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TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
DATE: October 20, 2020
SUBJECT: 750-1000 Word Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence
The purpose of this 750-1000-Word Expanded Definition is to explore the definition of the term “Artificial Intelligence” the next technological evolution that we depend on our machine daily life. This application is very valued saving a lot of time and money. Many experts believe AI could solve major challenges and crisis situations that not every human can’t solve and they can perform reliably and accurately without mistake. For this word expanded definition of Artificial Intelligence I will first discuss the definitions, context and then the working definitions.
AI technology provides computers with the capability to educate themselves and have many aspects of thinking that are similar to humans. Adding greater knowledge, ease of life, talking and commanding the machine, and great improvements in many research fields. The use of AI in software development is still in its progressing, and the level of objectivity is significantly lower than seen in more developed areas such as voice assisted control and self-driving systems. Although it is still driving forward in the direction of individual testing. In this article “Artificial Intelligence Methods in Software Testing” Mark Last, Abraham Kandel, and Horst Bunke (2004) they discuss the use of AI in software testing tools is focused on making the software development lifecycle easier. “Software testing at various levels (unit, component, integration, etc.) has become a major activity in systems development. Though a significant amount of research has been concerned with formal proofs of code correctness, development teams still have to validate their increasingly complex products by executing a large number of experiments, which imitate the actual operating environment of the tested system.” ( L. Mark, 2004, p. vii). Throughout the applying of reasoning problem solving and in various situations, AI adjusts to help automate and reduce the number of lifeless and dull tasks in development and testing. In another article “Artificial Intelligence” by Kathryn Hulick define how AI identifies and bring scientific concepts to life. “First, Siri has to detect a person’s speech and correctly figure out what words he is saying. This process is called speech recognition. Then, Siri has to understand those words and answer the person. This requires natural language processing. Finally, Siri connects to apps and services on the person’s device to perform the task or provide the information he requested.” She mention AI has to figure out what we are trying to say since every person has different sounding or can’t tell enough detail to the machine. It is one of the tricky problems of knowing the meanings of words are not enough to system. Also need common sense and assists the user with helpful information. Both authors mention the Artificial Intelligence system in software testing at various ways. The author of the first article explaining methods of software testing seeks to make testing quicker and more effective in several stages. The second author reference AI uses analysis and problem solving to computerize and improve voice recognition. As for result AI in software testing and analyzing helps reduce time in physical testing, so everyone can depend on them daily basis without hesitation.
There have been many digital things in the education area over the years and it’s learning systems that are making their way in the modern classroom. In this article “Artificial Intelligence in Education: Supporting Learning Through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology” by B. Bredeweg, J. Breuker, C. K. Looi, and J. Breuker, they have discussed methods that compete in learning intelligent tutoring systems. “These programs were not focused on the use of instructional software. Based on their success, one might conjecture that intelligent tutoring systems would be more effective if they focused more on the teaching of metacognitive skills, in addition to helping students at the domain level.” (B. Bredeweg, 2005, p. 17). Bredeweg showed that explaining methods to improve students describe their problem to intelligent tutoring systems and allowing students to determining the cause of the problem measures guided to better learning too. Also, this intelligent system has the advantage of providing knowledge into students correct understanding as well as can help to identify differences in student’s knowledge and skill level.
In another article “Artificial Intelligence, Authentic Impact: How Educational AI is Making the Grade” by Doug Bonderud “And in New Jersey, Slackwood Elementary School is using an AI-assisted teaching assistant called Happy Numbers to identify where students are struggling with math benchmarks and provide personalized assistance.” He mentions educators discover AI can transform the kindergarten to high school experience, for both student and teachers by advantage of having an intelligent assistant in school when students have a problem during class sessions and teachers are not able to help them. Students don’t have to wait or struggle when they have a problem and they can just ask for an assistant to AI and it will explain everything where it needs. Both authors mention the Artificial Intelligence system in education will assist the student in school. The author of the first article explaining methods to improve students describe their problem to intelligent tutoring and allowing students to determining the cause of the problem. Second author mention AI assistant as a peer mentor when students have a problem during the class session.
Artificial intelligence increases useful tools in many fields and our daily usage. Since AI is a machine that design to think same as human mind and run a program without human. This benefit is popular within Chase JPMorgan. With the help of algorithms AI can identify and avoid scam as well as support to assist customers in trading. This is very important in business operations because Artificial intelligence today are almost all businesses. It made business operations easier, efficiency better, and communication systems faster. The use of AI to enhance business operations involves implanting algorithms into applications that support organizational processes. These applications can provide orders of scale improvements in the speed of information evaluation and in the reliability and accuracy of productions. It also helps the company to report its employees based on weaknesses and strengths, that can give proper tasks for each worker.
To sum up, Artificial Intelligence is a field in which so much researches are developing and testing. Artificial Intelligence is the study of computer science involved with understanding the nature of intelligence and constructing computer systems capable of intelligent action. We depend on machines for almost every application in life. Machines are now a part of our life and are used commonly.
B. Bredeweg, J. Breuker, C. K. Looi, and J. Breuker (2005). Artificial Intelligence in Education : Supporting Learning Through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology. IOS Press, Incorporated, 2005. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Doug Bonderud Doug Bonderud is an award-winning writer capable of bridging the gap between complex and conversational across technology, I. (2020, September 15). Artificial Intelligence, Authentic Impact: How Educational AI Is Making the Grade. Retrieved October 16, 2020,
Hulick, Kathryn (2015) Artificial Intelligence. ABDO Publishing Company. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Mark Last, Abraham Kandel, and Horst Bunke (2004). Artificial Intelligence Methods in Software Testing. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, 2004. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Vaishali Advani (2020), et al. What Is Artificial Intelligence? How Does AI Work, Applications and Future?
TO: Professor Jason Ellis
FROM: Ye Lin Htut
DATE: Sept 13, 2020
SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary
This memo is a 500-word summary of the article, “Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology” by Jesper Aagaard, Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
This article discusses about the present student experience of off-task use of educational technology and knowledgeable measuring study of students off-task use of technology during class. This experimental investigation is informed by Jesper philosophy, which varies from traditional reasoning theory by changing emphasis from mental processes to physical use of technologies.
The current study on educational technology primarily depends on a rational knowledge of awareness. As any other idea, this implies some of the studies of existence, justification, genetic beliefs, and emotional. The idea is the present school of philosophy that is remaining progressively used in the study of human technology interactions. This means a change beyond traditional structures of experience and consciousness structures of experience and awareness and the concept requires two changes one in inner balance and characterization. Even though an expanded understanding to characterized use of technologies, a philosophy focused on academics infrequently performs practical researches of people’s technologically mediated practices and habits.
One part of a broader analysis of educational technologies arbitration of student attention in an educational perspective. Students with age between 16-20 years some college and its institutes services a technological policy of letting students bring their owned devices to school. The result of student use technology is common. Digital technologies have largely superseded notebooks, calculators, and pencils. Students sometimes do not even carry books to school because they can rely only on their laptops. Students frequently called the impulse to connect in off-task interest as a attraction towards and frequently visited unrelated educationally websites such as social media, which is generally used among all students. Students are fall into distraction. If the class section are considered to be too hard, students fall behind and result to distraction. They become emotionally exhausted and disconnect from class and go to unrelated websites.
Teachers are highly concerned of the tasks presented by off-task use of educational technology. Jesper informs us, “One teacher poignantly explained that when students look at their laptops and smile during English grammar, he knows that it “probably doesn’t have anything to do with the lesson” (Jesper Aagaard, 2015, p. 94). Teachers and school educators are facing enormous task to today modern educational system. They are worry to a student will not learn anything, get a low grade from their class, and become a bad reputation on an educator or school. The endless availability of fascinating options to a continuing lesson. Educators concur of this is a never ending challenge however consider this situation differently.
Ever more digitalization educational system recognizing why students often use educational technologies for off-task activity is critical. In this article presented the idea of an attraction towards often visited educationally nonrelated websites. Students respond clearly to the apparent boredom of lecturing. They describe lessons as boring which is why they give into desire and become confused.
As a measuring examination about off-task use of educational technology in real classrooms are an increase in environmental related to new systems. How will educators handle with off-task use of educational technology? Should digital devices be banned from the classroom or are a device to be controlled by the school or teacher administrators? This is not impossible but also highly beneficial if the device are the only access to class-related.
Aagaard, J. (2015). Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology. Computers & Education, 87, 90–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.010