Ching talks about concrete, steel, and wood floor and roof systems and how they are supported by and tied to different types of masonry bearing walls. He talks about stone and how natural stone is a durable, weather-resistant construction material. Which may be laid in mortar to make bearing and nonbearing walls. He also talks about different windows and explains certain parts of it. For example, sash and glazing. Sash is the fixed or movable framework of a window. Glazing is the panes or sheets of glass set in the sashes of a window. Pane is one of the divisions of a window, unit of glass set in a frame.
This section discusses roof systems and how to prevent water from going into a structure. In a roof system, they get a water resistant covering from roofing materials like overlapping or interlocking shingles and tiles. Flashing also helps prevent water from coming in. Flashing gets installed on the edges of the roof. The type of moisture that gets in is water vapor. Wall flashing collects any moisture that penetrate a wall. Rain penetration can be controlled by tooling mortar joints, sealing joints and sloping the horizontal surfaces of sills and copings. Cavity walls are also good in resisting water. Ching also talks about masonry veneer.
In this reading ching summarizes different connections with wood, steal and concrete. He also talks about arches. There are different kind of arches Gothic, lancet and drop arches which can be used in different occasions. There are different parts to these arch such and the crown, spring extrados , intrados, and arch axis. There are also lintels which can support with load when using a span. These lintels are steal angle, reinforced bricks, concrete masonry , and precast concrete. ching explains how joist are spaced 12″,16″, 24″ depending on the load they also have cavities which is for pipping and wiring. these joist have different spanning ranges depending on the size of the joist. they should never exceed 1/360th of span. There are also beams for wood. there are box beam flinch beam and spaced beam. There are wood sub flooring, decking , and wood planks. There are also Steal beam. There are S shape, W shape , C shape, and Structural tubing. Rule of thumb for depth beams span 20 and girder span 15 and the with has to be 1/3 to 1/2 of the depth.
In this reading ching covers wood steal and concrete. The wood consist of factory lumber, dimension lumber, structural lumber, and timber. Wood is very good with tension and compression. Would is known for structural strength and appearance. Structural lumber includes beams of more than five inches wide stringer and post. Dimensional lumber consist of joice, light framing, and decking, Then theirs steal. Steal comes in four shapes, S shape, W shape, C shape, and tubing. Teal already comes cut from the factories. Steal has shear and moment connections. These connections consist of angles,plates, and bolts. Some ridged connections have well. Open web joist can span from twelve ft to 144ft.
Mortar is used in machinery to steal and keeps water to seal and keep water away and for bonding. Mortar comes in many colors and strengths. Brick is fined resistant and also comes in many colors. Brick walls have different patterns like the running bond for cavity walls and Flemish bonds. Steal lintels are reinforced brick with cement grout and other lintels are made of precast reinforce concrete. Thicker walls are reinforce with grout.
In this reading Ching basically summarizes the difference between building and architecture. Many people think that there the same thing but they have there differences. Building is mostly focused on materials, elements, and components. Where in Architecture its more about scale, proportion and organization. This means its about order or patterns for example if theirs a column on one side there should be one in the other side. Its also about human scale and dimensions. For example the rise and tred on stairs or the height of the door etc. Things like this differentiate building to architecture. There are also multiple system when constructing. There are structural, enclosure, and mechanical systems. Where structural systems focus on support and stress and enclosure system consist of roof walls, windows and doors.Finally Mechanical system is based on water, heating, ventilation, and electrical system which basically is what makes a home a home.
In this reading Ching talks about Materials and properties. Stone is made up of 6 things strength, hardness, durability, workability, density and appearance. Stone can also be used in different forms flagstone, crushed stone, and dimension stone. Ching also talks about masonry. Brick is masonry unit of clay formed into a rectangular prism. There are different type of brick like FBX, FBS, FBA, which vary in size and color for different occasions. There are also concrete masonry (CMU) there cement blocks are really strong. They have a compressive strength of 600 to 1500 psi. Theres also different weight for example normal weight block is more than 2000kg, medium weight block is from 1680 to 2000 kg and lightweight would be 1680 or less. Ching also talks about wood. Wood is strong durable and light in weight. there are soft wood and hard wood which are the two major classes of wood. typically a piece of wood will with stand 1/3 more force then parallel to its grain. One major thing about would is that it has shrinkage if it has moisture it can expand unto 30 percent but ones is looses moisture it shrinks . this is vary important and must be taken into consideration once applying. Wood also has things like knots, shakes, checks, pitch pockets, and wane which also play a big part once applying. In addition Ching discusses steel. steel is any iron based alloys there are different shapes they come in. There are W shape, S shapes, C shapes, L shapes, and WT shape. The S shapes and C shapes are American Standard use. Almost all the building around us are made up of steel its really strong and durable. Concrete is made of three important components cement want aggregate. aggregate is basically little peaces of rock, sand , minerals. These things mixed together can make you a solid peace of concrete. The cement should also be in motion or else it would become a solid. This is why the trucks have the back part rotating as they go on to the site. The cement is always tested. Cement its take into a lab and poured onto a cone shaped container and flipped . They let it sit to see the reaction of the cement if its to much of a liquid it bad if it hardened to fast its also bad it should be just the right amount.
This reading covers structural units, spans, and patterns. Some important units that we should take in consideration would be beams,joist, and columns, bearing walls, slabs and decking. These elements put together can construct a solid well put together peace. There are two different types of systems there are one way systems and two way systems but two way systems are more effective there supported by four columns which defines a horizontal layered space. The length of the horizontal element depends on the vertical support. There are also patterns that are made up of a grid. Grids that you can make different varieties of. You can make regular, irregular and even rotations. Forms of stability are knee bracing, K bracing , cross bracing. There are rigid frames bracing frames and shear walls to hold up.