Red Hook Bibliography

Learning Places Fall 2022
Annotated Bibliography

Our main question is:

What measures are the city taking to make the residents of Red Hook more protected against flooding?

Cerro, X. D., & Brendlen, K. (2022, September 28). A decade after Sandy, $52 billion climate vulnerability plan would bring flood gates, sea walls to Brooklyn’s Coastal Nabes • Brooklyn Paper. Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved November 17, 2022.

            This article is about how the two states NY and NJ were hit the hardest by the hurricane and how the government collected money to prevent in the future from anything like this happening again because the hurricanes Sandy did a lot of damage even after 10 years. It took ten years for the plan to be put into action and they say they will start soon after reading it because they are implied they will be implementing it soo.. The plans are to  plant some storm surge barriers and also moveable sea gates according to the article. Another thing they mentioned was that the sea gates would be on the way to Queens and Brooklyn according to the document from monday when this article was published this year. 

            The reason why this article is related to our problem is because it answers our question directly how the city is taking action but it also raises more questions like why did it take ten years. I feel like this article could be used to prove or site information when needed to how the government will help and starting when and etc depending on how you view the articles.

Find Your Zone. (n.d). NYC Hurricane Evacuation Zone Finder. Find Your Zone.

This is a government site that allows you to find any neighborhood in the city and its corresponding hurricane evacuation zone. The zones are color coded and the colors have numbers associated with them. Red (1) is the most likely to flood from storm surge, and according to the, (nearly) all of Red Hook is in zone 1. This can be used as a way to question officials on how they plan on finding a solution to this. The repairs being done to the Red Hook houses only help the residents bounce back sooner and suffer less from flooding, but this doesn’t change the fact that the area is still one of the most flood prone areas of NYC. 

McNeil, P. (2021, August 17). Flood protection measures completed in Red Hook. CityLand. Retrieved November 17, 2022 from,

This website simply shows the ins and outs of the ideas, projects, proposals, and plans that Construction officials and Community officials have to offer for Red Hook. The website also has a chat enabled for residents of Red Hook to have say what gets to be done and what gets to be reconsidered.

On this specific tab it references how Red Hook will be protected by the use of barriers that can be opened or closed depending on the water level, drainage, and or storm surge warning; these special barriers will help regulate how and where water goes in Red Hook. During our first site trip to Red Hook we saw in person what one of these panels look like, a semi-permeable fabric with light sediments on the outer layer while heavier sediments are on the inside of the block. This is the permanent solution that was proposed in August of 2021, Currently there is a temporary solution that is still active but in the near future will be replaced with the new regulating barriers.

This helps a lot in project as it gives us something to base our solutions on, it also backs up the claim that the city is doing something to fix the problem as well has also showing how there was a solution but it wasn’t very good, during the podcast we can help shed light about this to our guest speakers.

Red Hook Integrated Flood Protection System Feasibility Study (Ifps). (2020, January 29). Red Hook Integrated Flood Protection System Feasibility Study Findings. Red Hook. Integrated Flood Protection System Feasibility Study.

 The main idea of this article is the ways to prevent flooding is IFPS, its stand for “Integrated Flood Protection System”. Meaning is several ways to prevent flood risks. So this Article will tell you several ways to protect against the flood:

  • First way is Site conditions, it was important impact of the IFPS, because it can be designed and where it can found it. More like “Ground Elevations’, meaning a coastal flood protection structure is create the connect high ground locations, to get rid of the risk of inundation Via areas of low. It has impacts for to protect the flood. First thing is Shallow groundwater depth makes green infrastructure ineffective in directing storm water. Another thing is seepage barrier is necessary and involved in conceptual design. Last thing is temporary or solely above-ground interventions may ineffective address seepage.
  • The second way is the Proposed conceptual project, meaning the city is proposing to focus on two low points. They were most vulnerable to coastal storm surges, and sea level go rises along Beart Street and in Atlantic Basin. The coastal flood risk will prevent the benefits of mining from having negative impacts on the neighborhood. Here are several of the proposed project benefits. First was reducing flood risks from a 10-year coastal storm surge accounting for future sea level. The second, is supports flood risk reduction benefits for about 3,000 people and 400 buildings. The third is the foundation of the coastal flood structure along beard street will allow for future adaptability. Last, is not require the use of deployable structures and has no negative impact on drainage.
  • Last way is hazard mitigation. It’s the effort to reduce loss of life and properties by lessening the impact of disaster. It says that the only way to restore to be effective when people need to take action now before coming future dangers, to prevent human and financial consequences later, such as analyzing risk, reducing risk and insuring against risk. First is elevating land street. It’s a plan that works best at a neighborhood calculate, where places can be raises in a coordinate manner, to advancing land and streets reduces risk. Second is Floodwalls, it’s vertical structure anchored into ground that created to withstand flooding from storm surge. It says this wall won’t get flood from behind the wall and protect from frequent flooding due to sea level rise. Last is Bulkheads, is vertical retaining walls intended to hold soil in place and allow for a stable shoreline. It’s that they can protect them from erosion and moderate wave action. Also, this place are more acceptable for location where space is very higher or where water dependent uses. 

           In Conclusion, Here’s are three ways to protect the Red Hook from Flood. This Article  explain that what can people do to protect the Red Hook from future dangers like 10 to 15 years. So This article has 3 ways to protect the Red Hook from risk flood, first is Site Conditions, second is Proposed conceptual project, and last is hazard mitigation. Those are three things to prevent getting attack by flood.

Red Hook Recovery Project – IAEM. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2022, from

          So this source that I chose is a powerpoint and why I chose this is for many reasons one of them being it provides many different points of view of the hurricane Sandy that hit and how it impacted the people in the Red Hook. The powerpoint also shows that how Red Hook is a flood zone and any hurricane can destroy it again like sandy. The power point also talks about the industrial and neighborhood but not so much deeply. The powerpoint does go in depth about the demographics of the Red Hook. it also shows how it was like after sandy struck the Red Hook and what the conditions were.

        So why I found this relates to our topic is because we can use it to support our claims about the demographics and who exactly was hurt and who volunteered and what type of hardship the peoples faced and we can use this to interpret what could have been done better or find out how the city could have helped better or the public in general. It also shows what people had to deal with and thats something we could use to see the lack of efforts the city tried with people the people of Red Hook.

United States Government (Ed.). (2015). NYC Community District Profiles. NYC Planning. Retrieved November 15, 2022, from

In the website it shows the flood, building, Land use, Indictor, and Community Zones of Red Hook. It also shows a Census of the area as well as some of the Projects that are currently or will be under construction. 

Due to Red Hook’s exposure to the ocean without any natural land mass surrounding the area, Red Hook is in the open when it comes to flood protection, if there is no land or elevation water will simply go through the path of least resistance. In other words if the area is flat and or is at or below sea level, the area is prone to flooding. Even if the area is able to be built to withstand a flood, due to its nature moving Red Hook up or in-land is not a viable option because it would displace its residents and cost more than necessary.

The source ties into the project by setting a few key details straight, because of the natural topography of Red Hook, the flood systems we have today would change Red Hook in a way that makes accessing the waterways extremely difficult and removing alot of useful land that could’ve been used for recreational use has to be used to protect against flooding. 

Virtual Community Meeting QnA. (2020, August 5). August 5, 2020 Red Hook Houses Community Questions & Answers. Virtual Community Meeting QnA.

This source is a transcript of a virtual meeting between the residents of Red Hook and NYCHA. The residents ask the city about ways to be involved in the renovation of the Red Hook houses, as well as various health risks that come with the construction. This source has the input from the community that we wanted to include in our podcast, and since interviewing will be more difficult due to the dropping temperatures, this will serve as a substitute for the interviews. We can also use these questions and their answers as a way to imitate a real community meeting with a city official.

Yates, B. (2020, January 27). When will red hook get its flood protection? Revue. Retrieved November 17, 2022, from 

   This article is about that what is the way to protect Red Hook from dangerous floods, and when they happen in the future. Here are the possible ways to protect Red Hook from the flood in the future.

      This Article shows that There are ways to protect Red Hook from the flood. First is the flood system, which is a variety of elements that can be together and customized in areas where much infrastructure or vulnerable neighborhoods require a high level of flood protection. This means that there is a structure to protect the floods, which is a floodwall, so the red hook won’t get flooded. Second is floated ideas, such as landscape median barriers, sidewalk planters, and deployable elements such as flooding barriers sidewalk planters, and deployable elements. Meaning that was subsequently concealed a below street level floodwall and the same as the flood wall. Third is Interim Flood Protection Measures, meaning consisting of inflatable tiger Dams and sand-filled HESCO barriers, create to prevent “low-level, high recurrence coastal flood risk” for a maximum of five years. So this means that it comprises the third flood danger in Red Hook, for most of New York City uses combined sewer lines for stormwater and wastewater, and any event can overwhelm the system. Last is UPS (United States Postal Service). According to the article, the McGettrick UPS site could be conceptualized in part as a waterfront barrier, while Blodel, resists the Brooklyn Queens Connector Streetcar. Moreover, if BQX is part of the integrated flood protection that they’re seeking for Red Hook. As you can see, there are four ways to protect the Red Hook from future danger in flood.

      In conclusion, this source shows several ways to protect Red Hook from Food in the name of strategy. This article explains how can they save Red Hook from flood during Hurricane Sandy. So This article has 4 ways to protect Red Hook from floods, their flood system, floated ideas, Interim Flood Protection Measures, and UPS (United States Postal Service). Those are four ways that it can protect this city from dangerous water.