ARCH1231 BTECH I, SP2019

Professor Montgomery

Reading 9

Im this reading Ching speaks about masonry wall sections, stone masonry , structural steel framing, window elements,and wood windows. Masonry wall sections is supposed to illustrate how concrete, steel, wood floor and roof systems are supported by and tied to various types of masonry bearing walls.Stone masonry is Natural stone that is durable, and a weather-resistant construction material that may be laid in mortar much like clay and concrete masonry units to make both bearing and nonbearing wall. Structural steel framing is Conventional steel-framed structures that are constructed of hot-rolled beams and columns, open-web joists, and metal decking. Since structural steel is difficult to work on site, it is normally cut, shaped, and drilled in a fabrication shop according to design specifications, this can result in relatively fast, precise construction.Window elements are important while selecting a window because you have to look for window that provides Natural light and ventilation of habitable spaces,Thermal insulation value of the window assembly ,Structural resistance to wind loads. Lastly Wood frames are thicker than aluminum or steel frames, but they are also more effective as thermal insulators. The frames are usually of kiln-dried, clear, straight-grain wood, factory-treated with a water-repellant preservative. The wood may be stained, painted, or primed for painting on site. To minimize the need for maintenance, the majority of wood frames are now clad with vinyl or bonded to acrylic-coated aluminum sections that require no painting. 


Ching talk about Masonry Wall Section and how should the bearing area of masonry be propotioned so as not toexceed the allowable compressive stress of the masonry material. And shows us the concrete masonry bearing wall, cavity wall and reinforced bick masonry wall. Referring to ching’s book we have different types of natural stone for example Random rubble, Coursed rubble,Squared rubble, Random ashlar, coursed ashlar and others. Natural stone may be bondedwith mortar and laid up in the tradional manner as a double faced loadbearing wall. In  Ching’s book he listed all the Window Elements for instant the Casing Trim, widow frame and Rough opening. He also talkes about window operation depending on the window type if it’s Fixed, Sliding , Casement and many others depending on it’s ventilation. And how it could be different in Wood Windows due to the head, jamb, structural mullion ans sill. As it was mentioned in Fundamentals of Building construction Materials and Methods for egress doors and accessible doors that, many doorways act as components of a buildings egress system, path that occupants take when exiting during emergency. 2 doors and each with a fire protection rating 1and a half hours installed on opposite sides of the same opening fire wall , shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection rating to one 3 hour firedoor.

#8 Assembly and Performance

Every building needs moisture and thermal protection, Ching explains the performance of roofing materials. Roof structure are built differently, they are either flat or sloped; a sloping roof can shed water away easy, a flat roof requires pipes or a special membrane to drain or evaporate water away. Exterior walls also need protection from the weather. Solid masonry and concrete loadbearing walls use their mass as a barrier to stop water from penetrating inside a structure. Other wall systems such as curtain wall have an “interior drainage system to carry away moisture that finds its way through the facing or cladding.”- Ching B.C.I (7.02)

Reading #9

In this reading Ching discuses the muse of masonry envelope assemblies, He starts off with the discussion of how surface bonding consists of laying CMU’s dry without any mortar and plastering each of the sides with a bonding compound, once the structure (wall) is assembled rigid thermal insulation could be place inside of the wall cavity or in the CMU/interior face of the back Wythe to help maintain a layer of insulation and prevent the loss of heat/cold air inside the building. Ching also goes into the more detailed features of these envelopes such as the use of a water proof moisture barrier to keep moisture prom penetrating to the inside of the building as well as the use of drips to help water run of the window sill and drip off it instead of running off the building surface. Later, Ching starts to talk about the use of materials like stone, which is a natural durable weather resistant construction material that may be laid in mortar like clay and concrete masonry units to make both a load bearing wall and/or a non-bearing wall. This stone can be laid in different patterns such as Random rubble, Coursed rubble, Squared rubble etc.  Windows are also mentioned in this chapter going into full detail of the element that make up the windows from the mullion all the way to the glass pane itself and each method of constructing a window to swing a certain way (fixed, casement, awning, hopper, sliding, double hung, jalousie, pivoting).The Allen and Iono book proceed to go into further detail of the main ways of masonry wall construction where there are things like ties that hold on to masonry walls and masonry cavity walls and load bearing masonry walls.  This book also covers window construction, swing, components and doors and their components.

summary 8

This section talks about roof systems and how to prevent water from getting inside. The pitch of the roof structure determines the type of roofing and it is a water resistant covering for the roofing material, like overlapping or interlocking shingles and tiles. Flashing also prevents water from getting into the roof and it should be installed on the edges of the roof. Exterior walls also have to be flashed around the bottom of the door and window openings. Water vapor is the type of moisture that gets into the interior spaces of a building and when it reaches a surface that is cooled, condensation happens.

Reading 9

Ching talks about concrete, steel, and wood floor and roof systems and how they are supported by and tied to different types of masonry bearing walls. He talks about stone and how natural stone is a durable, weather-resistant construction material. Which may be laid in mortar to make bearing and nonbearing walls. He also talks about different windows and explains certain parts of it. For example, sash and glazing. Sash is the fixed or movable framework of a window. Glazing is the panes or sheets of glass set in the sashes of a window. Pane is one of the divisions of a window, unit of glass set in a frame.

Summary 8

This section discusses roof systems and how to prevent water from going into a structure.  In a roof system, they get a water resistant covering from roofing materials like overlapping or interlocking shingles and tiles. Flashing also helps prevent water from coming in. Flashing gets installed on the edges of the roof. The type of moisture that gets in is water vapor.  Wall flashing collects any moisture that penetrate a wall. Rain penetration can be controlled by tooling mortar joints, sealing joints and sloping the horizontal surfaces of sills and copings. Cavity walls are also good in resisting water.  Ching also talks about masonry veneer.

Reading #9

In this reading, Ching covers lots of topics. Those topics include Masonry Cavity Walls, Brick Coursing, Stone Lintels, CMU Coursing + Bond Beam, Rigid Foam Insulation, Batt Insulation, Vapor Barrier, Interior Furring, Plaster on Lath, Drywall. Behind each one of these topics, there is one base, and that base is the plan. Look at it like you actually build it. Each layer has its own meaning. First the brick then cavity wall etc. Masonry cavity is constructed of a facing and a backing wythe of either solid or hollow masonry units.

These cavity walls have two advantages and those are cavities enhance the thermal insulation value of the wall and permits the installation of additional thermal insulation material. Which means it can carry two thermal insulations in one cavity wall for better thermal value. The second advantage is that when the air space plays as a barrier against water penetration. If the cavity is kept clear, and if the adequate weep holes and flashing and provided.

There are many ways to lay out bricks with different patterns. Flemish bond, Stack bond, English bond, and Common bond, and there are more. Just to minimize the cutting of the brick and enhance the appearance of bonding patterns.

The major dimensions of masonry walls should be based on the size of the modular units used, also different types of bonding course is a continuous horizontal range of masonry wall.

Beams are rigidly structured members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. The nonconcurrent pattern of faces subjects a beam to bending and deflection, which must be resisted by the internal strength of the material. By the time when the lintel is on the beams, it sends its weight on the beams and transfers to the ground.

When it comes to foam insulation the place consists of a foamed plastic, as polyurethane that is sprayed or injected into a cavity where it adheres to the surrounding surfaces.

Summary #9: Masonry Construction / Windows & Doors

Fernandez, Andy

Summary #9: Masonry Construction/ windows & Doors

IANO / FBC / Ching



Masonry buildings are designed with layers of protection from wind, water and temperature changes of the environment. Walls are built as composite walls (stone or brick veneer with a back up wythe of CMU) and could be either load-bearing or non-loadbearing. Cavity walls prevent water penetration and include multiple components to repel water. Flashing is used in cavities to flush penetrated water out of the wall system. Thru weep holes. Flashing are usually installed in junctures of window and door openings (punch-holes) on the wall. Once installed, they are embedded into the wall. Load-bearing walls can be built with or without reinforcement (Re-Bar). CMU walls can be reinforced by post-tensioning the vertical steel Re-Bars.


Thermal insulation can be added in form of rigid foam against CMU walls to control a thermal transfer of heat. Vapor barriers are applied to the CMU surface to keep water vapor and condensation from forming in the interior of the building. Furring strips (metal or wood studs) are used to attach gypsum boards (interior finish). Furring could be sized according to insulation material, electrical and plumbing specifications. Expansion joints are added to the masonry wall to allow for thermal expansion and contraction movement due to thermal changes. Masonry walls have good acoustic insulating properties.


Although masonry walls are very strong, the weakest areas consist of the mortar joints. Mortar is porous and can transfer water from the exterior to the interior of the building if not maintained. Mortars must be kept from freezing for at least 2-3 days after curing.


Above all, masonry is usually chosen based on its unique colors, textures, patterns, fire-resistance and its compliance to the building codes.


Windows/ Doors


Windows and doors are usually pre-fabricated and made with high precision standards and weather tightness in mind. There are many types of windows: fixed, single-hung, double-hung, sliding, hopper and casement among others. The following properties relate to windows and door alike: Window and door frames are made of wood, aluminum, steel or plastic. Wood frames offer good thermal insulation but are subject to decay. Aluminum frames are strong but are high thermal conductors (a thermal plastic or rubber break is needed) and used exclusively in residential and commercial applications. Plastic frames {PVC, vinyl ( 50% of all windows sold in U.S.)} are cheaper than wood but have high thermal expansion rates. Steel frames are very strong (allows for a slender frame) are less conductive of heat than aluminum but more than wood and plastic frames.

Most prefab frames are easy to install (usually with nails or bolts) and fit in place. Solar heat gain and wintertime heat loss contribute to 30% of all heating and electrical building loads in the U.S. Thermal conductivity of the window and door frames create a very high air leakage that require large amounts of heating/cooling of the building.

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