Mamadou’s Expended Definition of Electromagnetism

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Mamadou M. Bah

DATE: October 14, 2020

SUBJECT: Expended Definition of Electromagnetism


The purpose of this document is to write a 750-1000-Word expended definition of Electromagnetism. I will, first, find definitions of Electromagnetism from two different sources and use them for the document. Second, I will quote a contextual use of the term from an online source and explain it. Finally, I will define the term on my own words.


In the article “Electricity and Magnetism” published in 2008 by Global Media, the author writes that “Electromagnetics (EM) or electromagnetism is a branch of physics or engineering in which electric and magnetic phenomena are studied. It may be regarded as the study of interactions between electric charges at rest and in motion” (Tayal, 2008, P. 746). According to the Authors, in physics, there is a branch that is called Electromagnetism also known as Electromagnetics that study the relationship of electricity and magnetism. This study is based on how moving electrical charges interact with charges that are at rest. Electromagnetism is divided into two elements, electricity and magnetism. Electricity is the study of moving electrical charges and Magnetism is the study of “magnetic phenomena”. The combination of these two terms, electricity and magnetism, is called electromagnetism. There are other definitions of the term from different sources.

Another definition of Electromagnetism comes from the article “Northern Lights to Death Rays: How Electromagnetism Haunts our Everyday Life” published by Global English in 2017. In the article, Electromagnetism is referred as “Electromagnetism was first discovered in the 19th century, when scientists recognized that the interaction of electrical currents and magnets could make objects move without touching” (Global English, 2017, P.1). The author argues that scientists discovered electromagnetism in the 19th century. They realized at that time that objects could moves without people touching them due to the interaction of electrical currents and magnets. The two definitions are almost the same thing. If we look at both definitions, we see that electromagnetism is based on the interaction of the two terms electricity and magnetism or magnet.


The term electromagnetism or electromagnetic is used in many different contexts. One example of the contextual usage of the term is on the article “Simple Models of Magnetism “, published in 2008. The author writes that “During the last 100 years, magnetism has made a giant step forward. By the second half of the nineteenth century, Maxwell’s equations had established the relation between different electromagnetic fields, and scientists and engineers were aware of the dipolar character of magnetostatic forces and interactions.”(Skomski, 2008, P. 349). In this quote, the term magnetism describes is referred as electromagnetism. It is also used as “electromagnetism field” which represent field lines created by magnetic materials and “magnetostatics forces” which represent the force that magnetic materials exercise to other material that surround them. Another use of the word is from this article “Patentable Subject Matter: What is the Matter with Matter?”. The author argues that “First, the words ‘electromagnetic signals’ and ‘electromagnetism’ are used interchangeably in this paper. The phrase ‘electromagnetic signals’ is often used when the ‘electromagnetism’ is not stationary, but is instead transmitted” (Dolly, Steven, 2010, P. 1). In this part, the author states that electromagnetism is referred as “electromagnetic signals” where electromagnetism produces a signal that is in motion. This shows us that electromagnetism can create signal. The term is used most of the time before another name such are “electromagnetic force”, “electromagnetic field” or “electromagnetic signals”.

Working Definition

Electromagnetism is the part of physics that study the relationships between electricity and magnetism. Therefore, it is important to know what electricity and magnetism are, and the role they play in electromagnetism. When electrical charges move in a material, it is called electricity. When these charges move, they move with a force that can attract or repulse other charges that are close to them. The materials the charges move in, also create an electric field around them. So, when a material is electrified, it becomes a magnet. Magnetics materials have electrical properties. So, they are related. Electromagnetism has been very important in the development of electricity. Magnetism is used to produce electricity. For example, electric machines use magnetism to produce electricity or use it. Transformers also use electromagnetism to transform electrical powers to different level of power that are needed. Therefore, electricity and magnetism are interrelated.


Tayal, D.C. (2008). Electricity and Magnetism. Global Media,ProQuest Ebook Central,

(October 31, 2017 Tuesday). Northern lights to death rays: how electromagnetism haunts our everyday lifeGlobal English (Middle East and North Africa Financial Network). https://advance-lexis-com.

Skomski, R. (2008). Simple models of magnetism. ProQuest Ebook Central

Summary of Sulkuti’s “Comparative Analysis of Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies for Smart Grid”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Mamadou Bah

DATE: Sept 23, 2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary Draft

This memo is a 500-Word summary of the article, “Comparative Analysis of Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies for Smart Grid” by Reddy Salkuti.

The Various techniques used to store energy are the future for Renewable Energy and the Smart Grid system. Salkut argues, “storage techniques are the basis of the future of SG. Without adequate storage techniques, there will be no way to reliably meet the energy demands of the future” (Salkut, 2020, p. 2118). Those techniques play an important role in reducing the disadvantages Renewable energy faces today such as cost, popularity, production and sustainability. As the demand and supply of electricity vary all the times, Energy Storage is used to store energy when there is excess of production and use that energy when the demand is higher than the production. Renewable Energy can use super capacitors for a short-term storage and batteries for long term storage.

The types of battery technologies Salkuti writes about are the rechargeable that use chemical reactions to produce electricity. Energy storage technologies use rechargeable batteries following the process of reduction-oxidation for its charging and discharging process. They are classified into electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, and thermal. The different rechargeable Battery technologies described in this article are lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, lead acid and many other types of technologies that play a fundamental role in the Renewable energy sector and in the Smart Grid system.

The first battery technology Salkuti writes about in this article is the Lithium-ion battery. Made of graphite and lithium metal amalgams, Lithium-ion battery has high performance, but it has its disadvantages such as cost and sensitivity to high temperatures. It can be found in cars, phones and many other devices. The second is the Lithium iron phosphate. It is safe, and waste free. The third one is the Lithium-air batteries, found in electronics, electric car and Grid System, has high specific energy that can be compared to liquid fuels. The fourth one is the Sodium based battery which operates in room temperature. It has negative potential and specific capacity. The fifth one is Sodium-sulfur batteries that operates at 300 degrees Celsius with efficient charging process and can be found in vehicles and stationary applications. The sixth one is Sodium nickel chloride battery also called ZEBRA. It has a low internal resistance and high specific energy which makes it expensive, and it operates at high temperatures. Seventh one are Flow batteries that are built with two separates sides that is composed with chemical energy and it is very reliable. The following technology is Vanadium redox flow battery. It is a combination of ion metals, and it is unpopular. Next are Zinc-bromine batteries that use zinc metal for their anode plates and bromine for the cathode plates, and the energy is stored by the zinc metal. The last three technologies Salkuti lists are the Nickel-based batteries, Lead acids, and the Metal air. They are used in electronics and telecommunication, and they have good performances. 


Salkuti, S. R. (2020). Comparative analysis of electrochemical energy storage technologies for smart gridTelkomnika18(4), 2118–2124. /10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v18i4.14039