Joshua Patterson’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Cybersecurity

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to define Cybersecurity, the history of Cybersecurity, the future of Cybersecurity, and the importance of Cybersecurity. This document will also help others understand what Cybersecurity is and why it’s so important in today’s world. The way I will be going about this is by firstly, defining cybersecurity and how it came to be known as cybersecurity. Then I will provide historical facts about cybersecurity and what has happened to make cybersecurity so necessary for not only the safety of us as people, but for the safety of our world.

Definitions

The Merriam-Webster dictionary’s 1989 definition defines cybersecurity as “measures taken to protect a computer or computer system (as on the Internet) against unauthorized access or attack”. The Department of Homeland Security’s 2009 definition of cybersecurity defines it as “the art of protecting networks, devices, and data from unauthorized access or criminal use and the practice of ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.” The current 2020 definition of cybersecurity in the Oxford Dictionary is “the state of being protected against the criminal or unauthorized use of electronic data, or the measures taken to achieve this”.

Each definition provided above all involve the similar term of protection from unauthorized access or use. However, systems that fall underneath the protection vary from different years. Back in 1980’s, the focus of cybersecurity was more along the lines of protecting computers and computer systems because smartphones were not invented at the time, however smartphones had also became a priority when mobile viruses started to arise in the early 2000’s, which is a more condensed way of gaining unauthorized access to someone’s devices through links or apps that contained viruses. It’s gotten to a point where cybersecurity is needed for every device because even opening a suspicious email’s link on your mobile device can lead to your mobile device to be taken over by a hacker.

Context

Over the years since Cybersecurity’s creation, computer scientists and engineers develop their skills to combat the ever-changing threat of cyber attacks. Some of the more dangerous places for cyber attacks to occur would be militarian sections and even government officials. The military has already put in some form of cybersecurity. “The emerging global military network (Cyberspace) consists of many different and often overlapping networks, as well as the nodes (any device or logical element with IPv4, IPv6 address or other analogous identifier) in these networks, and the system data (such as routing tables) that support them. Although not all nodes and networks are globally connected or accessible, cyberspace continues to become increasingly interconnected. Networks can be intentionally isolated or subdivided into enclaves using access control, encryption, disparate protocols, or physical separation” (M Ďulík, M Ďulík jr., pg.265). 

Cyber attacks occur based on the known information that the attacker has on its target. For example, when you think of military sources to exploit, they could target sources like weaponry and ICS (Integrated Computer Solutions) (M Ďulík, M Ďulík jr., pg.268). Cyberattackers find the flaws in a system’s configuration and exploit the weaknesses of what those computer scientists or engineers may have missed. One article on challenges that military would face in future cyber battles military describes some basic steps they would take to to help secure their network, such as the “Basic areas of security measurement in wireless networks”, which list the following: “usage of the modern cryptology means for data confidentiality, the security protocols used in networks and applications for authentication and authorization, and manipulation with transmitted radio signal with the goal to hide communication, or, alternatively, to decrease possibility of attack by jamming or eavesdropping. For example Frequency Hopping (FH), Direct Sequence (DS) modulation, smart adaptive antennas etc.” The article emphasizes this statement afterwards “These measures have strengths and weaknesses, and it is important to keep them reliable and effective (M Ďulík, M Ďulík jr., pg.271).

There was a story about the security of a particular section of importance, the Pentagon, where anonymous agents gave the reporter their words on the networks. “An internal security review of the estimated 16,000 computers across the department concluded that the majority processed information judged to be “of value to an adversary.” Furthermore, many of DoD’s computers were networked with consoles at the 13,000 cleared defense industrial firms. In the wake of the disclosures,anonymous Pentagon officials were quoted in the New York Times as being “increasingly concerned” about the “future security” of these networks. In the same piece, the Times cited an FBI special agent who monitored computer bulletin boards: “Some hackers spend 12 hours a day trying to break into computers at the CIA or the Pentagon,” he revealed” (Fuller, pg. 165).

On a lighter note, one article explains the process of cyber attacks such as the Zero Day cyber attack and even has students learn about what would happen in a Zero Day attack with the help of a training simulator called Hydra Minerva. “An immersive learning activity, based in a Hydra Minerva environment, was integrated into a sample course for students to explore sources of cyber-related vulnerability for organisations, proportionate responses, and the steps that can be taken to increase resilience. The activity was evaluated by a small sample of students for its learning value. The full cohort of 15 students on the master’s level course took part in a series of cyber security learning opportunities aimed to increase their understanding of the human dimensions of the debate” (Arora, pg. 258).

Working Definition

Based on my research, I would define Cybersecurity as “the study, practice and implementation of security systems to protect devices such as smartphones, computers, computer systems, network systems from being exploited by unauthorized users for malicious purposes.”

References

– Arora, B. (2019). Teaching cyber security to non-tech students. Politics, 39(2), 252–265. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1177/0263395718760960

– Ďulík, M., & Ďulík jr., M. (2019). Cyber Security Challenges in Future Military Battlefield Information Networks. Advances in Military Technology, 14(2), 263–277. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.3849/aimt.01248

– Fuller, C. J. (2019). The Roots of the United States’ Cyber (In)Security. Diplomatic History, 43(1), 157–185. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1093/dh/dhy038

Summary of “Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education.”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Joshua Patterson

DATE: 9/27/2020

SUBJECT: 500-word summary

My 500-word summary is about the article titled “Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education.” This article’s abstract tells us about how music is important to a person’s development and behavior, and also how researchers in 1999 have used music therapy to come up with a solution to help students with their disruptive behavior by using video game music from the game Musichao. They believe that music has the ability to not only to help a person with their behavior, but can also affect other characteristics such as creativity, motivation and another resource for those visual or auditory learners as well, and also defines the term “Music Therapy” and explains the effects it can have on different parts of children’s and adolescents’ life. The author continues to explain the five stages of adolescence, adolescents being exposed to games to examine the effects that it has on their intelligence, education and daily life.

The author explains the process of how they conduct the tests and what their role is as the examiners. They give us a brief overview of six participants within a fixed age range to examine how they act within a classroom setting, and explains how two groups of instruments were used for this test that already had existed. The author talks about the two instruments, which were, a book that was used as the first instrument and extensive tests in the book that are going to be ran to examine the characteristics of each adolescence participant, and the game that was used as the second instrument, how the game works, and the daily results it provides the examiners. The author then explains the procedure of how the tests are ran on each participant and who will be assigned to deliver each test. Then, details of the process of examining the test results given from the tests based on the results from the first test in the beginning to the last test at the end.

The researchers provide the actual results of the tests, the design of the tests, and the comparison of the tests from the beginning to last test. The author explains each of the tests, the scoring system used to keep track of each participants’ progress throughout for each of the tests, what each score means for each participant, and their results on each test. They also gives us an overview of the meaning of the results from the first test to the last, the results showing improvement in the participants that were chosen for this study and the minor changes are making their hypothesis somewhat true but not enough that it can be said for certain that music does in fact help with all aspects of their intelligence. 

Lastly, the author explains how their tests can be taken as proof that music therapy works, but that their study wasn’t perfect because of lack of particular cases that could not be used, such as having a control group for this study and not having randomization in the study as well.

Bibliography

  • Chao-Fernández, R., Gisbert-Caudeli, V., & Vázquez-Sánchez, R. (2020). Emotional Training and Modification of Disruptive Behaviors through Computer-Game-Based Music Therapy in Secondary Education. Applied Sciences (2076-3417), 10(5), 1796. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.3390/app10051796