Ching talk about Masonry Wall Section and how should the bearing area of masonry be propotioned so as not toexceed the allowable compressive stress of the masonry material. And shows us the concrete masonry bearing wall, cavity wall and reinforced bick masonry wall. Referring to ching’s book we have different types of natural stone for example Random rubble, Coursed rubble,Squared rubble, Random ashlar, coursed ashlar and others. Natural stone may be bondedwith mortar and laid up in the tradional manner as a double faced loadbearing wall. In Ching’s book he listed all the Window Elements for instant the Casing Trim, widow frame and Rough opening. He also talkes about window operation depending on the window type if it’s Fixed, Sliding , Casement and many others depending on it’s ventilation. And how it could be different in Wood Windows due to the head, jamb, structural mullion ans sill. As it was mentioned in Fundamentals of Building construction Materials and Methods for egress doors and accessible doors that, many doorways act as components of a buildings egress system, path that occupants take when exiting during emergency. 2 doors and each with a fire protection rating 1and a half hours installed on opposite sides of the same opening fire wall , shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection rating to one 3 hour firedoor.
Reading#8 had many interesting topics. It begins by talking about moisture and thermal protection which basically means the usage of materials to join the outside of the building against moisture, thermal, and air penetration. Wall flashing,masonry veneer, stone veneer, thermal resistance, thermal insulation, insulating materials, insulating roofs and floors, insulating walls, moisture control, vapor retarders, and ventilation was all mentioned in chapter#7 from Ching’s book. Chaper#19 from the book called fundamentals of building construction was what I last read, and it talks about the designing of the exterior wall systems. From reading all that I absorbed that exterior wall system was basically a display of groups that are joined together to serve protection for the interior of buildings.reading
Ching in reading seven talks about masonry arches, masonry lintels, wood beams, wood joists, wood sub-floor/decking, wood plank/beams, steel beams, steel open-web joists, metal decking, and reinforced concrete beam.Masonry arches utilize the compression strength of brick and stone to span openings by transforming
the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components. Masonry lintel where describe in many different forms of diagrams. wood in general was also described in the way they are used and positioned. Steel overall was explained in its constructional way in use. Metal decking is corrugated to increase its stiffness and spanning capability. The last thing discussed was Reinforce Concrete Beams. Ching explains how they are designed to act together with
longitudinal and web reinforcement in resisting applied forces.
Reading number six was very long. We as a class had to read from two different textbooks the ching and the fundamental of building construction. I started with Chings book as he mentions and describes many things. Ching talks about masonry and how it has many terminologies. He then goes to explaining the different masonry bonding’s. Lumber, wood panel products, steel beams, steel columns, concrete beams, concrete columns, precast concrete floor systems, and precast concrete units was later on described and explained profoundly. In the other textbook the fundamental of building construction we only had to read chapter eight. That chapter was mainly about sustainability of brick masonry. It at first mentioned the history and the mortar of bricks. It then continued on explaining its benefits and developments in a construction use.
Ching talks about concrete, masonry, stone, and wood. Reading five starts by Ching stating how concrete is made and how reinforcement is required to handle tensile and shear stresses. The mixing of cement and various mineral aggregates with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and blind the entire mass is what customs concrete. Then Ching talks about masonry which he refers to the building with units of various natural or manufactured product, examples are brick, stone, or concrete blocks. 12.07 explains concrete masonry units which are precast of Portland cement, fine aggregate, and water. Concrete masonry is molded into various shapes to satisfy various constructions. Stone is an aggregate or combination of minerals, each of which is composed of inorganic chemical substances. Ching tells us how stones should have the qualities strength, hardness, durability, workability, density, and appearance. 12.11-12.12 was about wood. Wood is mentioned to be as a construction material that’s strong, durable, light and weight, and easy to work with.
In reading four Ching talks about structural units, structural spans, structural patterns, and lateral stability. Structural units can be capable of defining and enclosing the volume of space for a habitation with the principal structural elements of column, beam, slab, and loadbearing wall. Structural spans explain the relationship between the span and the spacing of elements that influence the dimensions and scale of the space that are defined by the structural system of a building. Structural patterns are basically preparation of principal vertical supports of regulating the selection of a spanning system and also that determines the possibilities for the ordering of spaces and functions in a building. 2.22 “Lateral stability” explains how structural systems must be designed to carry vertical gravity loads and also withstand lateral wind and seismic force from any direction. The mechanisms for ensuring lateral stability are knee bracing, k-brace, and cross bracing. Ching also explains how the torsional effects of lateral forces are determined by the asymmetrical layout of irregular structures generally requires dynamic analysis.
Francis D.K Ching explains how architecture and building construction are not really the samething. Architecture should be considered the following conceptual system of order in addition to the physical construction Ching mentions on page 2.02. Building control is only the execution of architecture. He also talks about system which is an assembly of interrelated or independent part forming a more complex and unified whole and serving a common purpose. Some systems he mentioned were structural system, Enclosed system, and mechanical system. Each system had its on functional way of importance. Ching explains and shows drawings that defines its way of form.
Reading three was about structural forces, structural equilibrium, columns, beams, beam spans, trusses, frames and walls, arches and vaults, domes, and finally joints and connections. Structural force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body. Structural equilibrium is a state of balance or rest resulting from equal action of opposing force. In the column section it explains how columns are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members. 2.14 talks about beams and how they are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. Truss is a structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear members subject only to axial tension or compression. Plate structures are rigid, planar, usually monolithic structures that disperse applied loads in a multidirectional pattern, with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the supports. Arches and vaults are described as columns, beams, slabs, and bearing walls are the most common structural elements because of the rectilinear building geometry they are capable of generating. 2.26 defines a dome as a spherical surface having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks, a continuous rigid material like reinforced concrete, or of short, linear elements, as in the case of a geodesic dome. Shells are thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete as mentioned in 2.27. joints and connections is basically the manner in which forces are transferred from one structural element to the next and how a structural system performs as a whole depend to a great extent on the types of joints and connections used.
The pages that were assigned to be read explains the means of egress. It is basically the movement of going out or leaving a building. Egress is known to have three different parts to it. The exits access, the exit discharge, and the exits. Exit access is the path or passageway that leads to an exit that should be directed as possible. Exit discharge is when all exits must be discharged to a safe place of refuge outside of the building. Finally Exits which is meanly what must provide an enclosed and protected means of evacuation for the occupants of a building in the event of fire, leading from an exit access to an exit discharge.
In this chapter stair design was also mentioned. It was explained as it being strictly regulated by the building code, especially when a stairway is an essential part of an emergency egress system. It has requirements loke stairway width, landing, handrails, and guardrails. Must of all the treaf, risers, and nosings. Stairs can be different in the way of design, structure, measurements, and shape. The different names of stairs i found in this chapter were Winding stairs, Circular stairs, and Spiral stairs. Each tupe had its own functional and unique way of look.