Joshua Patterson’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Cybersecurity


The purpose of this document is to define Cybersecurity, the history of Cybersecurity, the future of Cybersecurity, and the importance of Cybersecurity. This document will also help others understand what Cybersecurity is and why it’s so important in today’s world. The way I will be going about this is by firstly, defining cybersecurity and how it came to be known as cybersecurity. Then I will provide historical facts about cybersecurity and what has happened to make cybersecurity so necessary for not only the safety of us as people, but for the safety of our world.


The Merriam-Webster dictionary’s 1989 definition defines cybersecurity as “measures taken to protect a computer or computer system (as on the Internet) against unauthorized access or attack”. The Department of Homeland Security’s 2009 definition of cybersecurity defines it as “the art of protecting networks, devices, and data from unauthorized access or criminal use and the practice of ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.” The current 2020 definition of cybersecurity in the Oxford Dictionary is “the state of being protected against the criminal or unauthorized use of electronic data, or the measures taken to achieve this”.

Each definition provided above all involve the similar term of protection from unauthorized access or use. However, systems that fall underneath the protection vary from different years. Back in 1980’s, the focus of cybersecurity was more along the lines of protecting computers and computer systems because smartphones were not invented at the time, however smartphones had also became a priority when mobile viruses started to arise in the early 2000’s, which is a more condensed way of gaining unauthorized access to someone’s devices through links or apps that contained viruses. It’s gotten to a point where cybersecurity is needed for every device because even opening a suspicious email’s link on your mobile device can lead to your mobile device to be taken over by a hacker.


Over the years since Cybersecurity’s creation, computer scientists and engineers develop their skills to combat the ever-changing threat of cyber attacks. Some of the more dangerous places for cyber attacks to occur would be militarian sections and even government officials. The military has already put in some form of cybersecurity. “The emerging global military network (Cyberspace) consists of many different and often overlapping networks, as well as the nodes (any device or logical element with IPv4, IPv6 address or other analogous identifier) in these networks, and the system data (such as routing tables) that support them. Although not all nodes and networks are globally connected or accessible, cyberspace continues to become increasingly interconnected. Networks can be intentionally isolated or subdivided into enclaves using access control, encryption, disparate protocols, or physical separation” (M ÄŽulĂ­k, M ÄŽulĂ­k jr., pg.265). 

Cyber attacks occur based on the known information that the attacker has on its target. For example, when you think of military sources to exploit, they could target sources like weaponry and ICS (Integrated Computer Solutions) (M Ďulík, M Ďulík jr., pg.268). Cyberattackers find the flaws in a system’s configuration and exploit the weaknesses of what those computer scientists or engineers may have missed. One article on challenges that military would face in future cyber battles military describes some basic steps they would take to to help secure their network, such as the “Basic areas of security measurement in wireless networks”, which list the following: “usage of the modern cryptology means for data confidentiality, the security protocols used in networks and applications for authentication and authorization, and manipulation with transmitted radio signal with the goal to hide communication, or, alternatively, to decrease possibility of attack by jamming or eavesdropping. For example Frequency Hopping (FH), Direct Sequence (DS) modulation, smart adaptive antennas etc.” The article emphasizes this statement afterwards “These measures have strengths and weaknesses, and it is important to keep them reliable and effective (M Ďulík, M Ďulík jr., pg.271).

There was a story about the security of a particular section of importance, the Pentagon, where anonymous agents gave the reporter their words on the networks. “An internal security review of the estimated 16,000 computers across the department concluded that the majority processed information judged to be “of value to an adversary.” Furthermore, many of DoD’s computers were networked with consoles at the 13,000 cleared defense industrial firms. In the wake of the disclosures,anonymous Pentagon officials were quoted in the New York Times as being “increasingly concerned” about the “future security” of these networks. In the same piece, the Times cited an FBI special agent who monitored computer bulletin boards: “Some hackers spend 12 hours a day trying to break into computers at the CIA or the Pentagon,” he revealed” (Fuller, pg. 165).

On a lighter note, one article explains the process of cyber attacks such as the Zero Day cyber attack and even has students learn about what would happen in a Zero Day attack with the help of a training simulator called Hydra Minerva. “An immersive learning activity, based in a Hydra Minerva environment, was integrated into a sample course for students to explore sources of cyber-related vulnerability for organisations, proportionate responses, and the steps that can be taken to increase resilience. The activity was evaluated by a small sample of students for its learning value. The full cohort of 15 students on the master’s level course took part in a series of cyber security learning opportunities aimed to increase their understanding of the human dimensions of the debate” (Arora, pg. 258).

Working Definition

Based on my research, I would define Cybersecurity as “the study, practice and implementation of security systems to protect devices such as smartphones, computers, computer systems, network systems from being exploited by unauthorized users for malicious purposes.”


– Arora, B. (2019). Teaching cyber security to non-tech students. Politics, 39(2), 252–265.

– ÄŽulĂ­k, M., & ÄŽulĂ­k jr., M. (2019). Cyber Security Challenges in Future Military Battlefield Information Networks. Advances in Military Technology, 14(2), 263–277.

– Fuller, C. J. (2019). The Roots of the United States’ Cyber (In)Security. Diplomatic History, 43(1), 157–185.

Week 9, Project, Instructional Manual Continued

During this week’s lecture, I will discuss using Google Docs to create your Instructional Manual. Google Docs gives us plenty of writing, layout, and multimedia-rich features that will support your instructional manual’s design. Additionally, Google Docs has a “Publish to Web” feature that lets you turn your instructional manual into a web site that you can easily share with others. This week, we will focus on the layout of your instructional manual and save the publishing features for an upcoming lecture.

I’ll discuss these examples that I made with you in this week’s lecture:

And, I’ll discuss these webpages for generating ideas about how to present relevant information in your instructional manual:

See this week’s weekly writing assignment with your next step in the project–to build an outline and a basic set of instructions or steps, and post that outline in a comment with a memo format. You can find it above!


TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Alvin Ferreira

DATE: September 22,2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary

This is a 500-word summary of ” AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF IOT BASED APPLICATIONS” by Devendra Kumar that discusses the effects that IoT will provide over time to businesses, home and building owners, cities, transportation and the environment.  The IoT basically is a system that has the ability to transfer data over the network without the need for human –to- human or computer –to- human interaction. Internet of things may obtain data from various segment or they could be involved in different administrations.

      According to Devendra Kumar, IoT will improve urban communities reassuring open traffic reducing business security and protecting population. IoT will include transport framework, human service framework, climate control framework that will provide access to airport, rail and transit data from local sites for transmission. The Internet will provide a smart building management framework that will consist of big data source that office managers could monitor the use of energy. A smart grid will control two-way exchanges between supplier and buyers. Smart grit key data and matching innovation elements will include progress detection and monitoring for management streams; a base station computerized for to transmit information via the Internet.

Then; afterwards Devendra Kumar speaks upon Smart Health that was created for hospital’s use to monitor patients’ physical condition with IoT. The IoT will use sensors to collect all physical data, in order to test and store data, and send remote information to do later testing and reviews. Smart Health uses mechanism to secure confident sensor health information distribution, use complex calculation to break up information share it with physicians via remote network.

    Further on, Devendra Kumar explains how smart mobility and transportation will be managed by the IoT application to apply the standards of purchase and research participation.  The smart mobility and transportation arrangement was implemented with a variety of capabilities, e.g. testing for Li-on batteries, remote control with online troubleshooting and a fault-free ad covering supports costs.

      We are told about how Smart factory will help to integrate other feature, including computer-based logic, machine learning and computer information tracking tasks, and to coordinate assembly process with M2M. The M2M keys chosen through the “Mechanical” sections will place a heavy emphasis on smart factory line and key concept data. Smart factory Mechanical processes will include less time support, less obscurity and less efficiency on spare. There have been numerous inquires about efforts to tackle natural pollution and waste. IoT research can provide a compelling method to communicate the resources of each of these sensors and to highlight the choice of suitable alternative to those sources of use. IoT innovation can monitor and manage air quality and gather information from urban areas.

Devendra Kumar ends by explaining how IoT is an innovation that connects things to people and the web. Furthermore, that it requires a structured approach for designing, accrediting, certifying programs, conference and events, each with a single and specific use.


Kumar, Devendra.(2020) AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF IOT BASED APPLICATION. Acta Technica Corvininesis-Bulletin of Engineering. Vol 13 Issue 1, 73-78.