In this section of the book Ching speak about roofing materials, wall flashing, masonry veneer, thermal insulation, ventilation, roof attic ventilation, crawl space ventilation, and whole house ventilation. Roofing materials provide the water- resistant covering for a roof system. They range in form virtually continuous, impervious membranes to overlapping or interlocking pieces of shingles and tiles. Wall flashing is installed to collect any moisture that may penetrate a wall and divert it to the outside through weep holes. Masonry veneer construction consists of a single wythe of masonry serving as a wether barrier and anchored but not bonded to a supporting structural frame. The primary purpose of thermal insulation is to control the flow or transfer of heat through the exterior assemblies of a building and thereby prevent excessive heat loss in cold seasons and heat gain in hot weather. Whole house ventilators are motor- driven fans for pulling stake air from the living areas of a house and exhausting it through attic and roof vents.
In this section of the book Ching speaks about Masonry arches, lintels, wood joists floors, wood subfloors, wood plank, beam,steel open web joists, and reinforced concrete beams. Masonry arches utilize the compressive strength of brick and stone to span openings by transforming the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components. A lintel is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports. Wood joists floors are an essential subsystem of wood light-frame construction. The dimension lumber used for joists is easily worked and can be quickly assembled on site with simple tools. Wood subflooring is the structural material that spans across floor joists, serves as a working platform during construction, and provides a base for the finish flooring. Wood plank-and-beam floor systems are typically used with a supporting grid of posts or columns to form a skeleton frame structure. Open-web joists are lightweight, shop-fabricated steel members having a trussed web. Lastly reinforced concrete beams are designed to act together with longitudinal and web reinforcement in resisting applied forces.
In these sections of the book Ching speaks upon masonry bonding terminology, lumber, wood panel products, steel beams, steel columns, concrete beams, concrete columns, and precast concrete floor systems. He starts off by explaining wythe, wythe is a continuous vertical section of a masonry wall one unit in thickness. Also course is a continuous horizontal range of masonry units. A stretcher is a masonry unit laid horizontally with the longer edge exposed or parallel to the surface. Mortar joints are also explained in this section, there are many different joints like concave joints, v-joint, weathered joint, struck joint, and a flush joint. Lumber is used for remanufacturing purposes because of the diversity of its applications. Each piece of lumber has a grademark indicating the assignment stress grade, mill of origin, moisture content at time of manufacture. Next wood panel products are less susceptible to shrinking or swelling, require less labor to install, and make more effective use of wood resources than solid wood products. Steel beams are more structurally efficient wide-flange shapes have largely suspended the classic l- beam shapes. Next steel columns are the most frequently used section for columns is the wide-flange shape. Concrete beams are designed to act together with longitudinal and web reinforcement in resisting applied forces. Concrete columns are designed to act together with vertical and lateral reinforcement in resisting applied forces. Lastly precast concrete slabs, beams, and structural tees are one-way spanning units that may be supported by site cast concrete, precast concrete, or masonry bearing walls, or by steel, site cast concrete, or precast concrete frames. In the other book fundamentals of building construction chapter eight Ching speaks about brick masonry, masonry is the simplest of building techniques the mason stacks pieces of materials like brick , stones, or concrete blocks atop one another to make walls . He also talks about mortar mixes, ingredients, hydration, and the construction of brick masonry.
In this section of the book Ching speaks about stone, masonry, brick, brick types, brick grades, wood, steel, and concrete. Ching explains that stone is an aggregate or combination of minerals, each of which is composed of inorganic chemical substances. He also says stone should have the following qualities strength, hardness, durability, workability, density, and appearance. Stone may also be classified according to geological origin into types of ingenious rock, metamorphic rock and sedimentary rock. Stone is also similar to modular unit masonry. Masonry refers to building with units of various natural or manufactured products, such as brick, stone, or concrete block. Brick is a mansonry unit of clay formed into a rectangular prism, just like stone there are different types of bricks as well and they are soft mud, sand bricks, water struck brick, stiff mud and dry press. Brick grades designates the Durability of a brick unit when exposed to weathering. In this section Ching explains that wood is strong, durable, light in weight, and easy to work, in addition it offers natural beauty and warmth to sight and touch. Lastly concrete is made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregates with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass.
In this reading Ching talks about structural units ,Structural spans, structural patterns and lateral stability. Ching states that with the principal structural elements of columns, beams, slab and load bearing wall, it is possible to form and elementary structural unit capable of defining and enclosing a volume of space for habitation. Horizontal spans consist of grinders, beams, and joints. The vertical support for a structural unit are supported by load bearing. Structural spans is the capability of horizontal elements determines the spacing of their vertical supports. Structural patterns is the arrangement of principal vertical supports that establishes the possibilities for the ordering of spaces and functions in a building. Lateral stability is important because a structure must be sized, configured, and joined to form a stable structure under any possible load conditions.
In this reading Ching talks about the different kinds of structures and their functions . He explains that a structural force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body. It is considered to be a vector quantity possessing both magnitude and direction. There are also different types of forces like collinear forces which occur along a straight line, and a concurrent force which have lines of action intersecting at a common point. He also speaks about structural equilibrium which in both structural design and analysis, we are concerned first with the magnitude, direction, and pain of application of forces, and their resolution to produce a state of equilibrium. Columns are also introduced in this section and they are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members. There are also different types of beams with different purposes as well.
From what I read in this chapter he explained the means of egress which is going out or leaving a place, as well as stair design which includes the different types of stairs and the reasons behind handrails, treads, risers, their dimensions and etc. Every building has an occupant load and that is the number of people that may occupy a building or portion. This plays a role when it comes to building stairs because these passageways should be as direct as possible and obtain safe egress. Exits are also very important because an exit must provide an enclosed and protected means of evacuation for the occupants of a building in the event of fire. In the section where he speaks about stair design he explains that the dimensions of risers and treads in a stairway should be proportioned to accommodate our body movement, also the occupant load which is based on the use group and the floor area served, determines the required width of an exit stairway. As you can see in this chapter the reasoning behind the way stairs, exits, and the specific dimensions chosen are made because of building codes which accommodate us while either leaving the building going in or going from different floors.