May 7, 2019
In this section of Ching’s book, he first discusses the wall sections. His diagrams show the wall section showing all components needed to function properly and protect the building’s interior and exterior. The stone patterns he presents are: Random, Coursed, Squared Rubble and Random, coursed, broken range work Ashlar. For the exterior wall, Ching shows us two different ways to join bricks when they meet the corner (Quoin, Long-and-short Work). Quoin is an exterior angle that is dependent on the brick’s size, color, or projection, while long-and-short work are rectangular quoins arranged alternately horizontally and vertically. Lastly, Ching gives the types of windows and their ventilation percentages. For example, one of the windows he shows is the sliding window which ventilates only 50% of the room because the doors only expose half the frame of glass.
This section starts with Ching explaining masonry arches and lintels. Masonry Arches use the strength of the brick and stone to span openings. He also explains the different arches, for example, a segment arch is struck from a center below the spring line. He goes into wood beams and joists. Wood joist floors is a essential subsystem of wood light frame construction. It can serve as structural diaphragm to transfer lateral loads. Wood subflooring spans across floor joists and is used as a working platform. Steel beams have different types of connections; framed connection, seated connection, shear connection, and semi-rigid connection.
Referring to Ching’s we have masonry wall sections and how how concere, steel wood floor and roof system are supported by and tied to various types of masonry bearing walls. And how pressure treated for different materials and also how joists work together. Natural stone masonry is a durable, weather resistant construction materials that may be laid in mortar much like clay and concrete masonry units to make bearing and non bearing walls. We have three different types of rubble which are random rubble, coursed , and squared. And also a 3 types of ashlers which are random , coursed and broken rangwork ashlar. Each one is built with a different type of stone. Therefore we have many different elements for window such as rough opening, casing trim, window frame and sash and glazing and each one of them have a different function. Also the opening of the window would make a difference too and have different shapes such as fixed, casement aweing, sliding and others.
Reading#8 had many interesting topics. It begins by talking about moisture and thermal protection which basically means the usage of materials to join the outside of the building against moisture, thermal, and air penetration. Wall flashing,masonry veneer, stone veneer, thermal resistance, thermal insulation, insulating materials, insulating roofs and floors, insulating walls, moisture control, vapor retarders, and ventilation was all mentioned in chapter#7 from Ching’s book. Chaper#19 from the book called fundamentals of building construction was what I last read, and it talks about the designing of the exterior wall systems. From reading all that I absorbed that exterior wall system was basically a display of groups that are joined together to serve protection for the interior of buildings.reading
In this reading, Ching begins with chapter 7 to talk about Moisture and thermal protection. In other words, ways to keeping moisture out and letting enough heat in the building. He suggests flashing along roof edges, wall exterior, doors and windows. In addition, he provides the 3 basic means of controlling heat gain or loss which are: The selection of building materials, correct insulation and enclosure and orientation on the site. Then, he moves on to talk about thermal insulation, and explains that it’s the primary purpose to control the flow of the heat through exterior assemblies to prevent heat loss in cold season and vice versa. Later in chapter 7, he goes in depth to explain that wall flashing collects moisture in the wall, or in other words, kicks water out of the wall. Then, he introduces insulating materials such as Batt ( blanket/roll), Rigid Foam, Foamed-in-Place, Loose fill, and Reflective insulation. Lastly, he defines vapor retarders as a material of low performance installed in construction to prevent moisture from entering and reaching certain places, and the major types of ventilations are: Whole house, Energy recovery, Roof & attic, and Crawl Space ventilation.
In Reading 8, ching first introduced how the wall is waterproof, how to carry greater load, durability, wind and fire in the snowy day, choose the right building materials, build and heat the building correctly, and consider structural changes. , thermal expansion and contraction, exposure to the sun’s radiation and changes in the wind, and so on. And introduced flashing, a variety of flashing has different functions, as well as masonry veneer can also be used as curtain walls supported by steel or concrete frames. Also related to thermal insulation or materials, insulating roof or wall, mosture control ,vapor Retarder and ventilation.
In reading 8, Ching goes in depth with many of the elements that go into building a “modern” and effective wall. Modern because it has been looked over and mastered in a way so that they do more than keep you in closed. Exterior walls must provide protection from the weather. Like the sun, wind and all around temperatures. According to the weather outside the wall has a specific way to handle it. Roofing materials provide the water-resistant covering for a roof system. Some factors to consider when trying to construct a roof is the material requirements for installation, maintenance, and durability, resistance to wind and fire, and, if visible, the roofing pattern, texture, and color. Many more things go into making a wall, like veneers made in different types of materials. All requirements to make a successful constructed wall.
According to Ching Book moisture and thermal protection roofing materials provide the water resistant covering for a roof system. They range in form virtually continuous, impervious membranes to overlapping or interlocking pieces of shingles and tiles. They apply it or provide it to prevent water from leaking into a roof assembly and eventually the interior of a building. Also flashing must be installed along roof edges where roofs change slop. So wall flashing is installed to collect any moisture that may penetrate a wall and divert it to the outside through weep holes. There is 5 basic types of flashing such as parapet , spandrel head sill and base course flashing. Refers to Ching’s Masonry veneer construction consists of a single wythe of masonry serving as a weather barrier and anchored but not bonded to a supporting structural frame. And the we have the thermal insulation which is the primary purpose of thermal insulation is to control the flow or trasfer of heat through the exterior assembliew of a building and thereby prevent excessive heat loss in cold seasons and heat gain in hot weather. As ching says we have 4 types of ventilation: one for the whole house, other for energy recovery, roof and attic and crawl space.
In this reading Ching talks about building performances. He startes off with how buildings need moisture and thermal protection. This varies on the style of the building and the climate of the environment. One method is flashing. Flashing is installed in the walls to collect moisture that goes through the walls. There many types which include head flashing, sill, base course, parapet, and spandrel. When it comes to masonry walls, veneer is used. Ching then explains thermal insulation. It is to control the flow or transfer of heat through assemblies of a building. He gives a list of thermal resistance for each material and materials that are used for insulation. Each basic structure of a building (concrete, steel, wood) has a way to place the insulation for floors and walls. However, there should be enough room for ventilation. Different types include whole-house ventilation, energy-recovery ventilation, roof and attic, and crawl space.