Author Archives: Marissa

Writing Assignment: Trolling

Trolling as a whole, is the act of making an offensive online post with the intentions of hurting, or getting an angry reaction out of another person. Trolling seems to be very mainstream, and examples can be shown in the media. As for celebrities such as musicians, actors, and actresses, trolling is done by so called haters. For example, according to Yahoo!, “‘The Walking Dead’ Star Alanna Masterson Fires Back at Fat-Shaming Trolls…” Alanna Masterson has shown to be a victim of trolling. This article explains how after shooting an episode of The Walking Dead, Alanna received mass amounts of discrimination. Fat-shaming, is a form of discrimination in which a person is scrutinized due to their weight. Alanna was discriminated since she obtained some baby weight. After having her daughter, she posted to Instagram “Dear Instagram trolls, body shamers, and the men and woman who think it’s ok to comment on my weight: I hope that you don’t have children. And if you do, I hope you teach them about kindness and acceptance” (Yahoo!). Basically Alanna took a shot back at the haters, not letting them bring her down. A clever yet inspiring response influenced her fans to show even more support. This is just one example of trolling, but these problems can be alleviated if we support one another.

Assignment 10B

Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 is an example of a literature imagined future. The location of this imagined future is in Los Angeles, although the time period is ambiguous. It was published in 1953, in relation to current events such as the McCarthy hearings and the result of world war II. In his novel, Bradbury describes a futuristic American city in which books including any type of literature, are banned. Books are not only banned in this society, but are repeatedly burned. In addition to this, creative thinking, meaningful thinking, and spending time alone is not orchestrated.

As for books,“Guy Montag is a fireman who burns books…” (Sparknotes). So, in this imagined society books are burned by firemen themselves. It is up to Guy Montag the protagonist of this novel, to help his city as various destruction is occurring. He must realize his full potential and meaning of life, involving the value of literature. Luckily he meets renegade intellectuals and other intelligent people such as a retired Professor, who inform him of their way of life. In a city with no intellect or meaning, personalities seem dramatically bland. I found this novel I read in high school to be an amazing example of an imagined future, because if we removed books or any sort of intellect what would our society be? Bradbury gives a clear overview of how destructive life in a non-intellect valueless world would be, possibly leading to war.

Assignment 9B

Under Vaidhyanathans argument, sadly I do believe that I trust Google but it depends. What I mean by this is every time any of us are on the internet (or at least for me), there is an instinct to go to Google. For researching for basic facts or a problem in society, I go straight to google. I do trust google to bring me to basic searches on the web. For example, if I have a question I google it to see different answers. I then by my own judgment, choose a site I see best fit for my question. However in regards to personal life I have seen google shows my twitter account, Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube. With that in mind, google worries me. I do believe I trust google for basic searches as a I said, but NOT for personal accounts and knowledge. I do not trust the taking of my accounts in a way that anyone can find or see them. But is there a solution to this problem? Like am I supposed to just delete my accounts? I do have a privacy setting, but I am not sure if this is enough to protect my identity on google. Lastly as for knowledge being a college student in my third year, I understand how to find relevant, useful, and valid information. Iv’e used data bases every year in my previous English classes, I do not use google for information related to academic research or intellectuality. As a whole, I trust google on some level but not on all levels.

Assignment 8B

The concept of “Questioning Authority” means how authority is looked upon, in contrast to how it should be. By saying this I mean, that Meszaros reading includes different ways of how authority is used. For example to undergraduate students, and how students interpret authority. She includes the differentiation between who authority is granted to and who deserves more authority. Authority by context is the power or right to give orders, and have underdogs (in this case students) respond to those orders with obedience. Often authority is used in the form, “what Patrick Wilson (1991) calls “administrative authority”- an authority ‘one has by virtue of occupying a position”…an authority that faculty possesses as the wielder of the grade” (Meszaros, p. 6). It is shown how authority can be simply used as power, the possessor of grades. Because of this students look to their professors/faculty members for help, instead of librarians who possess true knowledge of proper education and methods to searching.

The ways students see authority is either through dualism or multiplicity. Basically students do not know how to go to librarians to find credible sources. They go to their faculty members and professors, who apparently to them hold validated authority. According to Meszaros dualists, “believe in ‘authority”, but they believe as children believe. They do not base authority claims on intellectual expertise” (Meszaros, p. 7). Dualists in a sense do not pay attention to the intelligence behind the authoritative figure, they only depend on their high position. On the other hand multiplicities “for them, everyone has a right to an opinion and all opinions are equally valid” (Meszaros, p. 7). Multiplicities see authority as not having a high position, but by having high opinion. Both of these forms of interpreted authority do not help students. How could assuming a position is completely valid, or believing only your own opinion is right be helpful?
However from a valid academic standpoint, Meszaros explains that she wants students to look at authority as an intellectual asset. Instead of having students see faculty as a stronger authority, they should see librarians as just the same level of authority. For example in the context of finding valid information, Librarians could focus less on teaching to find sources, while focusing more on finding credible sources. Librarians and faculty members should work together to help students see authority as cognitive, a way to find knowledge.

Assignment 7B

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), is a law that can grant you access to federal agency records that are normally protected from the public. The Archive a non-governmental research institute and library located at the George Washington University, administers FOIA records. Basically the George Washington University contains government records on wide ranges of categories. According to The National Security Archive, “The Archive also serves as a repository of government records…pertaining to the national security, foreign, intelligence, and economic policies of the United States” (National Security Archive, p. 1). The Freedom of Information Act is a tool that is given to help researchers or journalists, find out real government information. These federal documents are declassified. The Archive members track federal agencies, which means they track what the government puts out or hasn’t been released. I believe the FOIA does benefit citizens, because tracking the governments documents can help the public understand what’s really going on. For example by Archive members tracking government records unreleased, the public could be exposed to possible future dilemmas. They could take notice of these dilemmas and maybe prevent them. Having government insight could benefit them. In addition to this, information could extend to citizens in other countries by creating institutions.

Assignment 6B

Martins book chapter is available to read as a PDF on the web, because it describes knowledge in various ways. What I mean by this, is knowledge to him is obtained through various disciplines and fundings. Useful knowledge does not have to be limited to governments or corporations. Martins interpretation of knowledge is it is a liberation. Essentially, understandings of a subject should not be determined by sole by government influence. Ways of finding knowledge and information should not be limited to any group. For example, “Funding for the majority of formal research in the world today is provided by governments and corporations…funding from trade unions, churches, environmental groups or…women’s groups is tiny by comparison” (Martin p. 125-126). As a whole in the public eye, knowledge expenses such as funding is more important to big government and corporation. However the expansion of knowledge generally IS very broad. Martin has an availability of this chapter online because, he wants to make it known that knowledge should be treated as a freedom of research. Any type of organization should be included in helping expand that discipline of knowledge it is known for. Universities tend to be neutral by exemplifying discipline and funding, which is not always true for other organizations or groups. Scholarship tends to be limited to certain disciplines such as medical research, engineering, and lawyers. These areas of study compliment the government and its uses. I believe Martin is saying knowledge and scholarship should not be subjected to the government.

Assignment 5B

When Weinberger mentions “the infrastructure of knowledge” he means the coming together of how knowledge is produced. He mentions an attribution of various believers of knowledge and their ideas. For example he mentions one infrastructure of knowledge is to use a data-information-knowledge-wisdom hierarchy pyramid, or (DIKW). As one way to obtain knowledge, Weinberger says “process the data and you get information…information is to data what wine is to vineyard…” (Weinberger, p. 2). Basically data is needed to construct information. According to Weinberger “you’ve refined the data to produce information, and refined the information to generate something of greater value” (Weinberger, p. 2). Infrastructure of knowledge is a process of retrieving data, finding useful information through that data, and then reducing until you have a know-how understanding. Ackoff, proposed this idea of having a know-how for knowledge, “while information is structured data, knowledge “is actionable information” (Weinberger, p. 3). Coming together as a process, knowledge is the part which illustrates an understanding of information.

However, usually this type of infrastructure from data-information-knowledge-wisdom, is not used today. This is apparent since we have an overload or abundant amount of information compared to back then. For example, “Rather than knowing-by-reducing to what fits in a library or a scientific journal, we are now knowing-by-including every draft of every data in vast, loosely connected webs” (Weinberger, p. 5). This means we are not doing an efficient process of elimination when finding information. Since there is an enormous network of any type of data, this data could be hard to configure. When finding useful information leading to valuable knowledge, we could get tripped up by having too much data that is irrelevant. Instead of using this large network such as google, we could examine small scales. What I mean by this, is we could use the process of reducing to have a structured plan when finding research. As researchers if we understood infrastructure, it would force us to choose valuable knowledge over data. We would recognize the difference between these two easily while finding research.


I believe people have a “right to be forgotten”, a person should be able to remove any information about them. Any information on the web that they consider too personal to be on there, should be taken down. I would like to think we live in a world that is fair and contains justice, but this is not always true. Every bit of information we put out, is memorized and stored by the internet. I do not believe the “right to be forgotten” clashes with our 1st amendment. I say this because the right to privacy in my opinion, does not conflict with free speech. If anything the “right to be forgotten”, would be an example of expressing free speech in the U.S. Since the 1st amendment involves having the right to have your own voice, how should internet privacy be any different? It should not be different at all, freedom to removal of personal data should be permanent. People should be able to consent to whether or not they want information about them open to the world.

Digital identity is a term used to describe an internet profile, or a collection of your personal data that forms an identity on the web. Tracker sites follow all of your personal data, and together they give a clear picture of who you are. A profile based on either a birth date, relationship status, financial status, or interests. These tracker sites basically control your digital identity. Everyday, everyone on the web is under control by tracker sites. Also I believe the government is behind the scenes, watching our every move on the internet.

Assignment 2W

Questions: What the “right to be forgotten” means for privacy in a digital age

1. If someone has a past criminal record link on Google can they ask that link to be dropped, depending on the crime?

2. If European digital privacy transferred into the U.S as a similar form, would the internet have more boundaries?

3. How long would the process of taking down links for rights to privacy in the U.S take?

Questions: Learning from Gawker’s Attempt to Erase the Past

1. Should Journalists make conscious decisions of whether or not their articles are worth publishing, before doing so in order to eliminate conflict with readers?

2. If more articles like Gawkers for example were taken down, would the world be losing valuable information?

3. If Journalists do not inform readers before taking down an article, how would they possibly react?