourself. As introduced in the article the internet has taken over our lives. When not present in front of a computer we still find a way by either tablet or cell phone device to connect and participate online. This has become a problem and has gone on to create problems in our personal lives. We have been connected for so long through these mediated mediums that when we are to disconnect we feel anxious and perhaps even worry. In this article, Lee proposes ways to her audience in which they can disconnect from the web in order to find themselves once more.

This article connects to the research project that I will be conducting due to the fact that it gives support to claims made in the project such as attention structures, health (psychological), and participation with people, places, and things. The article also helps to raise more questions for the project daily vlogs such as: how does this disconnect challenge your originality? This article will help the project to emphasize key points and build upon ideas already presented.


Turner, Anthony. “Generation Z: Technology And Social Interest.” Journal Of Individual Psychology 71.2 (2015): 103-113. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

‚ÄúGeneration Z: Technology and Social Interest‚ÄĚ by Anthony Turner highlights the special relationship that the Generation Z (children born from 1993-2005) has with technology– especially social media. The article thoroughly examines the livelihood of generation Z in conjunction with their attachment to their smartphones and social networking sites. The article also deeply investigates considerations such as demographics which play a big part in how much time generation Z spends engaging with social media. The article goes onto highlight that it is the development through these mediated mediums in which children of generation Z face the struggle of coping with detachment, and their ability to develop and practice social interests which means to actively participate without the need for mediation.

This article can help provide not only fundamental proof that social media has in fact changed the way by which we interact with others but also the way by which generation Z develops. The article is also very useful in the way that it gives causes and effects of the interaction with social media. The article helps this research to further elaborate that a disconnection from social media networks will ultimately cause changes in psychological behavior, attention, and participation because of how attached one becomes with social media networking sites.

Wagner, Lori Ann. “When Your Smartphone Is Too Smart For Your Own Good: How Social Media Alters Human   Relationships.” Journal Of Individual Psychology¬†71.2 (2015): 114-121. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

Wagner‚Äôs article, ‚ÄúWhen Your Smartphone if Too Smart for Your Own Good: How Social Media Alters Human Relationships‚ÄĚ, addressed the fact that humans have moved into the age where they prefer to interact via mediated communications such as SNS. The article makes the claim that in a sense humans have evolved from being the social creatures they once were however now they prefer to have a relationship through their devices. These devices have allowed people to connect in such a way that does not mirror the five senses which in turn has altered how they interact with people.

The article stipulates that through a mediated media are humans more trusting, interactive, engaged, and willing to participate whereas off of online SNS’s there is a hesitation in actions of participation and attention. This article helps the proposed research project by giving concrete evidence to back up claims made about attention and participation structures. Also, the article helps to entertain and praise the idea that the way people interpret people, places, and things are altered by way of SNS’s and other mediated communications. This article will help to give more clarity to just how much interaction has changed due to SNS.



I found this exercise to be both helpful and overwhelming. My past experience of doing an annotated bibliography was in terms of doing a analog research paper. In this case I found it to be outdated for the type of project expected at the end. Although, it did enable me to think critically of how I will be using these documents it also caused me to become side track from the actual composite of my project.

I think that even though it was helpful, it was not for this project. It should expected that we conduct this type of analysis. All in all the experience was okay due to the fact that it allowed me to structure my project more and define more key points.

Annotated Bibliography of SEO

‚ÄúAbout Search Engine Land.‚Ä̬†Search Engine Land. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.<>.

Search Engine Land, overseen by Matt McGee the Editor-in-Chief, provides an in-depth explanation of the ranking of search engines and how the operate. The article claims that search engines want people to perform search engine optimization (SEO) because it can help improve their search results. Furthermore, the article claims that content quality, keyword usage, and regular updating of the content, factor in the success of having a webpage and make the top results.

This article is relevant to understanding search engines and how they rank websites. It depicts the factors that will help websites gain more visitors from organic searches. The article wants the readers to associate the features of webpages with search rankings and make direct correlations to determine how to increase them. This is useful in formulating a comparison between content and webpage ranking and determining which features of websites and webpages are associated with higher search rankings. Although it may be hard to test the factors for the effectiveness of SEO, it can help in evaluating rankings.

‚ÄúHow Search Engine Optimization Works.‚Ä̬†HowStuffWorks. 17 Jan. 2008. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.


How Stuff Works provides a general overview of search engine optimization and how it is used in two philosophies: the white hat approach and the black hat approach. The white hat approach refers to the usage of optimization strategies, techniques and tactics that focus on a human audience opposed to search engines. By contrast, the black hat approach refers to the use of aggressive search engine optimization strategies, techniques and tactics that focus only on search engines and not a human audience, and usually does not obey search engines guidelines.

This article is useful for understanding why search engine optimization is vital for anyone looking to make money on the internet and explains how having more visitors translates into more money. While some of the techniques might be questionable, the article is further useful in explaining why some large companies are willing to spend a considerable amount of money on search engine optimization consultants to increase the ranking of their company. The article is also helpful at revealing some of the challenges in search engine optimization approaches to find the right balance that satisfies both the visitors to the webpage and search engine spiders.

‚ÄúHow to Measure Website Performance and SEO Rankings.‚Ä̬†HermesThemescom How to Measure Website Performance and Track Search Engine Rankings Comments. 14 Dec. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.<>.

As founder and lead developer at¬†HermesThemes, Dumitru Brinzan¬†article,¬†‚ÄúHow to Measure Website Performance and search engine optimization Rankings.‚Ä̬†discloses some of the tools and services used¬†to analyze websites and track loading speed, performance, online presence & search engine rankings.¬†Brinzan advices his readers to¬†daily¬†analyze aspects of their website’s performance as there is always something that¬†can be tweaked and improved.¬†Brinzan also advices his readers to monitor the performance of their¬†main competitors as checking what they did to accomplish high ratings can be used to¬†improve their own search engine rankings.

This article offers some useful tools that help in identifying and¬†discussing strengths and weaknesses of websites performance and internet visibility. When investigating factors that increase a website’s ranking, it is useful to include a cross analysis¬†of other websites with¬†similar style and content that stand out from the competition. Evaluating the success rate of websites with high search engine rankings help¬†to exam the concepts of¬†search engine optimization and the contributing factors¬†attributed to them.

Mason Gray, Chloe.¬†‚Äú5 Things You Need to Know About Social Media & SEO.‚Ä̬†5 Things You Need to Know About Social Media & SEO. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.<>

Chloe Mason Gray article, “5 Things You Need to Know About Social Media & SEO.‚ÄĚ professes¬†the importance that companies and agencies place on social media in regards to¬†their search engine optimization strategy.¬†Despite Google‚Äôs Matt Cutts having¬†released a video¬†which says that social signals¬†do not¬†affect search rankings, Mason Gray¬†is confident that¬†social profiles matter to Google and especially to people searching online. She wants marketers to see the value of having a profile with¬†up-to-date info and engaging¬†content and¬†broaden their concept of search and search engine optimization to take into account the many¬†ways people find content on the web.

This article is useful for¬†evaluating whether social media influences searches and thus, play a role in search engine optimization. Although any research on the topic of¬†search engine optimization should be critically analyzed, it is clear to Mason Gray that social media¬†plays an important role in a person’s online presence. Therefore, the claims in the article support the viewpoint that an online presence through social media is important to consider implementing because of its added value to branding. The claims can also be used to argue the point that increasing social media presence can increase one’s¬†search engine ranking.

¬†”¬†Web Directories and Specialized Search Engines.”¬†Web Directories and Specialized Search Engines. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.


Although Google is widely recognized and used, specialized search engines are also an important aspect of search engines. Webconfs defines specialized search engines as a tool to include in a search engine optimization arsenal (an array of resources available for a certain purpose). As an alternative search to generic search engines, specialized search engines are selective about what part of the web is crawled and indexed. Even though not all the databases meet the standards of what users expect in a return search, a search engine which is specialized in a particular topic usually generates a better quality of results than a generic one.

Including specialized search engines in a research project is useful in defining the difference between the generic searches and specialized searches. Webconfs identifies the benefits of applying a more comprehensive search to find almost anything and advises on choosing the right search engines. Specialized search engines can save time as many gather useful sites from user submissions rather than through the normal spider/robot process.

“What Is Search Engine?”¬†What Is Search Engine?¬†Web. 15 Nov. 2015.<>.

Founded in November 1998 in Salt Lake City, Utah, by Nathan Emberton, Computer Hope explains that a search engine is a software program or script available through the Internet that searches documents and files for keywords and returns the results of any files containing those keywords. The article also illustrates the correlation of search engines to a spider/crawler which automatically visits pages and indexes their contents. As data is collected, it is used to rank the page and is the primary method a search engine uses to determine if a page should be shown and in what order.

Any comprehensive research of the optimization of search engines should include an synopsis of what search engines consist of. In addition, to understand how search engines can be influenced to rank webpages higher, it is important to also know how it functions. Computer hope provides information on both what a search engine is and how if functions and includes its various algorithms (a list of instructions, procedures, or formulas used to solve a problem).

Annotated Bibliography Reflection

Thinking about my sources in respect to their usefulness is not a new concept to me but actually laying them out in an annotated format is. In all my history of writing, I was never asked to annotate a bibliography and never knew exactly what it meant. That being said, I am a believer in annotating and found this to be an important and necessary part of my bibliography. I also welcome the opportunity to participate in this exercise as it contributes in the value and credibility of my project.

I had never thought about a bibliography being anything other than a list or that it could stand on its own but this exercise has opened my eyes to that fact. Annotating my sources provide more meaning to them in a way that helps define the scope of my project. Deciding how the sources contribute to my thesis was my initial step in determining which ones to choose. My chosen sources are primarily based upon my intended arguments or points of view. Each source addresses a different point and therefore is streamlined according to value and usefulness. After choosing a source. I focus on specific research questions that help frame my thesis.

Some of my research questions are:

  • What did the author want to accomplish and was the goal achieved?
  • What method(s) did the author use?
  • How credible is the author and what sources did he/she use?
  • What is the point of view of the author and does the source support my argument?

This exercise on annotating bibliographies has changed the way I view and participate in writing. It calls me to take a more critical analysis when choosing sources and to know that evaluating a source is on what is being said is an important skill to become familiar with and master. I can see how using this tool has already enhanced my intellectual capacity to read intelligently and communicate cogently. Being able to provide a concise exposition to readers is my goal and the technique of annotating contributes to that outcome. I also find that I can apply the same concept to anything I read, see, or listen to.

Annotating my bibliography has helped me to formulate my content. By summarizing the sources and describing why the source are useful for researching, I was able to

The main and topic of my project is search engine optimization. The idea is that websites can be influenced to improve search engine rankings. Other key terms are:

  • Spider (A program that visits websites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine).
  • Black Hat SEO (refers to controversial SEO methods used to acquire higher Web page search engine rankings).
  • White Hat SEO (refers to SEO strategies that aim to build a quality website over the long term by focusing on the website‚Äôs audience).


Critical Evaluation of Visual Rhetoric

Hariman, Robert and Louis, John
Rhetoric Review, Indiana, 2001
The article “Visual Rhetoric, Photojournalism, and Democratic Public Culture” by Robert Hariman and John Louis analyses how Rhetoricians have traditionally directed their attention on the power of¬† words in a ever-changing digital space. The assessment provides an insight to the role that iconic photographs are portrayed within American culture. Many photographs reflect a unique visual literacy, which shape our understanding towards specific events in each of our lives. By doing so, visual images tend to influence behavior, identity, but they are paramount¬† in photojournalism as we shift into the twentieth-century.
Critical analysis:
The article is useful for providing unique perspective photojournalism and suggest how iconic images can affect the viewers emotional reservations. Although, visual images intensifies the visual experience of a viewer, it can present a unwarranted challenge.
Perhaps this could be useful to think about the visual structures and their positioning in American culture.

Search Engine Land

“About Search Engine Land.” Search Engine Land. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

Search Engine Land is a daily publication that covers all aspects of search marketing industry and is overseen by Matt McGee, the Editor-in-Chief. The site features an article about search engine optimization. The article provides an overview of search engines and how the operate. In doing so, discussed are the three major groups that make up a website: on-the-page SEO, off-the-page-SEO, and violations.

This article is relevant to the understanding of search engines and how they rank websites. It also provides an understanding of how to improve a website’s¬†ranking.

Annotated Bibliography Reflection

Rampton, John. “25 Ways to Grow Your Social Media Presence.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 29 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

The overview of this article is apparent by the name, the intended purpose is to provide users with strategies and concepts to increasing their online presence. Rampton highlights the need to produce relevant content, post often and with engaging tags and to remind users you are human. By staying up to date on current events and what’s online you’re more likely to have your content noticed.¬†In reading this article I thought it was utterly perfect for the proposed experiment I am doing for my final project. I think the strategies are useful but are geared more towards a business or corporation than for an individual.¬†I choose the best or most universal ideas and¬†reshaped them into what I felt would best benefit my goals for the project.

Works, Bernadeen. “HootSuite: Maximize Your Social Media Efforts.”¬†Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 26 Dec. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

This article is built around the features and purpose of an app like hootsuite. It characterizes the ways in which a user can maximize their online presence using the service. However focusing mainly on the analytic section of this text it clearly highlights the ways in which a user can track their engagement, their exposure, ability to reach an audience and more. Being able to track your statistics is helpful in planning future content, understanding your market and gearing your content to those results. While reading this it is very easy to understand and comprehend as the text is tailored to a specific purpose and audience.

Cohen, James, and Thomas Kenny. “CHAPTERS 2 AND 7.”¬†Producing New and Digital Media Your Guide to Savvy Use of the Web.¬†Independence: Taylor and Francis, 2015. Print.

In chapter two of Cohen and Kenny it is stated that everyone with a user account is a content creator. Making us all authors, photographers and reporters may seem like a powerful tool however in such a large sea of creators one needs to stand out, which correlates to the idea of branding present in chapter 7. It is important when producing content to remember whom you’re talking to, remember who may see it and what image of you that will portray and what content you would like to be associated with. When preforming the ” google yourself” search a user is able to quickly tell what is tied to their name and what misconceptions it may cause. While completing my twitter experiment I plan to turn a close eye to detail and the content i feature on my newsfeed.

Kricfalusi, Elizabeth. “Twitter vs TweetDeck vs Hootsuite: Which Is the Best Twitter Client?”¬†Tech for Luddites. Tech or Luddites, 3 Apr. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

Kricfalusi provides a quick and realistic view of the various apps available for managing twitter content. While critical of twitter itself not being able to sort newsfeeds (written prior to moments) she notes that these apps enable a user to separate what content they see. TweetDeck, Hootsuite and Twitter itself revolve around fast paced content. Being able to sort through such content makes the site more user friendly and in turn allows select content to be viewed by a target audience. Meaning when posting it is important that a producer of content realize some people prefer to only view certain things. Here it will be important for me to remember this when using hashtags to spark interaction.

Prattler, Adam. “How to Use Twitter Hashtags to Get Noticed.”¬†Social Media Today. 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

Prattler discusses a crucial part of the twitter universe, the hashtag. Over the course of twitter evolution the hashtag has become a dynamic part of starting a conversation and millions of users all over the globe engage. Using a hashtag is a great way to stand out and get your content noticed, remaining relevant, staying engaged and tweeting to provoke response are key ways to increase your twitter base. In week two of my twitter experiment i will focus on hashtags to stay visible, the content of Prattlers article provides interesting ways to do so.

Armstrong, Russel. “Marketing Pros and Cons of Twitter.”¬†Linkedin. Linkedin, 1 Feb. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

On his personal blog Armstrong is quick to highlight the bright aspects of twitter but more importantly also remembers to cite the drawbacks. One of the most globally agreed upon downfalls of twitter is it’s ability to easily bury content or loose it as spam under millions of other tweets. He notes it often takes years to brand something and get it noticed as more than typical content. This information is important to understand while attempting to build a brand on twitter. Content strategy takes time and consistency is key.

Olanoff, Drew. “Twitter Debuts Moments.”¬†TechCrunch. 6 Oct. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

In october 2015 twitter launched a new feature which it hoped would draw back in the skeptical user base it had lost. Twitter, known for its fast paced and rapid environment scared off many users because they felt it was too confusing to use. Olanoff quotes the CEO of twitter as saying ” it’s not a new house, its a front door”. Which gets to the main point that a fresh tool of organization has been added to the apps main screen making it easier to see the most talked about topics, it enables you to join the conversation, reply to other users and retweet stories. This information will be a starting point while i engage in current content for my project.

Cave, Andrew. “Will Twitter Be Dead in Three Years.”¬†Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. <>.

Cave is blunt in his findings about twitter, claiming twitter lacks value for its users. Famously being limited by 140 characters twitter users are often frustrated by having to commit grammatical woes while typing or create multiple tweets to relay one message. Knowing there is opposition or wariness around your branding tool of choice is a factor to consider when attempting to get your content notices, not all people may share your platform. It is clear to see that some people seriously dislike the platform and that limits an audience to some extent.



While writing a bibliography is not a new concept by any means for me it is totally alien and confusing to me. Though it may seem shocking I have never had to create one outside of listing websites and having just learned about citation machine I was thrown for a loop. I won’t beat around the bush i strongly dislike, possibly even loathe citing, and sourcing thing it is so tedious and boring to get through.

Though in the end I do see the point vaguely, in order to effectively use the source the writer should have a clear and quick understanding of the content and how it fits into the mainstay of their project. If i had to do it over, I wouldn’t.. I’m kidding I would but i still wouldn’t like it. Personally i would rather draw solely from my project over the sources but I understand it needs objectives and reference points to not be biased. Overall I am glad thats over with and I can move forward with my project.

Draft of Annotated Source, for In-Class Workshop (Th 11/12)

Turkle, Sherry. “The Flight from Conversation.” The New York Times. 21 April, 2002. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. <>

Sherry Turkle’s article, “The Flight from Conversation” claims that although human beings are more connected than ever (through technology and digital devices), they actually communication less effectively and less meaningful: she deems this paradox being “alone together.: we are in touch more, but we are farther away. Furthermore, she argues that the technology allows us to keep others at a distance, present the the self we wish to be (or have perceived), retain control over where/when/how we place our attention, and actually diminishes opportunities for self-reflection.

This article is useful for thinking about the potential, unintended consequences of using technology and digital devices as a primary means of connecting with others in a variety of social and professional settings. Although technology can afford many opportunities to brings people together, Turkle wants her readers to see how it cannot replace certain face-to-face interactions, which carry not only a sense of physical proximity (we are in the same space at the same time) but also a sense of the value of this type of in person interaction. This could be a useful counter-argument for those who take a more naive, technological utopian standpoint, that technology is complete positive, has the ability to connect without devaluing that connection, and should be be critically considered.

I have 5 sources … now what?

For your revised draft of the research proposals, I asked you to include five sources (and to not just list them at the end, but to integrate them meaningfully into your proposal). In order to help facilitate this process (since we’re still mostly working with links/lists of sources at end of proposal), in class today and over the weekend for HW you’re going to work on developing an annotated bibliography, which will help you to not only understand what your sources are stating (summarize them) but to get a sense of how they will contribute to your project (critical evaluation, purpose).


What is an Annotated Bibliography and how do I create one?

  • For each of your sources (minimum of eight for M 11/16), you should provide the bibliographic information (MLA style) and then a brief summary/evaluation of its usefulness/relevancy for your project (maximum 200 words per source).

Here are some thoughts to get you started:

1.  Make sure your annotated bibliography is single-spaced (including the citations), with a space between each citation and its annotation, and another space between different entries.

2.  The citations should be alphabetized, have hanging indents, and they should be in complete/accurate in MLA format (just like a Works Cited page).

3.¬† Don’t use the 1st or 2nd person.¬† Your annotations should be formal/impersonal.¬† Therefore, avoid statements like ‚ÄúThis source will be useful to my project because ‚Ķ .‚ÄĚ Instead, just state its usefulness directly (without mention of you or your project).

4.  Write in the present tense when describing your sources.

5.  Remember that these sources are both informative and critical/evaluative.  When you give the summary, present the main idea of the source without getting bogged down with too many specific/technical details about its content (this can be overwhelming for your readers).  Similarly, don’t let the summary take up your whole annotation.  In addition to just objectively presenting what the source is about, you need to critically evaluate your source (subjectively) as to its usefulness/relevancy, bias, credibility, etc.

6.¬† Therefore, think about the ‚Äúso what?‚ÄĚ question with sources too.¬† Consider how certain sources contribute (are they factual, personal, etc.) to your project.¬† Where do they come from (are they organizations, individual researchers, newspapers, politicians, etc.)?¬†¬† You need to synthesize your¬†findings as much as possible.

7.  As with the proposals, make sure you connect your thoughts in the annotations (use connections/transitions … don’t just list choppy/fragmented points/details about the source).  Also, make sure you don’t simply tack on at the end statements addressing the different points I ask you to think about (usefulness, bias, etc.) like a checklist without any inherent unity/coherence.  You should include a discussion of these aspects when they are important for a particular source, and you should integrate this evaluation into your annotation as a whole.

8.¬† You can include more than the minimum requirement of sources in your bibliography, and you should feel free to modify your bibliography/sources (add, delete, revise) until the final draft is due.¬† You also don‚Äôt have to use all of these initial sources in the final project (you can have both a ‚ÄúWorks Cited‚ÄĚ section and a ‚ÄúWorks Consulted‚ÄĚ section)

To start creating your annotation for each text, you should:

  • Provide a complete/accurate MLA citation
  • Summarize the reading in a few sentences
  • Below your summary, include any questions/concerns you have about the reading (such as if you do not understand a particular paragraph or sentence, or if you are confused because you think that the text contradicts itself in different places): be as specific as possible! (In the final draft, these questions/concerns will be removed and you provide a brief evaluation of the source and state its usefulness for your own project)

Here is a good resource on annotated bibliographies:

*There will be feedback (in-class workshops, peer review, comments from Professor) on your Annotated Bibliographies as they are developed