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Glossary of Terms

Let’s build a collective list of terms that will be useful to students taking the ID2 course. Aim to submit at least five terms each week from readings, presentations, discussion, or other materials.

Add a comment with your term, definition, and source (including URL).

  1. Information: knowledge obtained from investigation, study, or instruction
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/information
  2. Data: information, especially facts or numbers, collected to be examined and considered and used to help decision-making or information in an electronic form that can be stored and used by a computer.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/data
  3. MTC ( Mathematical Theory of Communication): a theory/article proposed by Claude Shannon on the effective process of communication and how a message sent becomes a message received.
    https://pure.mpg.de/rest/items/item_2383164/component/file_2383163/content
  4. Binary: a number system based only on the numerals 0 and 1.
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/binary
  5. Bit: A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store.
    https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/definition/bit-binary-digit
  6. Data Visualization: the graphical representation of information and data.
    https://www.tableau.com/learn/articles/data-visualization#definition
  7. Cognitive Perception: Perception is the ability to capture, process, and actively make sense of the information that our senses receive. It is the cognitive process that makes it possible to interpret our surroundings with the stimuli that we receive through sensory organs.
    https://www.cognifit.com/perception
  8. Analytical method of reasoning: the ability to look at information and discern patterns within it.
    https://www.radford.edu/content/cobe/innovation-analytics/analytics/career-prep/report-e.html
  9. Information Design: the practice of telling a story with data. It helps people interpret information by providing a purpose, a storyline that’s simple to follow, and clear conclusions.
    https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/information-design
  10. Infographics: a collection of imagery, data visualizations like pie charts and bar graphs, and minimal text that gives an easy-to-understand overview of a topic.
    https://venngage.com/blog/what-is-an-infographic/#1

8 Comments

  1. Wilna Michel

    Here are some general terms that were used in the past weeks:

    1. Information: knowledge obtained from investigation, study, or instruction
    2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/information
    3. Data: information, especially facts or numbers, collected to be examined and considered and used to help decision-making or information in an electronic form that can be stored and used by a computer.
    4. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/data
    5. MTC ( Mathematical Theory of Communication): a theory/article proposed by Claude Shannon on the effective process of communication and how a message sent becomes a message received.
    6. https://pure.mpg.de/rest/items/item_2383164/component/file_2383163/content
    7. Binary: a number system based only on the numerals 0 and 1.
    8. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/binary
    9. Bit: A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store.
    10. https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/definition/bit-binary-digit

    Here are 5 terms from the textbook, ” Design for Information: An Introduction to the Histories, Theories, and Best Practices Behind Effective Information.”

    1. Data Visualization: the graphical representation of information and data.
    2. https://www.tableau.com/learn/articles/data-visualization#definition
    3. Cognitive Perception: Perception is the ability to capture, process, and actively make sense of the information that our senses receive. It is the cognitive process that makes it possible to interpret our surroundings with the stimuli that we receive through sensory organs.
    4. https://www.cognifit.com/perception
    5. Analytical method of reasoning: the ability to look at information and discern patterns within it.
    6. https://www.radford.edu/content/cobe/innovation-analytics/analytics/career-prep/report-e.html
    7. Information Design: the practice of telling a story with data. It helps people interpret information by providing a purpose, a storyline that’s simple to follow, and clear conclusions.
    8. https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/information-design
    9. Infographics: a collection of imagery, data visualizations like pie charts and bar graphs, and minimal text that gives an easy-to-understand overview of a topic.
    10. https://venngage.com/blog/what-is-an-infographic/#1
  2. Or Szyflingier

    1. Node- An individual part of a larger data structure. Nodes are a basic data structure which contain data and one or more links to other nodes. Nodes can be used to represent a tree structure or a linked list. In such structures where nodes are used, it is possible to traverse from one node to another node. (link)
    2. Spatial Properties- (position and size) include location, size, distance, direction, separation and connection, shape, pattern, and movement (link)
    3. Object Properties – (shape, color, texture, etc.) differentiate objects from other objects. The basic properties of an object are those items identified by its four-part name (name, type, instance, and version) and also include owner, status, platform, and release. (link)
    4. Integral Dimension- Two dimensions are integral if it is not possible to perceive or attend to only one dimension without attending to the other (e.g., saturation and brightness). (link)
    5. Separable Dimensions – are those that can be attended to and processed independently of each other;  (link)
    6. Preattentive Properties/ Attributes- are visual properties that we notice without using conscious effort to do so and determine what information catches our attention, occurs before the conscious mind starts to pay attention and is the immediate cognitive experience of processing the visual world. (link)
  3. Wilna Michel

    From the Session with Yimi:

    1. Survey: an examination of opinions, behavior, etc., made by asking people questions.
    2. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/survey
    3. Target Audience: A target audience is a group of people defined by certain demographics and behavior.
    4. https://sproutsocial.com/glossary/target-audience/
    5. Data Privacy: a branch of data security concerned with the proper handling of data – consent, notice, and regulatory obligations
    6. https://www.varonis.com/blog/data-privacy
    7. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation): lists the rights of the data subject, meaning the rights of the individuals whose personal data is being processed. These strengthened rights give individuals more control over their personal data, including through the need for an individual’s clear consent to the processing of his or her personal data.
    8. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/data-protection/data-protection-regulation/
    9. Data Analysis: the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data.
    10. https://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/n_illinois_u/datamanagement/datopic.html

    From Chapter 2 of Design for Information: An Introduction to the Histories, Theories, and Best Practices Behind Effective Information.”

    1. Network: a group of two or more devices or nodes that can communicate. The devices or nodes in question can be connected by physical or wireless connections.
    2. https://www.techopedia.com/definition/5537/network
    3. Note: the connection point or a communication endpoint in devices.
    4. https://techmonitor.ai/what-is/what-is-a-node
    5. Link: a connection between two people, things, or ideas:
    6. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/link
    7. Bond: something that binds, fastens, confines, or holds together.
    8. https://www.dictionary.com/browse/bond
    9. Site: the spatial location of an actual or planned structure or set of structures (such as a building, town, or monument)
    10. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/site

    From W.E.B. Du Bois’s Data Portraits” video

    1. Sociologist: A sociologist studies how people act within societies and other groups.
    2. https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/sociologist
    3. Economic Class: how one ranks relative to others in terms of income and wealth. Simply put, we are sorted into groups by how much money we have.
    4. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-social-class-and-why-does-it-matter-3026375
    5. Data sets: A data set is a collection of related, discrete items of related data that may be accessed individually or in combination or managed as a whole entity.
    6. https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/definition/data-set
    7. Pictographic: a diagram representing statistical data in pictorial forms
    8. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pictograph
    9. Letterforms: the shape of a letter of an alphabet especially from the standpoint of design or development.
    10. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/letterform
  4. Bryan Estevez

    Social network : A social network refers to a set of people who are connected to each other through meaningful social relationships and patterns of interaction, such as relationships with family members, friends, and neighbors. (Link)

    Path (Networking Graph Theory) : A path is a sequence of nodes and edges in a graph such that each node and edge of the path is contained in the graph. (Link)

    Matrix : In mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular array of tables of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. (Link)

    Cluster : A group of similar things that are close together, sometimes surrounding something. (Link)

    Visual Encoding : The process of transforming data into graphical elements such as shapes, colors, sizes, and positions that convey meaning and patterns. (Link)

  5. Destiny Thomas

    Network Design: Physical, virtual and logical arrangement of your design. Referring to the arrangement and organization of interconnected elements within a system to create communication and data flow. (source)

    Node: A point in a network or diagram at which lines or pathways intersect or branch. (source)

    Hierarchy: Utilizes several key principles, including size, color, contrast, alignment, repetition, and brightness, to emphasize certain characteristics of the design. It controls those factors in order to show importance within the design as a whole. (source)

    Similarity: Showing connection and showing that multiple items are related in some way. It brings familiarity and consistency to a design. (source)

    Geographic Based Information: A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. GIS can show many different kinds of data on one map, such as streets, buildings, and vegetation. This enables people to more easily see, analyze, and understand patterns and relationships. (source)

  6. Bryan Estevez

    Graphical Method: Graphical methods refer to techniques used to visually represent data, relationships, or processes using charts, graphs, diagrams, or other graphical formats. (Link)

    Statistics Theory: Statistics theory is a mathematical approach to describe something, predict events, or analyse the relationship between things. (Link)

    Thematic Map: A thematic map is a map created to display information about a topic or theme. Themes can be shown with a choropleth(color), heat map, sizes, charts, dot-densities, three-dimensional prisms, or cartogram. (Link)

    Demographic data: Demographic data refers to socioeconomic information expressed statistically, including employment, education, income, marriage rates, birth and death rates, and more. (Link)

    Census: A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating population information about the members of a given population. (Link)

  7. Wilna Michel

    Storytelling: the activity of writing, telling, or reading stories (source)

    Gestalt Principles: principles/laws of human perception that describe how humans group similar elements, recognize patterns, and simplify complex images when we perceive objects. (source)

    Narrative: a way of presenting or understanding a situation or series of events that reflects and promotes a particular point of view or set of values. (source)

    Organization: the way in which something is done or arranged. (source)

    Comparison: the representing of one thing or person as similar to or like another. (source)

  8. Abraham Guzman

    1) Algorithma step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end.

    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/algorithm

    2) Deep Learning: Deep learning is part of a broader family of machine learning methods, which is based on artificial neural networks with representation learning.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_learning

    3) Computer Vision: Computer vision is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables computers and systems to derive meaningful information from digital images, videos and other visual inputs — and take actions or make recommendations based on that information. If AI enables computers to think, computer vision enables them to see, observe and understand.

    https://www.ibm.com/topics/computer-vision

    4) Generative Model: Generative modeling is the use of artificial intelligence (AI), statistics and probability in applications to produce a representation or abstraction of observed phenomena or target variables that can be calculated from observations.

    https://www.techtarget.com/searchenterpriseai/definition/generative-modeling

    5) Natural language processing: Natural language processing (NLP) refers to the branch of computer science—and more specifically, the branch of AI—concerned with giving computers the ability to understand text and spoken words in much the same way human beings can.

    https://www.ibm.com/topics/natural-language-processing

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