Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 is an example of a literature imagined future. The location of this imagined future is in Los Angeles, although the time period is ambiguous. It was published in 1953, in relation to current events such as the McCarthy hearings and the result of world war II. In his novel, Bradbury describes a futuristic American city in which books including any type of literature, are banned. Books are not only banned in this society, but are repeatedly burned. In addition to this, creative thinking, meaningful thinking, and spending time alone is not orchestrated.
As for books,“Guy Montag is a fireman who burns books…” (Sparknotes). So, in this imagined society books are burned by firemen themselves. It is up to Guy Montag the protagonist of this novel, to help his city as various destruction is occurring. He must realize his full potential and meaning of life, involving the value of literature. Luckily he meets renegade intellectuals and other intelligent people such as a retired Professor, who inform him of their way of life. In a city with no intellect or meaning, personalities seem dramatically bland. I found this novel I read in high school to be an amazing example of an imagined future, because if we removed books or any sort of intellect what would our society be? Bradbury gives a clear overview of how destructive life in a non-intellect valueless world would be, possibly leading to war.
My example of an imagined future in pop culture would be the dystopian future in The Divergent Series. The Divergent Series is a book series, but it is currently being made into movies. The setting takes place in Chicago in the future. The series contains many aspects of classism and classification. The world is divided into five factions with their own meanings: Erudite(knowledgeable), Candor(honesty), Amity(peacefulness), Dauntless(bravery), and Abnegation(selflessness). There is also a place for those who do not fit in with the factions and that population is called the Factionless. The people who fall into one of the categories are placed in their correct group. The information is basically restricted because the people have been programmed to only possess the characteristics that align with their group. For example, those in the Candor faction can’t lie and always have to be honest; they are programmed to tell the truth. The factions exist because the people in power, those belonging to the Erudite faction(the knowledgeable people), don’t want the population to possess the characteristics people possess today; they would be considered too powerful and dangerous. The entire concept of the series has to do with information because those in authority want to keep as much information as they can away from the population, so they take away each person’s true nature and strip them down to their best characteristics. Everything about everyone is in the hands of those with the most knowledge. The technology is advanced and there is a high emphasis on science and technology.
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) law allows federal records to be disclosed. These records could either have never been released before or, they could help better see decision made by the U.S. government. The American agency that administers the work proposed in FOIA is the Archive. The Archive hold a wide range of topic dealing with the national security, foreign intelligence, and economic policies of the Untied States. The Archive does not seek U.S. government funding, which allows them to not be influenced by the government. The FOIA does benefit citizen because it helps and allows the citizens to know the truth. Helping citizens to better understand and be well informed on topics that deal with their government. Information on the government is important, which is why the Archive is extending it’s research to countries outside of the U.S. With the information the Archive has provided, citizens can view the history of their government. Knowing the history helps us see why certain actions were taken and will better inform us of future ones.
When Weinberger mentions “the infrastructure of knowledge” he means the coming together of how knowledge is produced. He mentions an attribution of various believers of knowledge and their ideas. For example he mentions one infrastructure of knowledge is to use a data-information-knowledge-wisdom hierarchy pyramid, or (DIKW). As one way to obtain knowledge, Weinberger says “process the data and you get information…information is to data what wine is to vineyard…” (Weinberger, p. 2). Basically data is needed to construct information. According to Weinberger “you’ve refined the data to produce information, and refined the information to generate something of greater value” (Weinberger, p. 2). Infrastructure of knowledge is a process of retrieving data, finding useful information through that data, and then reducing until you have a know-how understanding. Ackoff, proposed this idea of having a know-how for knowledge, “while information is structured data, knowledge “is actionable information” (Weinberger, p. 3). Coming together as a process, knowledge is the part which illustrates an understanding of information.
However, usually this type of infrastructure from data-information-knowledge-wisdom, is not used today. This is apparent since we have an overload or abundant amount of information compared to back then. For example, “Rather than knowing-by-reducing to what fits in a library or a scientific journal, we are now knowing-by-including every draft of every data in vast, loosely connected webs” (Weinberger, p. 5). This means we are not doing an efficient process of elimination when finding information. Since there is an enormous network of any type of data, this data could be hard to configure. When finding useful information leading to valuable knowledge, we could get tripped up by having too much data that is irrelevant. Instead of using this large network such as google, we could examine small scales. What I mean by this, is we could use the process of reducing to have a structured plan when finding research. As researchers if we understood infrastructure, it would force us to choose valuable knowledge over data. We would recognize the difference between these two easily while finding research.
David Weinberger discusses the term “the infrastructure of knowledge” in his book, Too Big to Know. With this term he says that when it comes to finding and gaining knowledge we must first sift through a ton of data that could possibly be meaningless to us at that particular time. There is an order when conducting research, which starts with figuring out what one is trying to gain by conducting research, beginning said research, refining that search, filtering out data or information we do not need, especially in this day and age where we can get too much information, before finding what we wanted to know. There is a difference between information and knowledge.
With so much information being at our fingertips, it would be easy to get or find irrelevant information. As well as, not being able to find accurate information on the subject we may be researching. By understanding how this infrastructure of knowledge works, we can be able to crucial information faster and more efficiently while making sure that whatever we find will be useful to us and our projects. We can put this information to better use and garner more knowledge from it.
Martin’s book chapter is available to read on the web because he is a strong believer that in order for people to learn they need to have resources available to them. Not only are students learning from research finding by professionals but also big corporations are using this information as well. So it is a good idea to share it to begin with the government can help with funding’s to find out more research and second other professionals can help in finding research as well since they have a place where they can start research from. It is found online for free. Yes the availability of this book chapter online exemplify s Martins idea that scholarship should be liberated because not only is he writing about it but he is demonstrating it with his own work.
Classification is important because we need a sense of organization and identification. Imagine going to a library and looking for a book on science and there are no aisles that are classified by subject, it would be extremely difficult and frustrating to find what you’re looking for. Classification is how we identify subjects, information, materials and basically anything. I classify myself based on how I identify myself. In biology when you’re asked to classify bones and muscles, you are asked to identify those bones.
Badke explains the following in chapter 4 of his book, “If you search a libary catalog, on the other hand , you will find that there is an available author search, title search, a subject heading search etc. that can help you jail down” (77) . Badke uses the libary catalog example to show how better suited it is compared to a meta base. This connects with what I said about going to a libary that has no classification or organization, it is much easier and less time consuming to simply classify subjects, material, and information.
In in the article, Folksonomy: A Game of High-tech (and High- stakes) Tag, writer Jessica Dye explains that major search engines cover a vast amount of material and simply searching for a simple thing will be a difficult task as there is just so much information. However, implementing tags like how we do on open lab can make the search much easier. This form or classification with the use of tags and hashtags is a far greater and helpful way to search the web.
In in his book, Alex Wright believes that classification allows us to think more in a cognitive way and practice thinking this way is better. We are ably to distinguish and differentiate between different subjects and how to classify these subjects amicably. As a student it is far easier for me to write an essay when I know exactly how to classify the information that I need. If I cannot apply the information to my paper, then there’s no way that I will be writing a good paper.
Corporate interest in a nutshell, is the interest of a company or commercial, which is beneficial to them through the use of empowerment and control. Basically corporate interests control what may be posted in the media, through large companies such as Fox 5 News, ABC News, or the New York Times. These various big companies receive quantities of views, and ratings since they are under corporate interest. Corporate interest effects the information we receive, by us receiving possible biased information. For example, information on Fox 5 News about a given issue, may not reveal the whole story..they may bias their own information, to get more ratings. Since corporate interests include a more political and governmental point of view, the public cannot be viewed as directly as they should be.
An example of an independent article infers how the public would not be the main source for information on an issue. In “ACLU Attorney: Growing number of murders of Trans women can’t be separated from Anti-Trans Laws” by democracy now.org, it is stated how recently a trans-woman was shot. She was shot by her mothers ex-boyfriend who also called her “the devil.” This article used attorney Chase Strangio to explain why murders are occurring. Unfortunately, Strangio concludes that state officials believe “that treating transgender people’ constitutes material cooperation with evil…under Affordable Care Act.” Sadly, due to bias to any information from anything government related, state officials must have also influenced transphobic people to act out. If treatment to trans-women or even trans-men were fair, this would not happen. If their own issues were displayed as positive, and they were portrayed as the good people the public knows them to be, maybe people wouldn’t get the idea to murder them. A Fox 5 News channel say, would not have included this story that may appear to be publicly controversial. Or maybe they would cover it by backing up the state officials, distributing bias to them.