Stephan Dominique’s Expanded Definition of Biometrics

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Stephan Dominique

DATE: 10/29/20

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Biometrics


The purpose of this document is to expand the definition of the term ‘Biometrics’, which is very popular in today’s advancing technological world. If you use a smartphone today that uses any fingerprint or face scanning technology to unlock your phone, biometrics is being used. I will cover this topic by first defining the term and the history behind it, followed by the context of the word as well as the working definition. 


According to Meng-Hsuan Fu, Biometrics is defined as “Using human physical characteristics including finger vein, iris, voice, and facial features for recognition.” (Fu, M., 2020, p.2). This means, for example, if a crime were to be committed and the police found the fingerprints of the criminal to later identify the person, biometrics is being used in this instance. To understand biometrics, one must break everything down by first looking at the term “anthropometry”, which is the study of the specific measurements of the human body. Biometrics stems from this as without Anthropometry, biometrics simply does not exist. Anthropometry involves analyzing the unique properties of humans that make each person different from the next. Going even further, the founder of this study is Alphonse Bertillon, who also was the first person to identify a criminal through their fingerprints as well as being the inventor of what is known now as the mugshot, another form of biometrics. “Biometrics are physical or behavioral human characteristics that can be used to digitally identify a person to grant access to systems, devices or data.” (Korolov, M., 2020). Essentially, biometrics means that no one else can have access to what you have access to. If there is a password required for something, your body is the key to unlock it and only you can unlock it. These two definitions are similar for the fact that they both discuss that biometrics involves using the human body to identify a particular person. The difference in these two definitions, however, are that Fu speaks on biometrics in a general sense. The second author’s definition goes more into biometric security, applying the first definition into security, which is a form of security which is hard to crack.


The first contextual appearance is where Fu states that “Biometrics is becoming more widely used in access-control systems for homes, offices, buildings, government facilities, and libraries. For these systems, the fingerprint is one of the most commonly used biometrics. Users place their finger on a read device, usually a touch panel. This method ensures a unique identity, is easy to use and widely accepted, boasts a high scan speed, and is difficult to falsify. However, its effectiveness is influenced by the age of the user and the presence of moisture, wounds, dust, or particles on the finger, in addition to the concern for hygiene because of the use of touch devices”  (Fu, M., 2020, p.5). In this quote, Fu describes the use of biometrics and where it is popularly used with the benefits of the term as the technology is being utilized more and more in typical workplaces because of its ease and efficiency but also the cons of it as well. The second contextual appearance is where Korolov mentions “62 percent of companies are already using biometric authentication, and another 24 percent plan to deploy it within the next two years.” (Korolov, M., 2020). She is essentially saying that because biometrics are highly effective, companies are quickly becoming on board as their information is tightly guarded.

Working Definition

Biometrics is extremely popular and as such, will require workers in the I.T. field to aid in installing, maintaining, and fixing such technologies. Biometrics is relevant to my career because I plan to start off on the technical side which includes being a field service technician. This job consists of going through workplaces and maintaining various things such as a fingerprint scanner. The knowledge of handling such equipment will probably become more mandatory as time goes on and more companies switch to biometric security. 


Meng-Hsuan Fu. (2020). Integrated Technologies of Blockchain and Biometrics Based on Wireless Sensor Network for Library Management. Information Technology & Libraries, 39(3), 1–13.

Korolov, Maria. “What Is Biometrics? 10 Physical and Behavioral Identifiers.” CSO Online, CSO, 12 Feb. 2019,

Summary of Fam’s “ Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents: A Meta‐Analysis Across Three decades”

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Stephan Dominique

DATE: 10/19/2020

SUBJECT: 500-Word Reverse Outline on Internet Gaming Disorder

My 500-word summary is based on the article “ Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta‐analysis across three decades” by Fam, J. Y. Internet gaming disorder has been looked into seriously after the multiple cases of violence due to the prevalence of video games with a famous case being the Colorado movie massacre of 2012. Internet gaming disorder must have more research done on it before it can become an official disorder with multiple different criteria. There are disputes of if the word “internet” should even be in the term “Internet Gaming Disorder” as there has been studies that people aren’t addicted to the internet itself but are using it as a platform to fuel their addiction. There are also issues with the methods to determine IGD as it has been disputed that the disorder is more comparable to gambling but that isn’t true due to money not being needed to play. IGD has been studied among different age groups with it being most prevalent in the adolescent age group, having various benefits but also various disadvantages. IGD has to be synthesized among adolescents. There was a search for articles published on IGD with 458 publications being founded but only a total of 16 articles were used due to them meeting the criteria. There were subgroup analyses performed to identify the influences of IGD such as year, recorded disorder, study location, etc. The prevalence of IGD has been recorded since the 1990s and low prevalence was found in most cases while there are barely any high prevalence cases. Studies were done on both genders and Internet Gaming Disorder was found to be a good higher in males than in females. Prevalence of IGD decreased as the years went on but was still very high in certain locations such as Asia and North America. The results of the studies of IGD determined that the disorder was more prevalent in adolescents than children with theories of IGD starting in children and becoming more rampant when they become adults and become unaware of the risks associated with it. According to Fam, “results show that male adolescents (7.1%) are about four times more likely to engage in IGD than female adolescents (1.7%)” (Fam, 2018). Males are also more likely to be unable to resist playing the games. Male gamers are more likely to engage in challenging video games that include strategy, fighting, etc. compared to female gamers tend to play more casual games. There are less people in the world that suffer from IGD than normal gaming disorder. Numbers for IGD are inflating in Asia and it’s not a surprise as major game developers are based in Asia. One in twenty adolescents are affected by IGD and this disorder requires a lot more research.


Fam, J. Y. (2018). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta‐analysis across three decades. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(5), 524–531.