“Bad Blood” Tuskegee Syphilis Project

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“Bad_Blood”

DUE THURSDAY, February 19th, 2015

Please read the following case study. It is related to our class discussion on research methods, and includes important dimension related to race and health research ethics.

At its end you will see 5 questions.  Please respond below to 2 questions of your choice.

51 thoughts on ““Bad Blood” Tuskegee Syphilis Project

  1. Keven Deng

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    Concerning this case study the fact that they conducted experiment to observe the progression of the disease without treatment for it even though there was treatment available in today’s society would be considered in my opinion unethical. The reason for this in fact quoted in the reading itself where Dr. Vonderlehr himself said “many interesting facts could be learned regarding the course and complications of untreated syphilis.” Which in my opinion is wrong as they were asking for volunteers for their case study but weren’t even treating them like people since most people who took part in the case study more than likely hope to receive a treatment of some sort to deal with syphilis. Also seemingly the doctors conducting the case study were more interested in data over patient health.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDs or radiation effects) be conducted today?

    A project similar to this such as involving AIDs or radiation effects cannot be conducted today because of guidelines or ethnic morals set in place to prevent such experiments from being conducted. Such an example would a project concerning study of radiation effects you wouldn’t be able to have a person suffering from radiation effects not receive treatment just so one could obtain long term data for the study. The reason is because it goes against the moral human guidelines and what will the individual do if they were to say die due to lack of treatment.

    Reply
  2. daniel quiles

    What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    one of the biggest problems with the case study is that all the data collected was to see how untreated syphilis effected patient , more could have been done to help them. they only let the condition worsen to collect data , and I understand that goal is to collect data but those are real human lives that suffer. they obviously went through a couple of volunteers to collect this data , but was that all necessary? couldn’t they just have found out what the effects of untreated syphilis was using less people? they must has been a pattern to catch on too that ignored in order to get more information

    Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDs or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    I think a project like this could only be conducted now a days if , the patient is going to die and there is no cure. this way no one is really harmed like in the original project. I have some condition if this were to be conducted in modern day
    1- patient has to be terminally ill
    2- patient must know that this is a study not a cure
    3-patient must agree
    4- all information must be public to assure no patient is being mistreated.

    in other words the patient has to content with the idea they are going to die.

    Reply
  3. Emmanuel Acheampong

    3) What Kind Of criticism can you offer of this study?

    For the love and sake of criticism, one can logically assert that, the researchers of the “Bad Blood” study overreached and subverted the goals of improving the health status and care for rural African Americans to an inhuman experiment. It deliberately and intentionally mistreated human subjects as ” clinical materials” instead of patients who deserved appropriate care and treatment.
    Secondly, The study placed the interest of “science curiosity” above the well being of participants. The researchers failed in their duty to recognize the proximal harm which was being done on spouses and children in terms of the spread of venereal diseases.
    Finally, a conspiracy of aiding and abetting was committed by renowned agencies, professional personnel and pubic figures in helping the US Government of recruiting more people into the study by dubious means like duress and coercion.

    4) What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    The plugs of project were pulled off due to the violation of standard moral and ethical principles such as the respect for persons, beneficence and justice.
    Summarily, the project cast a stain on humanity by its mischievous actions like non compliance to high standard of regulations and practices.

    Reply
  4. Sadiquah

    What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    The first factor that ceased the project was when the Division of Venereal Diseases began treating syphilitic patients nationwide with penicillin. The men that participated in the study were viewed as experimental subjects that did not need treatment. The second factor was when Dr. Irwin J. Schatz objected the study. He suggested a need for PHS to reevaluate their moral judgments. The third factor is when the doctors believed that treatment for the Tuskegee men has been delayed for so long that even if they were to receive it they would get worst and experience complications instead of getting better. The fourth factor was that the study was made public and the officials were asked many questions which then caused the end of the study.

    Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    This project could never be conducted today due to ethic principles, and human rights when it comes to experiments. This Tuskegee study violated experimental human rights, so ever since this study the ethical principles were put into effect.

    Reply
  5. Ashley Golden

    2. What do you believe were the motives for the people to become involved in the study, specifically: The
    subjects? The PHS personnel? The Tuskegee staff ? The Macon County physicians? Nurse Rivers?

    Honestly I believe there were several motives behind this study. I do believe they wanted to gain some type of understanding when it comes to the illness syphillis in african americans or “negroes” But it seem as If they were trying to help it also seemed as if they wanted some of the patients to die from the illness because of their race category.

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    I think we need to focus on the issue at hand instead of the color of our skin. The only thing Ive gotten from this article is that professionals automatically identify you by the color of your skin with out making proper diagnosis.

    Reply
  6. donna myriel

    What kind of criticisms can you offer this study?
    – I think this study was cruel and inhumane. The study only targeted a specific group of individuals (black males) instead of focusing on the underlying cause of syphilis and how it affects all races. they lied to the individuals taking part in the experiment and also prevented them from getting treatment when penicillin was invented. This could have helped these individuals live a longer life. No life should be taken for granted no matter the race or skin color.

    Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDs or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    – I do not think this project should be implemented in today’s world, because the patients were treated as if they had no rights and were lied to. I honestly believe that if such a project should be done no one should be denied of treatment and proper guidelines should follow for such experiments. Also, it should not be based on race but other factors such as environment or economic status.

    Reply
  7. Isaac D. O

    #3 criticisms offer for the project
    The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was Unethically Unjustified due to the neglect of Informed Consent. The doctors and the public officials told the subjects that they were participating in an experiment that could treat and cure them of syphilis instead, the experiment was about untreated syphilis in black men as a result many of the men were prevented from using a physician who could have helped them. this led to 373 painful deaths, others were permanently blind or insane, and the children of several were born congenital syphilis
    Moreover, the panel misconstrued the nature of the experiment by using only black men which conode that the doctors centered their interest in the sexual nature of the black in that syphilis does not attack only black people but the white also.

    #5 could this project or similar (AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted?
    A project of this form or similar to this cannot be conducted in this modern era. This is because the Tuskegee Syphilis study marked the beginning of the modern era in the protection of vulnerable human subjects in biomedical research and sparked the evolution of informed consent.

    Moreno, the 1979 document on Ethical principle and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research presented a well developed ethical framework for the exploration of issues concerning the use of human beings for research and has since been established in the State that every human research must be done on the following cateria Respect for Persons, Beneficence and Justice and I believe these amendments can help prevent another Tuskegee or its look alike.

    Reply
  8. Einstein$13

    What do you believe were the motives for the people to become involves in the study, specifically; the
    subject? The PHS personnel the Tuskegee staff? the Macon country physicians? nurse Rivers?

    I believe that every parties involve have one common goal which is to fight and control the prevalence of the infection and possibly a cure. However, each group has their little agenda or role they play to achieve this goal. the subjects participated because they wanted treatment, The PHS personnel wants to prove that the syphilis rates were not due to inherent racial susceptibility but could explain by differences in their respectable social and economic status, the Macon country physicians beside want to find out why these group of people mostly affected by it, I believe they want to be the first one to find a cure, and I believe the nurse as a genuine care, passionate towards the men and the project itself.

    could this project (or one similar to it involving aids or radiation) be conducted today?

    Yes most definitely, this project can easily be done today because we have better technology to acquire distal data and proximal information to compare it with up to data, however for the project to be valid we need to retrain health professionals in health ethics and other social skills.

    Reply
  9. Taurey

    Question 3
    I am curious to know the true purpose of the study. I do feel it is extremely unethical. I feel this study could fall under the cruel and unusual torture umbrella. To administer a disease and watch a population suffer to the fullest extent of the diseases potential is just evil. Knowing how bad a disease can get and its stages is scientifically important, but there are numerous was this could have been done besides targeting African American men and then using scientific propaganda to demonize the population as having some worst form syphilis than their counter parts.
    Question 5
    I do believe a project similar to this one could be administered in the United States of America. Of course it would have to be handled more delicately. The objective would have to be more transparent than those of
    Tuskegee Syphilis Project. A disease could be administered through a common vaccination like a flu shot or Ebola vaccine, even an over the counter medication or contraceptive . In some cases people might willfully participate in a study like this if they already have a similar condition or if they are promised the possibility of an increase in the quality of life, a cure or financial reimbursement such as relief.

    Reply
  10. benny

    Bad Blood” Tuskegee Syphilis Project”

    #3 what kind of criticisms can you offer to the study
    In the case of the experiments they conducted it was morally wrong not to let the people on which the experiment was being conducted not know the real reason behind the experiment. These people only thought they were being treated for “bad blood” and getting burial money. The real reason for the experiment was to know the cause and effects of untreated syphilis over a life time. Also in the case study it was stated that syphilis affected African Americans differently than it affected males and they did not have any medical experiment to prove that, so i think they were just making excuses just to use African Americans as their lab experiments. Lastly it was morally wrong for them to deny these African American man treatment although there was treated for the diseases, and they continued to use them all in the name of finding out how long they can live with syphilis without getting treatment.

    #5 Could this project or one similar to it involving AIDS be conducted today?
    Absolutely not, this kind of experiment cannot be conducted today because firstly before you conduct and experiment on somebody you need their legal consent and you would also have to tell them into details what the experiment is all about. You would also have to tell them any side effects that may result from the experiment. Secondly it is illegal to subject any human being to such an experiment, because they could eventually die and more over it is inhumane to perform such an experiment on your fellow human being knowing very well what the outcome is. Lastly no body is going to agree to perform such an experiment even if they are told what the risks are.

    Reply
  11. Chamirah Farley, RN

    3. The Tuskegee Syphilis experiment was rooted in racism. It represents medical misconduct and disregards human dignity/rights. It was a non-therapeutic experiment simply aimed at compiling data. This study was blatantly immoral. Human beings were treated like animals.
    5. A project similar to this one involving AIDs or radiation can not be done today because this study was immoral and unethical. The investigators in this study failed to obtain informed consent. There are presently ethical principles/guidelines in place to prevent incidents of this nature from transpiring.

    Reply
  12. kenlyn

    The information i gained from this study was that these studies was done just to collect datas and experimental purposes on African American men. The study was not necessarily done to help find a treatment to help the people with the diease so they can get better.

    i believe the motives for the people involved in the study was to used human beings with the diease as an experiment instead of trying to find a cure to help them.

    Reply
  13. Mdelie16

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    One factor that led to the cessation of the project is that it became public knowledge when Jean Heller released the story on July 25th, 1972. Another factor that led to the cessation was the no- change attitude of the United States Public Health Service, focusing more on obtaining data then the actual health of their subjects.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    A project like the Tuskegee Study cannot be conducted today. Absolutely not! We have so many guidelines and laws in place to protect participants of experimental studies today that such a thing is impossible. It’s immoral, unethical, and against human rights.

    Reply
  14. Lizet

    3.What kind of criticism can you offer of this study?
    – The study was purely racial towards the African American community. They were treating them as if they were guinea pigs. They wanted to make it seem as this disease was coming from the black race. Although whites had the disease too, they were targeting African American who were poor. I believe the evidence they gathered was racist because they were just focus on blacks and made it seem as they are different from the rest.

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    The men with syphilis used in the study weren’t aware of what these physicians were experimenting. Their rights were being violated in regards of not receiving available treatment for their well being. Many of the association sponsoring for the study came in to doubt of the validity of the of the study. Many realized what was being done to this patients who were dying becomes treatment had been delayed for years. Some left PHSl like Peter Buxtin who was bothered by the studies unhuman practices

    Reply
  15. Rpalma89

    3. There are many criticisms to this study. One being of course that it lasted way to long when an antibiotic came out such as penicillin. Another factor i think was because it started during an era where racism was still still very high within society againts african american they took advantage of the situation. I believe the doctors or those that came in contact with the study were well aware of what they were doing and wanted to find key evidence that there was a different between whites and african americans. Although studies did show that african americans who were infected with the disease did have a higher chance of cardiovascular problems their nervous system was not affected.I think that because the subjects within the study were mostly uneducated and came from poverty they look at it like this was this was their only solution in order to overcome their disease.

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    I think many factors came into play of why this study ended. One being that others within the field began to notice how inhuman and injustice this study was. Key factors that came into play was that it became aware to the public and this was during the 1960s where many changes like the civil rights moments and the ending of segregation. I do believe had the new reporter not been told about this story the study would have continued. Another factor could be that because African American were finally standing up for their rights and asking questions when it came to their health. It was no longer an era where minorities lacked education or were still living in homes where the floors were dirt. I think the doctors had not became aware that it was unethical and now everybody would know not only them.

    Reply
  16. batman

    What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    The fact that the data collected only covered patients that lived and died was a little short sighted. The question that is unanswered is the cause of the patients death. Did they die of related symptoms of the disease? Or of other causes?

    Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    This project could never be recreated in todays time but studies like these in my opinion could bring great results and lead to finding cures much faster and with greater accuracy. Billions of dollars are spent on finding cures for cancer, aids etc. You can’t help but wonder what human trials and experiments of this magnitude can solve these epidemics. But in todays world one can not even test on animals anymore. In these situations one has to have a utilitarian view to a problem. Is the suffering or death of some worth the lives of billions? And does the means justifies the end? I’m inclined to say YES

    Reply
  17. A. Cynthia Parvinn

    #2. What do you believe were the motives for the people to become involved in the study, specifically: The subjects? The PHS personnel? The Tuskegee staff? The Macon County physicians? Nurse Rivers?
    Each group of people, the subjects, the PHS personnel, the Tuskegee staff, the Macon County physicians, and Nurse Rivers had different motives when becoming involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Project.

    The subjects’, African American sharecroppers from the south, were from very low socioeconomic statuses and therefore never treated by doctors prior to the study. Access to consistent healthcare for life (with the exception of syphilis treatment, which they did not know), free meals, and burial expenses were a great motive to serve as subjects in the study.

    The Public Health Service’s (PHS) motive first began as a means to control venereal disease and treat syphilis in the rural south. However, when it was found that a large portion of the African American population had syphilis, funding for the testing and treatment was discontinued in fear that it would taint the reputation of African Americans in the south. The PHS then decided to focus on the untreated African Americans in the control group and study the progression of syphilis in African Americans. There was a study conducted in Norway following the progression of syphilis in Caucasian men and women and thus it made sense to continue the Tuskegee Syphilis Project as PHS claimed, “syphilis in the Negro [was] in many respects almost a different disease from syphilis in the white” and could thus explain biological differences between the two races.

    The motive for the Tuskegee Staff, which were all African American physicians and nurses, was the training they would receive in understanding and treating venereal diseases, the antisyhpilitic medication they would receive for administration to patients, and the opportunity to use Alabama’s diagnostic laboratory facilities.

    The motive for Macon County physicians to be involved in the project started as a means to treat the high number of patients with syphilis. However, it was later determined that approximately 1400 African American patients had syphilis (for five or more years) and did not receive full doses of medication under the initial project when control and treatment was the goal. The local doctor, Dr. Vonderlehr, noticed that the patients’ cardiovascular systems were affected yet their nervous systems were not; hinting to the notion that a relationship may exist between the African American racial group and the progression of syphilis and recommended the continuation of the project.

    Nurse River’s motive in the project was akin to the PHS’s as she was a nurse employed by them. However she did believe the men that were the subjects of the study would not otherwise receive regular medical care, pain killers (aspirin), and personal nursing care. It can be assumed that Nurse Rivers whilst knowing the hidden agenda of the experiment believed she was helping the men in the best way she could under the pretenses.

    #5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?

    A project involving AIDS or radiation effects similar to the Tuskegee Syphilis Project could not, under any circumstance, be conducted today. To study the long-term effects of AIDS would be unethical as outlined by the Human Subjects Rights the National Institute of Justice in the United States published in 2010. A person living with AIDS is not an does not receive an immediate death sentence; to withhold immune boosting medication from AIDS patients would only confirm an earlier death as they are bound to die from any number of infections due to their compromised immune systems. To experiment on the long term radiation effects would mean to constantly exposing individuals to radiation – given the knowledge already known to science from laboratory experiments in animals, observing humans in under those circumstances would be unethical. Human studies can only be performed when scientists and doctors can protect the well being of humans, guarantee against physical, mental, and emotional harm, provide full disclosure, and obtain informed consent from involved individuals.

    Reply
  18. Henry M.

    3. I feel that is very unethical and it goes against human rights. It sounds like that native Africans are treated as test subjects rather than receiving free treatments. The native Africans were only used to collect data of the disease.
    5. No because it is a project of just collecting data of the disease. Right now there are some treatments to prevent incurable disease to spread. Even if the project is conducted today, they should at least provide a consent to the people with the disease.

    Reply
  19. Chander Raj

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    There can possibly be many criticisms to this case study but the main concern would be against ethical standards. I think this because they failed to treat patients appropriately even when they volunteered to help for their case study. It seemed like they were more interested in the collection of data rather than the patients. Another thing that really was wrong some patients were lied to and given placebo treatments so researchers could observe progression of the fatal disease which is really unethical in my opinion.

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?

    Some factors could be that people outside of the study felt that how they were treating the patients was very unfair and unethical and it disturbed many people. Dr. Irwin J suggested that PHS revaluate their way of studying morally. Eventually the study was made public and the study came to an end.

    Reply
  20. Li

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    Tuskegee Syphilis Project definitely violated ethical principles. Participants in the study were not informed what kind of disease did they have and were not given correlated treatment. By 1943, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis, but researchers in this study deliberately withheld penicillin from all the participants to study the course of the disease. It led to delay in treatment and tremendous physical and mental suffering.

    5. Could this project be conducted today?
    Projects like this cannot be conducted today. Nowadays all the researches that involve human subjects have to be proved and monitored by Institutional Review Board (IRB). Informed consent need to be obtain from participants. Participants should have adequate information about the study, understand the information, and are able to consent to or decline participation voluntarily.

    Reply
  21. Sayma

    2. I’m not quite sure whether the question is from the African American Perspective or the doctors perspective but here’s my comment regarding the motives of the African Americans in the study. I think the reason why they got involved in the study was because they were hoping they’d be cured from the disease, or “bad blood”. The people living in Macon County were dirt poor. They have never been treated by a doctor, let alone having health care. I guess they somewhat saw a little hope when they heard about the study. Also, I believe their trust was a little strong in the study because it was an African American Nurse who was aiding the sick men.
    3.This experiment was totally racial because it was purely done on poor African American males. They were used as lab rats for an experiment that proved nothing but how mortal and brutal Syphilis is. Because this experiment took place around the time of racial segregation, the white folks had the chance to belittle the men of color by proving that “Syphilis in the South is a Negro problem rather than one of both races “. Even when an effective medicine was available for Syphilis, the men in the Tuskegee study weren’t considered as patients but they were rather seen as experimental objects. What was more surprising to me was that an African American nurse, Eunice Rivers, was the person assisting the men in the trial. It was ironic that she kept going with the trial.

    Reply
    1. Sayma

      I might not have answered #2 correctly therefore I’m also going to answer an additional question.
      #5 Could this project be conducted today?
      I don’t think experiments like the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment can be conducted in today’s world without getting sued. This experiment is completely unethical because it used African Americans as lab rats to prove racial hierarchy. In today’s culture that’ll be absolutely banned because there are many laws protecting the minorities, there are human right activists that will protest against the experiment. Moreover, the doctors and scientists will need the patients signed consent to conduct the experiment. Long story short, no way an experiment like this can be done in the modern world we live in today,

      Reply
  22. IrinaF

    1. Carefully analyze this case. When you examine the paper and the appendix, what information appears to have been gained from this study? That is, what kind of argument can be made for the benefit of the study?
    The information that can be gained from this study is that for 40 years the PHS conducted an experiment on African Americans. They had to keep the real reason why they were doing this study from the subjects so that there would be cooperation. The study was meant to discover how syphilis affected blacks instead of whites. The argument that can be made for the benefits of this study is that they got to see what side effects syphilis had on the participants. Also, whether blacks react to syphilis in the same way as whites, and to determine how long a human being can live with untreated syphilis.

    #3 – What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study? One of the criticisms that I can offer is that their code of ethic was completely overlooked. Meaning, the blacks who were participants in this study should be aware of the research instead of telling them that they were receiving treatment for “bad blood” and money for burial.

    Reply
  23. jeanmariee94

    What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?

    I believe the cessation of the project had a lot to do with the unethical practices of the studies that were conducted on the test subjects. Dr. Irwin J. Schatz objected the practices of the study. He felt the need for the PHS to become more ethical in their practices, and to treat the study in a morally correct manner. The true end of the project came when the PHS made the results and all the research public. Officials realized how unethical the project was, especially how the test subjects were not getting treated to get better in a timely fashion.

    What Kind Of criticism can you offer of this study?
    As a scientist, you must act with care and remember to always act ethically with your test subjects. Even though this study produced a lot of great insight into disease, it did not do that without putting innocent human lives in danger. The data that was gathered to see how syphilis affects the human body without being treated had the patients suffer at the expense of research.

    Reply
  24. klever quinde

    4) the factors that contributed to the cessation of this experiment were that it had no scientific validation or notable use, at the end they only continued the experiment because it could potentially cause further pain if they were treated this far in the disease, a lot of the so called benefits of the experiment were technicalities such as happening to provide blood samples for evaluating new blood test, on top of that none of them had any ethics training , that lead to the end of this extremely unethical experiment.

    5) the reason the people in the experiment were so easy to manipulate was because they lacked the education and information to make a good decision they were merely going in for a government test for bad blood, and coming from such a poor background like living in dirt floors were offered burial money on top of that. this day approval for an experiment like this would have to have huge benefits and to get it approved would take a lot of legal recourse, and that aside from getting willing participants who this day and age are to well informed and educated and can look up any questions they have online.

    Reply
  25. Victoria Qiao

    What kind of criticisms can you offer this study?
    The researchers seem to only care about getting statistic results rather than finding a cure for the disease. Instead using humans as guinea pigs to trial their experiments. They lied to them as well as proceed in autopsy of dead patients to see if they can find other information. I feel as if they intentionally waited for these patients to die so it can help contribute to their research. Honestly, this study is inhumane.

    Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDs or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    I honestly hope not, but I do believe this project would not be conducted because these are real life people suffering from the disease and possibly dying from it, their lives are in a way being hold account for under these researchers. Unless, they changed several guidelines to fit the requirements for the project.

    Reply
  26. Margaret Spence

    (3) In 1929 the United States Public Health Service (PHS) asked Julius Rosenwald for financial support and received funds to study venereal disease in rural south. The funds major goals was to use poor black people of rural south. Where syphilis was ramped. The (PHS) in Macon County was selected, in February 1930. The local Tuskegee Institute endorsed the program. Public health officials announced they had come to test people for “Bad Blood” few people connected the term with syphilis. What was so appalling to me is that the doctors got permission from the men families autopsy the body when they died and had control over them. What was most astounding to me, the men receiving treatment for “Bad Blood” and money for burial stipends. If I had to criticizing even more, just the thought of the doctors giving the men without the disease the disease. Is horrifies me.
    (4) The moral concerns about the study and how it was being conducted. Doctors convinced themselves that syphilis in the Tuskegee men was too far along to be treated with penicillin. In 1960’s PHS physician in memorandum that the Tuskegee study was “Bad Science” because it had been contaminated by treatment. In July 25, 1972. The study immediately stop. Thank God.

    Reply
  27. iespinoza

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    Some medical professionals started to bring up objections over the ethic of the study. After the criticizing voices suggested the revaluation of the moral in which the study was being run a PHS convention was called, only to reinforce the continuation of the study. At this point, Peter Buxton having unsuccessfully made the PHS change the moral approach of the experiment, contacted the Associated Press. The whole structure of the experiment was then publicly exposed by the media resulting in the immediate termination of the “Tuskegee study”. Obviously, when this outrageous, unethical and even illegal (Nuremberg Code was violated) was exposed to society in general I’m sure that real motives of the study were perceived. As stated in the article “to reveal biological differences” in African Americans.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    I believe this project can easily be conducted today even with the proper funds and endorsements. Probably not in the same circumstances, for that long period of time, but certainly individuals can be tricked into form part of an experiment without consent. Nowadays, technology, human rights and many other moral causes can facilitate the quicker exposure of unethical procedures similar to the Tuskegee study. However, I still feel like the safety of humankind is fragile at the hands of our leaders

    Reply
  28. Keila Gordon

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    The experiment wasn’t properly produced. Using African Americans who come from unfortunate conditions and having probably never seen an actual doctor was just cruel. Those people were desperate for help. Instead of helping them, they just allowed their Syphilis to worsen instead of trying to discover a cure. I completely consider trying to understand how the disease worked, but there had to be a much better way than to watch several people die just for a “science experiment.” This project denied people the right to treatment and the right to live.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    This project or a project similar to this would one hundred percent be denied. Our technology today is way to advanced to just allow human beings to be variables in deadly studies. The government would not allow such a thing. This project was performed in a time of low technology, which is not an excuse, but we are way to far advanced to even make this an option. A person is told and promised to have everything possible done to help treat them no matter the condition or stability. The project would have to be an unethical, illegal scheme if conducted today.

    Reply
  29. thierno

    3. What kind of criticisms can you off er of this study?
    The experiment violated all ethical guidelines in the scientific fields. Firstly, the candidates were denied a needed treatments for the sake of a so-called future benefits. Secondly, they even were not given informations on the experiments they were participating.
    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    Some doctors and researchers objected to the experiment on ethical ground because it placed those candidates into unnecessary harmful situation as they withheld from them medications that could have treated them from syphilis

    Reply
  30. Rafael

    2. I believe the subjects were part of this experiment for the treatment, study, care and pay for the burial. Basically they were part of this to be financially stable with the treatment and also be able to pay for their burial. The PHS started this to control the disease then it became the study of the disease. The Tuskegee staff and Macon County physicians wanted to see what happens to syphilis if left untreated. They believed that the disease affected African Americans differently, so they left them untreated just to see how syphilis affect them. They also believe that the treatment for syphilis wouldn’t work for blacks. the nurse saw the experiment and probably thought it was better for Africans to not be treated. She believed she was just doing her job, trusting that she was making a difference.

    5. A project like this wouldn’t be able to happen now. It’ll be consider racist and unethical. NO one will agree to a study that worsens ones health or kills them just for the sake of science. Maybe unless money and safety to the family of the person with the illness is given, then maybe subjects will sign up for the sake of them. However society wouldn’t agree to this, why separate and experiment by race, when race has nothing to do with health and body.

    Reply
  31. ricardo nedd

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    This study can be criticized based on improper research methods and breaking proper protocol. I however feel that simply from a humanitarian and civil rights stance that this experiment violated all basis laws known to man. The men of Tuskegee were not given the basic right of choice, whether or not they were willing to participate in the experiment. Even in our class memory experiment we were supposed to use someone who was willing to be recorded. Meaning we had to inform them of the basis of the experiment and give them the right to choose if they were willing to part take, not just film them secretly. The fact that no care was provided for the men in need and they were allowed to die slow deaths for the advancement of science and medicine was an abomination, even if Blacks were considered sub human.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?

    In the head of a cynical, conspiracy theorist such as my-self, it is entirely possible that many such experiments though not revealed or as infamous have been conducted in the past and continues on today. The fact that pharmaceutical companies make so much money but creating drugs first, raises concern that new diseases may be created and spread through- out the population to create a entirely new market for those drug companies. The huge inmate population in our Nation are always vulnerable to creative minds, along with being forced to take “vaccinations and yearly flu shots” that may or may not protect us from the flu. Low income housing (projects) where people are forced upon each other may be the biggest social experiment known to man. To cheaper housing schemes in specific areas (radiation effects), are all concerns in the mind of a paranoid over thinker.

    Reply
  32. matty65

    1) The greatest thing that came of this experiment was the proof that monsters relay do exist. It is almost unfathomable that these men of science carried on this ridiculous sham for 40 years. This is truly the stuff that nightmares are made of. All the pain, suffering, death and, deceit in order to obtain information that could have been gained in other ways, sick!

    4) Its clear to see that the experiment ceased due the potential (and Actual) backlash of the public. According to the article, the Oslo Experiment was no secrete in medical circles, the state and local governments and even the military. Yet PHS continued to operate unfettered. When it became public knowledge in 1972 it could not have been shut down quick enough. I don’t know what on God’s green earth the PHS people were thinking but conducting human experimentation, solely on African American subjects and, keeping it a relative secrete all throughout the civil rights movement? Wow! No brainer dude, shut it down.

    Reply
  33. Altenor

    3. The kind of criticism regarding “Bad Blood: A Case Study of Tuskegee Syphilis Project” after reading the journal , is quite based on “Race”. This is the way back in the days 1930, black majority people in the South found themselves isolated in society. It is a fact, the project was expected to be Humanitarian Aids as viewed at the beginning , however, it happened to be Tuskegee Syphilis Project, is an experiment treatment disease used on black patients isntead of using animals as before to find a cure for such disease. Because the disease found in more black people than white’s the PHS officials conducted this project on black patients for a fast cure research, which questioned their medical profesionalism and moral judgement. In my opinion, the mistreatment comes to “race” in terms of differences in education , health care, and socio-economic status.

    4. In my opinion, the factors that were underlying the cessation of the project are:
    1. The respect of African-Americans as human beings, they have been mistreated.
    2. Denial of antibiotic treatment
    5. Bad “science ” because it had been contaminated by treatment
    6. The study is known public. PHS has no-change attitude. As a result, Dr. Peter Buxtin, who has left the
    PHS for Law School, bothered by the study of that attitude.

    Reply
  34. Donna Liu

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    Once the story broke out on news in 1972, the study had stopped due to it being immoral and unethical.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    A project like that could be conducted today, not sure how long this project would go on for though, counting that media is huge, people love to protest and if the government knew they’d definitely put a stop to it. However, should a project like this be conducted? Definitely not.

    Reply
  35. kareshma

    1. Carefully analyze this case. When you examine the paper and the appendix, what information appears to have been gained from this study? That is, what kind of argument can be made for the benefi ts of
    the study?

    After analyzing this case, the first thing I noticed wrong was the fact that the African Americans were treated very unfairly. They were treated as just testing subjects, which deserved no help or treatment, and if they were given treatment it was only to see how well it would work on patients. While doing their study and research, these researches should’ve been able to help and treat the subjects they tested on. The study was a bias because a majority of it was spent testing most African American subjects. When a study or research is conducted it is not considered accurate if only a certain area of people are being tested. However the researchers are not all subject to blame because the subjects who were used and tested knew what the general purpose of the study was, they knew what they were getting paid to do. They had a general knowledge that they might just be paying to get themselves killed.

    2. What do you believe were the motives for the people to become involved in the study, specifically: The subjects? The PHS personnel? The Tuskegee staff ? The Macon County physicians? Nurse Rivers?

    I believe the one big motivation for people to become a part of the study was just money. The fact that the subjects were getting paid for their service and volunteering, and as for the PSH personnel, the Tuskegee staff, the Macon County physicians and Nurse Rivers, the motive was also money because I feel as if they knew there was going to be money in it for them if they were to get away with the findings and results.

    Reply
  36. Eric Aung

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?
    The factor underlying the cessation of the project is that in June 1965, Dr. Irwin J. Schatz who objected first but didn’t receive a respond. Peter Buxtin, PHS venereal investigator expressed objection and concern about the moral ethic. The study was ultimately stopped by Peter Buxtin, who contacted the Press. Jean Heller. Jean Heller did research and interviewed the doctor and broke the news on July 25, 1972.
    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    This project would never be conducted today because there are rules and regulation placed in place to protect the patient. In today society anything treatments that doctor perform on the patient must have the informed patient consent to do anything and the patient has the right to refuse treatments.

    Reply
  37. dorcas

    2.
    The motives for the involvement in the study by the subjects are (1) the people were looking for help, these people had never been treated by a doctor. They knew that they needed help and that was the only chance of getting any kind of help. Also they may have thought that they had nothing to loose from taking part in the study. Another important fact is that the purpose of the study was not revealed to them.
    The motive of the PHS personnel, Macon county physicians and the Tuskegee staff was to use African American men for experiment to prove the point that syphilis in African American is different from syphilis in white American men. They probably wanted to prove that black people have inferior genes and that syphilis is predominant among blacks , so it is black peoples disease. They showed their bad intentions in 1943 when penicillin was discovered. They refused to treat African Americans that they were using for their study, claiming that these men were not patients but experiment al subjects. Nurse rivers stayed in the study because she thought that she was helping black males by asking them not to take the prescribed medication because of the side effects. She also felt that it was better for the African Americans to stay in the study because of the routine examinations, distribution of aspirin pink pills that relieved them of aches and pains. She never thought of them as victims because she was aware of the Oslo study.
    4.
    The underlying factors that caused the cessation of the project was moral and ethical issues. African American men with syphilis were being used as guinea pigs, at a point the program was changed to a non therapeutic human experiment. It was of no value to the subjects. The study only took data of the disease progression and how it affected the organs until they died. Not one of the subjects was given proper treatment. Every efforts to make them stop the study was futile even though it was “bad science”. Eventually Peter Buxtin exposed the atrocity in 1972 before they stopped the study.

    Reply
  38. Kar Lee

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    The criticisms I can offer of this study is that there are less medical treatment for a curable disease for people needed so people can feel better. I think that the majority people be dead than alive in Tuskegee study because of the syphilis disease.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDs or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    Although I do not believe a project similar to be conducted because the standard of medical care were support to Africa but they are different than with European. African American nurse considered unethical of the African tests are practical and expedite the treatment.

    Reply
  39. Dherrera

    At a first glance the article “Bad Blood” appears to be a totally biased study towards a population of 27000 in the south where 82 percent were African Americans, of which nearly eight thousand tested positive for syphilis. Physicians from the public health service conducted this study with the purpose to gather data on how the disease would attack this particular population. These physicians knew or had an idea on how syphilis developed on white males and females from a previous study that was conducted in Oslo, Norway, so they focus their attention on a different group of people to see if there were any differences. The study yield data that suggests that the disease is more prevalent in African Americans than the white population by a ratio of 4/1000 for whites and 7.2/1000 for African Americans. One benefit that can be drawn out of this study is that these physicians took on the responsibility to study disease which can plaque a population and collected data that could in the long run be beneficial when treating patients.
    There were many factors that were ignore while the study was being conducted. One major criticism is that the study clearly failed to meet its mark. The lack of funding cause the study to deviate from its original purpose. Also, the study was kind of pushed to the side due to its complexity, so this is also a major flaw.

    Reply
  40. Isilita Arman

    2. The subjects were individuals who believed that this was a great opportunity that had never been given to their specific population. The fact that they lived in the south and had to endure hardships all their lives including the lack of medical attention added to their vulnerability to want to have faith in a medical phenomenon. The experementers conducting the study were motivated by the need to want to find differences amongst the white and African American communities as a way to say we are different after all including the way diseases affect us, I don’t think it was ever as reason to find a medical breakthrough that would improve the medical community. The nurse was blinded and influenced to believe that was she was doing would benefit her people. In her mind she tried to justify what she was partaking in by saying it was done to white folks in Oslow then it must be okay.

    5. A study like this with AIDS patients or testing effects of radiation could never be conducted today, we have achieved a high level of ethical and moral principles that would make it very difficult for any study of this similar magnitude to come into practice.

    Reply
  41. Veronica

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    I don’t feel they accurately came up with the conclusions as to whether the syphilis effected the African American men differently than that of men of European descent. The reason I believe this study deemed inaccurate is because the researchers weren’t taking into account the poverty and living conditions the African Americans were facing that were used in their experiments. I’m pretty sure the European men weren’t subdued to the horrid living conditions. Also the European men had access to medicinal use because European men were more susceptible to undergo immediate treatment because of having a wealth advantage. The African American test subjects, mostly have never ever seen a doctor and already had prolonged effects of the disease.

    4. What were the factors underlying the cessation of the project?

    I believe the project ended because as living conditions improved and treatments were obtainable for African American men, this changed the outcome of the study disproving their thesis. Even the African American males that were given a placebo treatment lived a healthier life receiving care and support from the nurses.

    Reply
  42. Milka Ng

    3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    The experiment is mainly targeting on collect the data and develop discrimination towards African American rather than helping the people. It sounds sweet and nice to offer free medical care to the poor. However, the principle of the experiment is wanting to prove that “syphilis in the South is a Negro problem rather than one of both races.” On the other hand, they never explain to people what kind of experiment they are in. They only tell them is a “bad blood test”. As we know, during that time , African American don’t have much chance to pursue higher education and better living condition, it’s very important to tell them want is the cause of the disease in order to prevent them; and they are taking away their chances to live by keeping the secret and don’t offer proper treatment to the patients. Regardless on what “race” and social status they are, they should all be be treated in any possible way in stead of letting them struggle in the name of ” medical research purpose”.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?

    No, because this project is immoral and against human rights. Patients have their right to know what they are involving into and most likely they will refuse to join the experiment. like this.

    Reply
  43. rssp044

    Answer to Question 1: This study took many different turns over the course of that time period. Whenever Scientists or Medical Doctors conduct a study like this, by the time they are done with the study they should have a clear concept and conclusion about the subject matter. The doctors involved in this study and the nurses did their best but there were theories that seemed to contradict with each other. When Dr. James Lucas suggested that rather than observing the records and examining the patients “the study has been contaminated by treatment” the PHS continued to put a positive spin to continue the study and gather information on blood samples. In my view a study like this where examining of blood samples are involved, the only factors involved can be that what is the status of the patient (his health in general, his living, his work, his sexual habits etc.) and if along with blood samples or patient’s race these factors are also considered then there can be a better collection of data and the patient can be treated in a more systematic way because the doctors would be having a clear concept about the case before they actually start the treatment. So in this way the chances of the experiment being stopped are minimized. This argument that I made in this response to question number 1 is for the benefit of a study like this in the future, so that more people live in a healthy way and are in a disease free society.

    Answer to Question 2: As far as the organizations like the PHS and others were concerned, they wanted to gather blood samples and data to continue research into the matter, to come up with a clear concept about the issue. The doctors and the nurses also had good intentions they wanted to treat patients and understand the root causes of their disease. The PHS personnel and the Tuskegee staff wanted to modify the experiment in it’s initial stages to get correct data and measures so that they could improve the experiment. The Macon county physicians and nurse Rivers were committed to treatment of the patients but as the research and data collection was underway they tried to treat the patients with whatever knowledge and data they had (at that time) about the patients.

    Reply
  44. Leonel

    2. What do you believe were the motives for the people to become involved in the study, specifically: The subjects? The PHS personnel? The Tuskegee staff? The Macon County physicians? Nurse Rivers?
    I believe that he people involved in the experiment because of the nurse Rivers. “They understood the project details and the fact that the patients’ available medical care (other than valid treatment for syphilis) was far better than that for most African-Americans in Macon County”. I thinks since she understood it well it was a big win for the doctors and the experiment, especially since the nurse was a black woman, the “Negro” felt more comfortable since one of them was part of the experiment so decided to participate in the project for that reason.

    5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    After reading this article, I don’t think that this type of experiment can be conducted today simply because a lot of law has changed. And in that experiment people was treated like animal it seem that the doctors were taking advantage of the “poverty in shacks with dirt floors, no plumbing, and poor sanitation”. Moreover, people intelligence’s of understanding the risk of something, not calling people back them stupid or anything, I mean as time passes people have evolved hey way of seem things. I believe that people in general nowadays are way too curious and I’m sure that if this project is conducted today, the people “Negro Male” would ask a lot of questions before participating. And in this experiments so many life were lost “According to records, the original study had been composed of 412 men with syphilis and 204 controls. In 1969, 56 syphilitic subjects and 36 controls were known to be living. A total of 373 men in both groups were known to be dead”. To me this is no proper project to do today since the life of people are put to a great risk.

    Reply
  45. shenelle

    3. What kind of criticisms can you off er of this study?
    The final result of untreated syphilis was already known,therefore,  the study was unnecessary.
    The men were not given proper treatment for the disease,  therefore any results from the study would be false.

     5. Could this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?
    No. This is because since the years of the Tuskegee experiment, there have been laws set in place to prevent such an occurrence.  Also, unlike syphilis, AIDS and radiation effects have no cure. Therefore, the end result for those two would also be death.

    Reply
  46. Nawang N. Sherpa

    Q 1. Carefully analyze this case. When you examine the paper and the appendix, what information appears to have been gained from this study? That is, what kind of argument can be made for the benefits of the study?
    When I carefully analyzed and looked at the records, the one in the appendix mentioned that 21% of the people were alive. However, as per the records in the paper, it suggests that the percentage of survival of the people with syphilis was much lower. Thus, it is manifested that the study had not been conducted as per its objectives. The study was initially generated in order to control venereal diseases which could help save a lot of lives.

    Q 3. What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    There are several criticisms that can be offered which ranges along various circumstances in the society such as racial and unethical/immoral. I would argue that considering Syphilis in the Negro as a completely different disease that that in a white would count as being racial as there is no disease which would selectively affect people with respect to their color. It is immoral in a sense that people are used as an experimental group in order to do a research. Although, the disease could be diagnosed and the victims could be saved, they were left unaware of the fact that they were just used to gather datas which could give information about the disease in its’ various stages. In other words, medical ethics and moral judgments concerning human life was totally ignored.

    Reply
  47. Jibriel

    3) What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?

    The study conducted experiment to find out information about the venereal disease called syphilis. Doctors where trying to find out what are the long-term effects of the disease by infecting their patients with the disease and not giving them any kind of treatment for the disease. Although, the doctors had treatment for the disease they purposely refused to give their participants any form of treatment. The patients where not treated like human beings, but rather like test subjects just to collect important data. The experiment was mostly targeted towards the black male population rather than finding out what the main cause of the disease is for all races.

    5) ould this project (or one similar to it involving AIDS or radiation effects) be conducted today?

    This form of experiment could not have been done today because many law have changed and the patients have to be informed about what their are signing up for exactly. Also the volunteers must agree to it and cannot be pressured or forced into an experiment. For example, the words list placebo experiment, which is nothing compared to the bad blood experiment. We had to inform the volunteer about the experiment and the video capering. Only if they willing agreed we could do the experiment.

    Reply
  48. Alla Polisskaya

    Carefully analyze this case. When you examine the paper and the appendix, what information appears
    to have been gained from this study? Th at is, what kind of argument can be made for the benefi ts of
    the study?
    The study seems to show some correlation between syphilis and decreased lifespan and increased abnormalities in testing. Few arguments can truly be made for its benefits. The only one that comes to mind is an increased understanding of long-term effects of the disease.

    What criticisms can you offer this study?
    This study was done on uninformed participants who did not understand wha they were signing up for. They were put into a position to pose a potential threat to others and denied basic care that was available to them at the time. The control and experimental groups were of different sizes and differences between them were not recorded or accounted for. No meaningful conclusions had been drawn from the study.

    Reply
  49. Raz

    What kind of argument can be made for the benefits in the study?
    Physicians were able to observe the natural sequence of symptoms from the beginning of the disease to the death of the infected person. And to prove to society that every profession has bad seeds and even monsters.
    What kind of criticisms can you offer of this study?
    There was no continuity of medical personnel. There was no written protocol. There was no supervision or physician in charge. Names of the subjects were not housed at any one location. There were large gaps in the visitations and updates of the study. The subjects were deceived with a lot no to mention The subjects were never treated for the disease.

    Reply

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