TO: Professor Jason Ellis

FROM: Nargis Anny

DATE: September 22, 2020

SUBJECT: 500-word summary

This is a 500 word summary of “A Smart Agent design for Cyber Security based on HoneyPot and Machine Learning”. The article highlights the rise of security risks that come with the rise of social media and the World Wide Web. We’re also introduced to the programs that keep the security programs running, as well as the setbacks it’s brings to computer systems worldwide.

In the article, GDATA states how every year there are over millions of Cyber attacks that have been discovered. These issues are often involves analysis tools that keep track information. However, the difficulty is keeping an eye on every problem that arises. With a better understanding of how Cyber attacks work, there’s a better chance of preventing future issues. HoneyPots is one of the most prominent cyber security programs to date. Developed in 1992, HoneyPots is utilized as a monitoring and detecting system that locates harmful malware. Now future attacks can be prevented before they even find a system to disrupt. Part Two talks about Anomilies, data which has to be protected from harmful versions of software. With Social Media sites such as Myspace or Facebook, these sites need to be observed in order for a social ‘Honeypot”, to detect harmful profiles, as well as any other threats out there. Authors suggest a linkage defense system, which can bypass the setbacks brought on by past tools that tried to work. The Linkage system has the Honeypot’s and the defense system coexist together by having their management and communication tools work together. This system is based on a SMNP model code used in network management. Now Future intruders will be blocked by firewalls, if they try to hack into the system. Machine Learning is where we learn that computers operate under the system program that it’s been assigned. The concept of “Machine Learning”, keeps the computers adjusted to data structure and how to operate properly. Machine Learning has training models that separate into two phases in order to function. The first phase is estimating the data through training, by demonstrating tasks like recognizing animals in images or speech translation. The second phase is production. Here we see new data pass through the system in order to get the computer to complete an objective. The K-Means algorithm helps maintain clustering from certain systems. Eddabbah indicates that the “K –Algorithim is a faster solution to the issue it still has major setbacks” (Eddabbah, 2020, Page 3). The Decision tree helps branch out all data structures in case of testing. Part 4 jumps back into HoneyPot, this explains the different security communication networks. The first part is HoneyPot deployment which can monitor either Internal or External attacks on the system. With this we can see attacks that are carried out or attempted on any network. With DMZ’s (Demilitarized zones), HoneyPot function as a way to provide public internet service away from the computer’s internal network. Next, we have networks like KFSensor, Netfacade, Specter and CurrPorts. KFSensor is a server that watches out for connections with the network. Netfacade allows numerous network hosts interactions through unused IP a dresses. Networks also have to direct security threats to the firewall and eventually the honeypot will separate it to see if it’s serious or not. To conclude, network security is a very serious problem due to constant evolving and threats are hard to manage.


Kamel, N / Eddabbah, M / Lmoumen, Y/ Touahni, R “A Smart Agent Design for Cyber Security Based on Honeypot and Machine Learning”, Security & Communication Networks, (2020) ID 8865474 (9 Pages), 2020

Summary of “Addressing cloud computing security issues”

To : Professor Ellis

From :David Requena

Date: Sept 25, 2020

Subject: 500-Word Summary

My 500-word summary is based on the article “Addressing cloud computing security issues” by Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. This articles tell us about how cloud is growing at very fast rate. It also tell us about how important it is to find measures to be fight against this new problems that we are currently facing.

` Although the innovation of Cloud Computing has changed many technologies, it also arises new issues with computing, security and several other aspects. As with every technological invention, new security measures must be taken as we further our technological knowledge. In today’s world, there are already security measures when it comes to dealing with the possible threats to Cloud Computing. However, traditional and functional security is constantly being depreciated. The following methods are the ones that are currently considered as solutions for risks towards cloud security – trust in the third parties, security identification of the threats, and better security using cryptography.

Cloud Services:

There are three main types of cloud services, each with a different function or purpose, and one common. The three models are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). IaaS basically gives the consumer the thing it needs to run, allowing the consumer to deploy and run the software. This includes storage, network, and computer resources. PaaS gives the user the ability to deploy in the cloud infrastructure. This service is usually provided by a third party. PaaS is mainly used to develop software on its own infrastructure. SaaS allows a third party to provide and host the software for their customer’s use over the internet.

Trust is a major factor in any type of cloud-related technology. This is because it’s a globalized service, many people in various countries interact with it. Third party companies are the ones that provide the different types of cloud services to its consumers. They are the ones that overview from security to privacy. According to the article ‘Addressing Cloud Computing Security Issues’, “Third parties are trusted within a cloud environment by enabling trust and using cryptography to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of data and communications while attempting to address specific security vulnerabilities.” This simply means that it is possible to trust the third parties if they are willing to commit to help and secure the servers by being private and encrypting it so it could be harder to break into, even if someone tries. The article also states that the purpose of cloud computing is to have “the ability to clearly identify, authenticate, authorize and monitor who or what is accessing the assets of an organization is essential to protecting an IS from threats and vulnerabilities.” Being able to have trust in a company is a difficult action for another company because it is harder to verify ever action if it’s not being watched and constantly modified. Therefore, people have a hard time outsourcing what’s needed to be done and those that are to be done within the company. The way to trust a company is to have some sort of barrier or filter when it comes to the information, you’re sharing with your partner company. “Separation is the key ingredient of any secure system and is based on the ability to create boundaries between entities that must be protected, and those which cannot be trusted.” This is a great solution for any company, if both the third party and the company commit.

There are many threats in Cloud Computing, but first they need to be identified. Cloud Computing is a fairly new technology that traditional securities have already countered, but because it’s a new technology, it requires a different approach to security. First, threats must need to be identified, which may take some time because there are several areas like “availability and reliability issues, data integrity, recovery, privacy and auditing” to consider. The ability to identify the vulnerabilities are very complicated because there are building blocks to be used in designing secure systems. These important aspects of security apply to three broad categories of assets which are necessary to be secured – data, software, and hardware resources. Building blocks are in basic systems that can be reused to protect and deploy faster solutions. This is to ensure that it is developed and deployed in the areas that are having security problems. The reason that they work like this is so they can target different areas at the same time. For example, if a cloud is having a problem that include data being lost and a data breach, a building block can help solve these problems if it was developed in that specific way.

The third way to make cloud environment more secure is by having implement cryptography. Many times the way the hacker are able to trust pass the security by finding outdated security measures and. According to the article, the best way to secure is by the, “use of a combination of Public Key Cryptography, Single-Sign-On technology … to securely identify and authenticate implicated entities.” . A public key cryptography is a modern cryptographic method of communicating safely without having agreeing in a secret key. This is a method that uses private key and a public key using algorithm to secure the data. The way this work for example is the sender uses the receiver’s public key to encrypt the message. This way they only way to decrypt it is by using the receiver’s private key. The Single-Sign-On technology(SSO) is to have users only have one password to access many applications not having to have multiple credentials. One example for this is google services, when you have a google account you are instantly granted many services like google drive, google photos, etc. The way to access all these services is just by logging in one time and you will have access to everything thanks to SSO. These two different ways to make logging in and transferring data more safe for everyone who is involved

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2010, December 22). Addressing cloud computing security issues. from

Summary of Fam’s “ Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents: A Meta‐Analysis Across Three decades”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Stephan Dominique

DATE: 10/19/2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Reverse Outline on Internet Gaming Disorder

My 500-word summary is based on the article “ Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta‐analysis across three decades” by Fam, J. Y. Internet gaming disorder has been looked into seriously after the multiple cases of violence due to the prevalence of video games with a famous case being the Colorado movie massacre of 2012. Internet gaming disorder must have more research done on it before it can become an official disorder with multiple different criteria. There are disputes of if the word “internet” should even be in the term “Internet Gaming Disorder” as there has been studies that people aren’t addicted to the internet itself but are using it as a platform to fuel their addiction. There are also issues with the methods to determine IGD as it has been disputed that the disorder is more comparable to gambling but that isn’t true due to money not being needed to play. IGD has been studied among different age groups with it being most prevalent in the adolescent age group, having various benefits but also various disadvantages. IGD has to be synthesized among adolescents. There was a search for articles published on IGD with 458 publications being founded but only a total of 16 articles were used due to them meeting the criteria. There were subgroup analyses performed to identify the influences of IGD such as year, recorded disorder, study location, etc. The prevalence of IGD has been recorded since the 1990s and low prevalence was found in most cases while there are barely any high prevalence cases. Studies were done on both genders and Internet Gaming Disorder was found to be a good higher in males than in females. Prevalence of IGD decreased as the years went on but was still very high in certain locations such as Asia and North America. The results of the studies of IGD determined that the disorder was more prevalent in adolescents than children with theories of IGD starting in children and becoming more rampant when they become adults and become unaware of the risks associated with it. According to Fam, “results show that male adolescents (7.1%) are about four times more likely to engage in IGD than female adolescents (1.7%)” (Fam, 2018). Males are also more likely to be unable to resist playing the games. Male gamers are more likely to engage in challenging video games that include strategy, fighting, etc. compared to female gamers tend to play more casual games. There are less people in the world that suffer from IGD than normal gaming disorder. Numbers for IGD are inflating in Asia and it’s not a surprise as major game developers are based in Asia. One in twenty adolescents are affected by IGD and this disorder requires a lot more research.


Fam, J. Y. (2018). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta‐analysis across three decades. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(5), 524–531.

`Factors Influencing the Success of Information Systems in Flood Early Warning and Response Systems Context,” by Waleed A. Hammood

This memo in a 500-word summary of the articles “Factors Influencing the Success of Information Systems in Flood Early Warning and Response Systems Context,” by  Waleed A. Hammood a faculty of computing at the College of Computing and Applied Sciences. This article abstractly tells us about how the flood flash is becoming more of a natural disaster and they need a good response system to give them more accurate and reliable data on the flood flash. The floods endangered a lot of people in the villages and cost them their lives. These floods started to become damaging and dangerous because of the climate change that was going on in the world. The amount of flood damages can make construction work very expensive because there is a lot of work that has to be put into the damages that has to be fixed.Over decades they had local goods for the community because that will help them as a whole during these dangerous flood risks. The local government has a big role when coming to mitigation. The Flood Early Warning and Response System (FEWRS) is an information system that can change the risks of floods about to occur.  The FEWRS is instant flood information and there are three different stages of floods that it records. The three floods can make it more clear on how bad the flash floods will be.

There are advance warnings to lessen the flash flood because it’s a tool that helps make a success on the FEWRS. The more advanced the warnings are, the more signals we will get for the information systems. The information system is important because it sends all signals for the flash flood. Signals play a big role in the systems because it puts everything in place and gives more clarity.  Some systems are having a lack of information that will have an impact on the flood disaster because of the factors that contribute to the success of these systems.FEWRS has limited their focus to more on disaster management to watch more of the system. The success factor is more to focus on. The IS model is important because without it wouldn’t be any relations with the market and therefore nothing with the organization that’s there. 

 The IS model has more interests than the other models and IS has shown their success in what they do. It has helped researchers choose their factor that will work well with the FEWRS. Some people can’t make up their mind if they want the FEWRS or IS because they must have a different understanding of these factors. The chart is showing the most important factors that will show which is to go to when wanting a good organization. Flood hazard involving engineering that can be expensive.  “According to Baudoin et al. and Meyer [8, 12], information-based disaster tool such as FEWRS can be adopted to forecast and to provide recommendation to decision makers on natural disasters based on factors that contribute to the success of FEWRS” 

Hammood, W. A., Asmara, S. M., Arshah, R. A., Hammood, O. A., Al Halbusi, H., Al-Sharafi, M. A., & Khaleefah, S. H. (2020). Factors influencing the success of information systems in flood early warning and response systems context. Telkomnika, 18(6), 2956–2961.

Summary of “Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education.”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Joshua Patterson

DATE: 9/27/2020

SUBJECT: 500-word summary

My 500-word summary is about the article titled “Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education.” This article’s abstract tells us about how music is important to a person’s development and behavior, and also how researchers in 1999 have used music therapy to come up with a solution to help students with their disruptive behavior by using video game music from the game Musichao. They believe that music has the ability to not only to help a person with their behavior, but can also affect other characteristics such as creativity, motivation and another resource for those visual or auditory learners as well, and also defines the term “Music Therapy” and explains the effects it can have on different parts of children’s and adolescents’ life. The author continues to explain the five stages of adolescence, adolescents being exposed to games to examine the effects that it has on their intelligence, education and daily life.

The author explains the process of how they conduct the tests and what their role is as the examiners. They give us a brief overview of six participants within a fixed age range to examine how they act within a classroom setting, and explains how two groups of instruments were used for this test that already had existed. The author talks about the two instruments, which were, a book that was used as the first instrument and extensive tests in the book that are going to be ran to examine the characteristics of each adolescence participant, and the game that was used as the second instrument, how the game works, and the daily results it provides the examiners. The author then explains the procedure of how the tests are ran on each participant and who will be assigned to deliver each test. Then, details of the process of examining the test results given from the tests based on the results from the first test in the beginning to the last test at the end.

The researchers provide the actual results of the tests, the design of the tests, and the comparison of the tests from the beginning to last test. The author explains each of the tests, the scoring system used to keep track of each participants’ progress throughout for each of the tests, what each score means for each participant, and their results on each test. They also gives us an overview of the meaning of the results from the first test to the last, the results showing improvement in the participants that were chosen for this study and the minor changes are making their hypothesis somewhat true but not enough that it can be said for certain that music does in fact help with all aspects of their intelligence. 

Lastly, the author explains how their tests can be taken as proof that music therapy works, but that their study wasn’t perfect because of lack of particular cases that could not be used, such as having a control group for this study and not having randomization in the study as well.


  • Chao-Fernández, R., Gisbert-Caudeli, V., & Vázquez-Sánchez, R. (2020). Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education. Applied Sciences (2076-3417), 10(5), 1796.

Summary of Aagaard “Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology”

TO: Professor Jason Ellis

FROM: Ye Lin Htut

DATE: Sept 13, 2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary

This memo is a 500-word summary of the article, “Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology” by Jesper Aagaard, Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

              This article discusses about the present student experience of off-task use of educational technology and knowledgeable measuring study of students off-task use of technology during class. This experimental investigation is informed by Jesper philosophy, which varies from traditional reasoning theory by changing emphasis from mental processes to physical use of technologies.

              The current study on educational technology primarily depends on a rational knowledge of awareness. As any other idea, this implies some of the studies of existence, justification, genetic beliefs, and emotional. The idea is the present school of philosophy that is remaining progressively used in the study of human technology interactions. This means a change beyond traditional structures of experience and consciousness structures of experience and awareness and the concept requires two changes one in inner balance and characterization. Even though an expanded understanding to characterized use of technologies, a philosophy focused on academics infrequently performs practical researches of people’s technologically mediated practices and habits.

              One part of a broader analysis of educational technologies arbitration of student attention in an educational perspective. Students with age between 16-20 years some college and its institutes services a technological policy of letting students bring their owned devices to school. The result of student use technology is common. Digital technologies have largely superseded notebooks, calculators, and pencils. Students sometimes do not even carry books to school because they can rely only on their laptops. Students frequently called the impulse to connect in off-task interest as a attraction towards and frequently visited unrelated educationally websites such as social media, which is generally used among all students. Students are fall into distraction. If the class section are considered to be too hard, students fall behind and result to distraction. They become emotionally exhausted and disconnect from class and go to unrelated websites.

              Teachers are highly concerned of the tasks presented by off-task use of educational technology. Jesper informs us, “One teacher poignantly explained that when students look at their laptops and smile during English grammar, he knows that it “probably doesn’t have anything to do with the lesson” (Jesper Aagaard, 2015, p. 94). Teachers and school educators are facing enormous task to today modern educational system. They are worry to a student will not learn anything, get a low grade from their class, and become a bad reputation on an educator or school. The endless availability of fascinating options to a continuing lesson. Educators concur of this is a never ending challenge however consider this situation differently.

              Ever more digitalization educational system recognizing why students often use educational technologies for off-task activity is critical. In this article presented the idea of an attraction towards often visited educationally nonrelated websites. Students respond clearly to the apparent boredom of lecturing. They describe lessons as boring which is why they give into desire and become confused.

              As a measuring examination about off-task use of educational technology in real classrooms are an increase in environmental related to new systems. How will educators handle with off-task use of educational technology? Should digital devices be banned from the classroom or are a device to be controlled by the school or teacher administrators? This is not impossible but also highly beneficial if the device are the only access to class-related.


Aagaard, J. (2015). Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology. Computers & Education, 87, 90–97.

Summary of Aggarwal’s “Modern Web-Development using ReactJS”

To: Prof. Ellis

From: Shital B K

Date: 09/23/2020

Subject: 500-Word Summary

This memo is a 500-word summary of the article, “Modern Web-Development using ReactJS,” by Sanchit Aggarwal (Northern India Engineering College). The article explains about the modern web-development techniques using ReactJS framework.

ReactJS is a JavaScript library used to design and develop the user interfaces that simplifies the data rendering and binding of large web-based applications. According to the writer, “React basically enables development of large and complex web-based applications which can change its data without subsequent page refreshes.” (Aggarwal, 2018, p. 133). It is mostly used to design and develop modular user interfaces which simplifies the development of complex web-based applications. It follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture where it is used as the View. It also supports rendering on server-side application using NodeJS and the rendering process in the mobile devices are supported by React Native. ReactJS has simplified the data binding and rendering process and proven to be much easier for the front-end development.

Some of the features of ReactJS are Lightweight DOM for Better Performance, Easy Learning Curve, JSX, Performance, One-way data flow and Virtual DOM. ReactJS has the feature to interact with the document object model stored in the memory that doesn’t interact with the browser directly and hence provides excellent performance of the application. It is known as one of the easiest frameworks having less complexity to learn which makes it popular among the web developers. JSX is another language that simplifies React binding events. The reason that the framework is highly efficient in performance because it has the feature called virtual DOM.

The main working principle of React is based on MVC and DOM where MVC is popular for the user interface development and DOM represents the view of the applications. React performs all its task with the use of Component. The components are generally designed as tree structure that makes the code easy and reusable. The lifecycle of ReactJS framework is generally completed in three states. The first process is the mounting process and after the mounting process, the DOM is generated and finally the last process is the conversion of the DOM placement into the container node. The property set called as props and state are used to manipulate the Component. This property enables to create the user interface of the web application using Component.

React being an excellent framework has some limitations. Some of the limitations of React are having only the view entity in the MVC where additional tools should be used to implement other tasks. Inline templates and JSX are complex to use that can be tire some while designing large applications. The issue during the compilation is also one of the limitations using ReactJS compared to other frameworks.

Modern web development has become very dynamic and interactive. As a result, there are numbers of frameworks used in the industry. ReactJS is one of the most popular frameworks having lots of features that simplifies the data rendering and binding. Hence, it is widely used these days for web development and frontend development.


Aggarwal, S. (2018). Modern Web-Development using ReactJS. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects5(1), 133–137.

Summary of Sulkuti’s “Comparative Analysis of Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies for Smart Grid”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Mamadou Bah

DATE: Sept 23, 2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary Draft

This memo is a 500-Word summary of the article, “Comparative Analysis of Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies for Smart Grid” by Reddy Salkuti.

The Various techniques used to store energy are the future for Renewable Energy and the Smart Grid system. Salkut argues, “storage techniques are the basis of the future of SG. Without adequate storage techniques, there will be no way to reliably meet the energy demands of the future” (Salkut, 2020, p. 2118). Those techniques play an important role in reducing the disadvantages Renewable energy faces today such as cost, popularity, production and sustainability. As the demand and supply of electricity vary all the times, Energy Storage is used to store energy when there is excess of production and use that energy when the demand is higher than the production. Renewable Energy can use super capacitors for a short-term storage and batteries for long term storage.

The types of battery technologies Salkuti writes about are the rechargeable that use chemical reactions to produce electricity. Energy storage technologies use rechargeable batteries following the process of reduction-oxidation for its charging and discharging process. They are classified into electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, and thermal. The different rechargeable Battery technologies described in this article are lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, lead acid and many other types of technologies that play a fundamental role in the Renewable energy sector and in the Smart Grid system.

The first battery technology Salkuti writes about in this article is the Lithium-ion battery. Made of graphite and lithium metal amalgams, Lithium-ion battery has high performance, but it has its disadvantages such as cost and sensitivity to high temperatures. It can be found in cars, phones and many other devices. The second is the Lithium iron phosphate. It is safe, and waste free. The third one is the Lithium-air batteries, found in electronics, electric car and Grid System, has high specific energy that can be compared to liquid fuels. The fourth one is the Sodium based battery which operates in room temperature. It has negative potential and specific capacity. The fifth one is Sodium-sulfur batteries that operates at 300 degrees Celsius with efficient charging process and can be found in vehicles and stationary applications. The sixth one is Sodium nickel chloride battery also called ZEBRA. It has a low internal resistance and high specific energy which makes it expensive, and it operates at high temperatures. Seventh one are Flow batteries that are built with two separates sides that is composed with chemical energy and it is very reliable. The following technology is Vanadium redox flow battery. It is a combination of ion metals, and it is unpopular. Next are Zinc-bromine batteries that use zinc metal for their anode plates and bromine for the cathode plates, and the energy is stored by the zinc metal. The last three technologies Salkuti lists are the Nickel-based batteries, Lead acids, and the Metal air. They are used in electronics and telecommunication, and they have good performances. 


Salkuti, S. R. (2020). Comparative analysis of electrochemical energy storage technologies for smart gridTelkomnika18(4), 2118–2124. /10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v18i4.14039


TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Alvin Ferreira

DATE: September 22,2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary

This is a 500-word summary of ” AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF IOT BASED APPLICATIONS” by Devendra Kumar that discusses the effects that IoT will provide over time to businesses, home and building owners, cities, transportation and the environment.  The IoT basically is a system that has the ability to transfer data over the network without the need for human –to- human or computer –to- human interaction. Internet of things may obtain data from various segment or they could be involved in different administrations.

      According to Devendra Kumar, IoT will improve urban communities reassuring open traffic reducing business security and protecting population. IoT will include transport framework, human service framework, climate control framework that will provide access to airport, rail and transit data from local sites for transmission. The Internet will provide a smart building management framework that will consist of big data source that office managers could monitor the use of energy. A smart grid will control two-way exchanges between supplier and buyers. Smart grit key data and matching innovation elements will include progress detection and monitoring for management streams; a base station computerized for to transmit information via the Internet.

Then; afterwards Devendra Kumar speaks upon Smart Health that was created for hospital’s use to monitor patients’ physical condition with IoT. The IoT will use sensors to collect all physical data, in order to test and store data, and send remote information to do later testing and reviews. Smart Health uses mechanism to secure confident sensor health information distribution, use complex calculation to break up information share it with physicians via remote network.

    Further on, Devendra Kumar explains how smart mobility and transportation will be managed by the IoT application to apply the standards of purchase and research participation.  The smart mobility and transportation arrangement was implemented with a variety of capabilities, e.g. testing for Li-on batteries, remote control with online troubleshooting and a fault-free ad covering supports costs.

      We are told about how Smart factory will help to integrate other feature, including computer-based logic, machine learning and computer information tracking tasks, and to coordinate assembly process with M2M. The M2M keys chosen through the “Mechanical” sections will place a heavy emphasis on smart factory line and key concept data. Smart factory Mechanical processes will include less time support, less obscurity and less efficiency on spare. There have been numerous inquires about efforts to tackle natural pollution and waste. IoT research can provide a compelling method to communicate the resources of each of these sensors and to highlight the choice of suitable alternative to those sources of use. IoT innovation can monitor and manage air quality and gather information from urban areas.

Devendra Kumar ends by explaining how IoT is an innovation that connects things to people and the web. Furthermore, that it requires a structured approach for designing, accrediting, certifying programs, conference and events, each with a single and specific use.


Kumar, Devendra.(2020) AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF IOT BASED APPLICATION. Acta Technica Corvininesis-Bulletin of Engineering. Vol 13 Issue 1, 73-78.

Summary of Ling, Balci et al.’s “A First Look at Zoombombing”

TO: Professor Ellis
FROM: Albert Chan
DATE: Sept. 22, 2020
SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary

The purpose of this 500-Word Summary is to condense the contents of “A First Look at Zoombombing”, by Ling C., Balci U. et al., with the purpose of the article analyzing why and how zoombombing (henceforth known as zbing) occurs, then suggesting a simple solution to the issue of zbing.

It starts out by identifying various virtual conferencing tools before mentioning the recent series of attacks of zbing. Then, there is a discussion of best practices to prevent zbing but not enough insider information on how the attacks are done (e.g. whether it is via brute force, insider, etc). There is also a cursory introduction to a later analysis on 2 social media platforms (Twitter, 4chan) and research on how to identify which postings of meeting credentials are “asking” attackers to zoombomb(henceforth known as zb) a meeting room. Research shows that most (above 50%) postings on both social media platforms are indeed “asking” attackers to zb their meeting room. Something to note is that nothing in the article is censored because everything is available online.

According to the Ling C., Balci U. et al, zbing is “composed of four phases…empirical evidence reported by previous research that studied coordinated online aggression, trolling, and harassment on other social media platforms”(p. 2). The four steps of the threat model are as follows: Call for attack, Coordination, Delivery, Harm. It is quite self-explanatory.

Later on, there is an identification of the top 10 most used online conferencing tools. There is a chart of data on these tools (e.g. free or not, how much to upgrade, year of release). Zoom was established in 2011, but has risen to prominence and gained infamy during the pandemic, thus coining the term zbing. Eight of the ten popular online meeting services are free to use. All services have a “you know meeting ID, you know the way in.” Less than half of the services provide security.

Twitter and 4chan are selected as social media platforms to analyze data(e.g. creating an API to collect posts [Twitter]), live threads with meeting ID on Zoom (4chan) or posts with meeting ID (Twitter). 

An introduction on how researchers separated zbing posts from non-zbing posts by organizing a codebook. Most likely still some false positives and false negatives in the end. On 4chan, Zoom and Google Meet have ~50% accuracy of zbing; ~50% of the posted links and messages are people asking to be zb-ed. On Twitter, much less % of people ask for attackers. It should be noted that the majority if not all Google Hangouts and Skype links are posted with good intentions. Identification of each post asking to be attacked, time, insider/not insider, others via codebook. Identification as well as separation of terms, themes, identity, contact. 

The solution to zbing is creating unique meeting links for each participant.


Ling, C., Balci, U., Blackburn, J., Stringhini, G. (2020). A First Look at Zoombombing. Computers and Society, 1(1), 1-14.