The Bauhaus was an art school, founded by Walter Gropius in 1919, just after World War II, in Weimar Germany. The main influences behind the Bauhaus were modernism, the English Arts and Crafts movements, and Constructivism. Gropius reconciled these disparate influences at the Bauhaus, where the reigning principles were unity form and function, the idea that design is in service of the community, and a belief in the perfection and efficiency of geometry. After reading László Moholy-Nagy’s Typophoto, it made me feel that he thinks that the new ways to create art like with the printing press, will cause artists in the future to lose and or forget the vision of how art was done in the past. Herbert Bayer sees that as time moves on, things start to advance and so does the way of typography. Typographers create and explore deeper in new art styles as the art world moves on.
I think Bayer may feel that technology has taken away an artists ability to truly create inventions as demands for new inventions were made to make tasks easier to be done, as he also exemplifies Gutenberg’s printing press which was built and then advanced to do what itis programmed to do, and it had a huge impact and changes the typography world forever and it depletes an artists skill as the artists may even get replaced by a machine. I think just trying new things can bring out art more into the future because new ideas will bring you into the future. For example, Facebook, Instagram, Email, and Twitter bought us to the new future of contactless communication, and the creation of automobiles, public transfers, and air crafts bought us to the future of faster transportation and is still strong today which leads to improvements in sales and manufacturing.
What I think Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy, and Bayer think about typography, photography, and media in the new art world is that these are the most important key factors in an artists life and that the way they were discovered and the artists that came before, new artists should be taught on how typography, photography, and the media came to be and with technologies advancements, it should help keep the way on how these careers were discovered and done, not change them. For me, I can’t imagine a world without design, I see it everywhere I go. In my home, on my clothes, on street signs and ads. When I think of language I start to think about words and letters, and I can imagine the world with those neither. Language is important as it helps us understand one another and is an essential role for communication and those two are essential roles for design.
What should be taught about different fields of art in education is the importance of learning how to think critically and creatively. It’s important for young minds to learn how to think critically so that they can see that this is a skill not only for their own personal development but can be of use for their future careers as well. Of course, you’ve been told at a young age and still hear now that a high school diploma and a college degree can help you achieve many and better things in life or what life has to offer, and after that close friends and especially family expect you to work in jobs that are more looked up upon like a doctor, lawyer, and pilot mainly because of the money, and I just believe that a career in the arts is just as important and is treated with respect just as much as any other job field. The thought of art I think should be considered a main aspect of the 21st century in education because times are changing and the ways in which children learn will continue to grow, change, and develop. Therefore I think the school system and teachers need to incorporate opportunities for the arts within the classroom, where students should be allowed and be able to show what they have learned through design and even technology.
The New Typography by Jan Tschichold has been recognized as the definitive treatise on the book and graphic design, Tschichold thought that design needs clarity to see how communication is being achieved in designing. Tschichold wants designers to take a fresh and intelligent approach, instead of doing their original way, when they do their designs as he thinks that their work will come out better than before. Any kind of old way of designs should be forgotten and discarded and new ideas should be created and Tschichold believes that if designers keep following the old ways of design and for many centuries to come, the art world may never move forward with the times of technological and mental advancements.
Artists, graphic designer and typographer, Karl Gerstner is as critical for his innovation as for his innovation as for his thoughts about innovation as the process. He formulated ideas of the versatile network with computational systems in mind. He also developed this concepts of integral typography, where the communication and its structure are indivisible and dependent, the mind being inseparable from typography. Karl Gerstner thought that designing in programmes should apply to a person actually feeling the intelligence in making a decision on how they design programmes and not just making them so ideas and creativity come more easy. The gride Gerstner digram, shown in the text, is his idea of how Fritz Zwicky, an astronomer , Zwicky did his terminology to prove his point on his meaning of design, “to pick out determining elements and combine them.”, and called the digram “the morphological box of the typogram.” Gerstner followed the method on how the digram goes and was able to create his own solutions, this type of design thinking, which is intended to promote more creative innovation among nondesigners, is based on the different stages of the design process these programmes generally distinguish as define, ideate, prototype, test and evaluate.
A grid system is a rigid framework that is supposed to help graphic designers in the meaningful, logical and consistent organization of information on a page. Rudimentary versions of grid systems existed since the medieval times, but a group of graphic designers, mostly in spired in ideas from typographical literature started building a more rigid and coherent system for page layout. The core of these ideas were first presented in the book that Josef Müller-Brockmann wrote, titled Grid Systems in Graphic Design, which helped to spread the knowledge about grides through the world.
The designed object I am going to talk about was created in 1973, is the mobile phone that was created by Martin Cooper, who was the executive of the telecommunications company Motorola, which was where the first mobile phone was produced. After researching, the first phone was pretty bulky and consisted the shape of a brick and weighed around two pounds and the first phone call was made on April 3 of 1973 by Cooper to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs, the call was said to of lasted about 30 minutes after the phones battery had been charged for over 10 hours. Ten years later in 1983, the mobile phone was finally ready to be announced to the public and for the world to see the power of sound wave technology in the palm of their hands and around 1989 mobile phones where starting to be designed smaller for easier carrying and use. Martin Cooper was born Marty Cooper on December 26, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois. He had a mother, father and brother named Mary, Arthur and Will. His family immigrated to the U.S from Ukraine Russia and his parents made a living by selling merchandise door to door. Cooper’s mother and father, Mary & Authur Cooper cared and wanted the best education they could provide for their kids. Cooper described his father to be a wonderful guy and is lucky and thankful to have a father like him. When Martin was a young boy he had a curiosity on how things worked and as his parent’s notice this they decided to wait and let their son figure it out on his own. As time went on, Cooper attended the Illinois Institute of Technology to earn his bachelors in electrical engineering, and graduated in 1950, he then joined the U.S Navy and fought in the Korean War and after the war he began working at Motorola after joining the Teletype Corporation in 1954, and earned his masters in electrical engineering from IIT in 1957. Cooper worked on many projects involving wireless communication, like the first radio controlled traffic light in 1960 and police radios in 1967. The first mobile phone that was available to be purchased by consumers as a handheld device was the DynaTac 8000x on March 6, 1983. Ameritech supplied the first U.S network (1G) andit took over a decade for it to reach the market. The phone was sold for around $4,000 and it only lasted around 30 to 35 minutes of talk time usage and it took over ten hours for the device to fully charge. With this consumers demanded for the phone to have longer battery life, lighter weight and smaller size for easy carry around. In 2002, technology made another huge change in the history of mobile phones buy putting color and adding a camera creating the worlds first camera cell phone, which where the Nokia 7650 and the Sanyo SPC-5300. Designers as Artists are assumed to know things and have contagious, profitable personalities tied to their stardom. No matter how cool your interface, Beatrice Warde’s famous Crystal Goblet metaphor asserts the design, the glass, should be a transparent vessel for content, the wine, stating typography should be a perfectly transparent vessel for content. Over that past decade we have seen magnificent convergence of media. Mobile phones can now play music and display webpages and present high quality videos, sometimes, and clear text. The invention of the mobile phone was just for long distance talking, but as time moves forwards, the structure of the phone kept on being updated as well to keep up with the times. New advancements for phones since the 1970s are now being built smaller with a touch screen and containing applications like app games, calender, camera, text messaging and emailing. From the time until now cellphone or mobile play a really significant part of people’s life. We would not deny that cellular phone has altered people’s time style. This history of the mobile phone has been evolving since the early innovation by Martin Cooper. There are some advantages from the design that reason most people are now getting cell phones. Cell phones increase the rate of communication and people get connected around the world even when they are really far apart at the same time.
britannica.com/biography “Martin-Cooper American Engineer”
After reading Marinetti’s article I got the sense that he seems really open minded and is very confident in the future, I researched him and found out he is the founder of the Futurist movement of the early 1900s. Marinetti envisioned what may happen in the upcoming future is that people are to create their own paths and live their lives the way they see fit and no longer live life by tradition. El Lissitzky envisioned what may happen in the upcoming future is that people will learn about the ways of how art was done in the past and in the future, it will be done with the same process. The Constructivist Group envisioned what may happen in the upcoming future is that humans will enhance their way of life with the help of technology, make life easier, and become reliant on technology advancements.
Marinetti had thought technology would help the world advance to high levels it’s never reached before and to erase how things were done traditionally. Lissitzky had thought technology in the future would help bring communication in art and design to ring people in other nations more together. The Constructivist Group thought technology was something that would strip the true meaning of what art really is. After reading their article, I came to understand that the authors just don’t see technology is a bad thing, but it may cause artists to rely on it too much in which technology will do more of the artwork than the artist itself. On page 2, a line that says “Technology is—the mortal enemy of art.”, stunned me because I am a person that uses today’s technology to create some art pieces, and as I continue to read I see the authors express how us humans are not going to become “slaves” to technology so that we can continue on building skyscrapers and other contraptions that aren’t really necessary.
What I find common about these authors is that they all seem to believe that technology will be a part of the future in people’s everyday life as it continues to be studied and enhanced in different ways it can be used, and it can either have positive or negative effects depending on the way on how people use it. I think the whole text that seems true in the present-day is from Filippo Tommaso Marinetti as he seems to praise new technologies that are discovered and were used to create automobiles for and because of their creation, they help transportation become easier and better for people to get to one place to another quicker, and today technology is a huge hit and is still being used to help create new and develop contraptions. What I think shows elements that are problematic are from The Constructivist Group text, to be honest, I can’t point out in a specific one spot on where a problem may be here but I choose this text because it seems the authors were not against the achievement of advance technology but that it shouldn’t be added to certain fields of work and it seemed the authors preferred that art should be done the traditional way, like canvas and paint with no need of help of technology because it’s not something a human had made its something a computer is programmed to do.
Language to me is the form of communication humans and I think even animals partake in order to physically say our thoughts and ideas and express emotions as we pronounce the words in the form of body language or in the constructed way they are supposed to be pronounced in our native language. Language can be expressed through the mouth by just talking, body language, like sign language, or in behaviors like in animals and pets like cats, dogs, and birds which I think show their emotion through body language which can give clues to the human on how they feel. How I think language is different from communication is the meaning because when I think about language, I just only think about people expressing themselves through words coming out of there mouths, and with communications, I start to think that there are different forms and ways people are able to communicate with one another without the use of actually saying the words out of your mouth. Like text messaging and emailing I think is an example of communication because you are speaking with a person, but not through your voice in which you talking and the other person hears you, but in a way, as you type on your electric device and just send the words you want to say, with no physical interaction needed.
The role language plays in design is that design is something a person can do by putting language into one piece of art. For example, The Starry Night is a very exquisite and beautiful painting, by just looking at it critiques, and even myself, have commented on how this painting made them feel and what are their thoughts on the painting. People can just express any word that comes to their mind about the painting, and no words in the illustration were included, the picture is enough to share its creativity and is pleasing to the eye. How I think symbols are related to language is that symbols can relate to society. Symbols can represent an object, a small image, or the time period people are living in. Signs like stop and go signs symbolized for safety for cars to drive and for when to cross the street, logos like Starbucks and Shop Rite symbolize what they are selling to the public, drinks & food, and even small objects like a ring can symbolize a persons love for their partner. Signs, signifiers, and the signified employed are in general communication because I think they help to name objects and other things in different ways and have the same descriptor and meaning. Like let’s say you see a rat or a gerbil, you can also call them rodents as they are in the same family, and\then this can make you start to visualize those rodents and other kinds of it in your mind, creating the signified concept of the rat/gerbil.
Details from the text that I think provoke ideas for developing new design strategies are that I kind of get the feeling that new design ideas can come from being inspired by different cultures. Discovering how art and design are shown in different parts of the world design and seeing the way they do design, can be a boost of motivation and representation of those who see they can recreate that style in their way and are able to change the perspective view on the way they were taught to design. The Archaic numbering system is in many different forms as the world consists of people of different origins and ways of how their language is spoken. The numbering system I think can show and tell about the origins it was discovered from, like the numbers in Japan are combined and or written in two ways, Arabic and Chinese. I find that amazing how nations that are far from each other and have developed their way of life in different ways, that their teachings and discoveries are spread to different parts of the world and people see this and can study and learn to their benefit.