Greece | BUF 3300 International Retailing

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References

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Climate

Greece is a part of the Mediterranean along with other countries surrounding them. The Mediterranean region consists of Spain, Italy, and Turkey (Taylor, 2022). Mediterranean climate-type regions are temperate, wet winters and warm to hot, dry summers (Urdiales-Flores et al., 2023). In the Mediterranean, climate changes from warm to hot, to moderate rainy winters. The Mediterranean dry summer climate consists of temperatures varying from 64° Fahrenheit in their coolest months and 80-89° Fahrenheit during their hottest months. With Winters ranging from 30-65° Fahrenheit (Mediterranean, 2022). The temperature changes depending on which season and country it is in the Mediterranean.

Greece changes temperature depending on the season which impacts the weather conditions. In January-March, 55-60° Fahrenheit, April-June, 68-86° Fahrenheit, July-September, 91-83° Fahrenheit, October-December, 73-55° Fahrenheit (Regula, 2022). Greece has moderate to hot temperatures due to being part of the Mediterranean. During the winter it is mild and rainy, with cold air masses from northern Europe, or when the temperature drops in mild areas which can lead to snow in northern plains (Greece,2022). Summer in Greece is hot and during the dry season, there is minimal rain (Baker, 2023). Greece’s temperature is mainly hot with other weather conditions such as wet or dry weather.

Figure 4: Climate of Greece

Import/Export Trade Policies and Practices

Imports

Greece does have restrictions on importing goods and imports with various countries. Greece law states a company that imports goods into Greece from a country with a lower tax rate must repay the 26% withholding tax (Trade barriers, 2022). To import to and from a registered trade license is required as per the business and be enlisted in the Trade and Company Register of the country (Import to Greece, 2022). Greece imports from various countries, being part of the European Union (EU), 57% come from EU Member States, Germany 12%, and Italy 9%, while outside the EU 8% from China and 6% from Russia (Greece). Greece has a relationship with countries inside and outside of Europe. Greece has a few import policies to be able to do business with them.

Exports

Greece has certain export policies and trade with several countries. To export to and from Greece a taxpayer needs to be enlisted with the Greece Tax Agency with a registered license as per the business that will take part in the trade (How to export from Greece, 2022). Greece shipped $57.4 billion worth of products around the globe in 2022, with the overall value of exports increasing by 21.5% resulting in $47.2 billion (Workman, 2023). Fifty percent of its exports were within the EU, with Italy and Germany being major partner contributors. Outside of the EU, Turkey is 4%, and the United States 4% (Greece- EU member country profile, 2023). Greece has a relationship with countries inside and outside of Europe to export various goods.

Our company will be exporting the Chemise overseas to the United States. It will be sold in local shops such as Etsy and other small businesses. The garment is sold in countries surrounding Greece such as Spain, Germany, Italy, and France. The product will get to the United States by cargo planes as needed to be sold in stores. It will be sold by exporting and the product will be shipped to the United States, exchanged for money.

Labor & Employment Practices

Greece undoubtedly has quite intricate employment practices as they are based around creating good relationships. These practices truly depend on how employees and organizations participate in companies with “subsidiaries” management in Greece (Triantafillidou and Koutroukis, 2022). Therefore, the practices of employees depend on the setup or input that is taking place in the workspace. For example when the country faced its Recession, the youth unemployment rate was almost at 60% while those that were employed had part time and low pay jobs (Papadopoulos and Jones, 2023). That Greek staff was part of what aided in their bounce back and having established the Memorandum of Economic and Financial Practices which serves as the guidelines within many job settings was what left a mark in maintaining the economy (Katou et al., 2021). Understanding employment practices is where the focus should lie because determining how workers and the business are being affected is crucial for that lasting success.

The country has emphasized its attention in labor practices while working around existing routines and techniques to create new opportunities. The European Union has established changes for a Flexible Contractual Arrangements Index which would mean there is more likely a chance to make out the labor market reforms (Grekousis and Gialis, 2019). The European mega-region is striving towards “market-oriented and capital-based patterns” and Greece is one of many places that has migrant labor showcasing impressive stats and notable workspaces because of the modernization (Nori, 2021). Furthermore, there will always be a want for economic growth but that can’t be reached without making various accessibilities or accommodations in all fairness for the people that are working and those looking to get hired to keep the factors of production running. Therefore, having “employment flexibilization” is a necessary practice because the goal is to set up a work environment that protects everyone no matter what (Vlachou et al., 2018). Overall, the labor practices and labor law legislations are there for order and seemingly a real workspace can’t function without them for everyone’s safety, equality, and progress.

Technology

Greece is developing itself with many technological advancements that are going to be beneficial and quite impressive for their society. Throughout the years the country has found ways to work with the means that go back to their “innovations in methodologies” which are the Minoan and Mycenaean technologies for metalwork and raw materials that have become a staple of the science and archeology seen throughout their history (Irby, 2021). However, the country’s skills and traditional use of tools and techniques are going to be challenged by the barriers of trade with the digital world. Greece’s information technology industry has had an impact on business with the use of patents and various claims with the rise of works in AI, cloud computing, or other software systems (Metallidou et al., 2020). Also, the Greek government has presented its support of tech innovations with national strategies that are meant to create “cost-effective” products for the science, health and wellness systems/markets which could be quite valuable (Barbosa et al., 2022) since such advancements are building for the future that could need them long term.

An area in which Greece has tried to use its technology to maneuver through is the manufacturing industries. Many Greek companies are said to be moving along the supply chain production when teaming up on upcoming designs and systems of new aerial tech that can help with international exporting (TBJ, 2023). Now with many more connections, e-retailing has essentially taken over and truly brings in profit with the business to business markets through research and everyday devices that give either start-ups or top of the line companies a boost (Angelakis, 2022). Seemingly, there are good efforts being brought in by crafters and retailers but that wouldn’t have been possible without the accessibility to numerous online platforms to communicate. Especially within the last few years Greek IT spaces have focused on updating remote sources for e-commerce by using data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to support online experience capabilities for teleconferencing, network sites, and more (Papouli et al., 2020). By Greece pushing for modern business assets or tech gear it can only lead to more rewarding breakthroughs.

Geography

Greece, situated in southeastern Europe, boasts the longest coastline in the region and is positioned along the southern edges of the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. Covering an approximate land area of 131,957 kilometers (about the area of Alabama), the country shares its borders with Albania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, and Turkey. Greece features about 6,000 islands and islets, however, only 227 of them are habitable. Nevertheless, Greece holds a strategic location, dominating the Aegean Sea and controlling the southern approach to the Turkish Straits (The World Factbook, 2023). The country’s terrain is divided into three main regions: the mainland, the islands, and the peninsula located to the south of the mainland. Greece’s diverse coastline comprises extensive beaches, sheltered bays, sand dunes, pebble shores, wetlands, deltas, caves carved by seawater, and volcanic dark sand areas (visit Greece, 2023). The landscape is known for its rugged mountains and forests, in addition to its numerous islands. The capital of Greece is Athens, which many consider to be the birthplace of Western civilization.

Historically, Greece’s distinctive geography, characterized by mountains, often acted as natural dividers among communities, influencing migrations and fostering self-sufficiency.  With only 170 inhabitable islands, most of the islands are in the Aegean Sea. The four biggest islands in Greece are Crete, Evia, Lesbos, and Rhodes; Crete the most popular island in the region, is the largest in Greece and fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Fuchs, 2023). Greece is rich in limestones ideally for caves and canyons, forests, rivers, and valleys. Greece’s plant life and animal life benefit from the influence of several significant biogeographic zones, with Mediterranean and Western Asian elements prevailing and supplemented by species from the central European interior (Climate of Greece 2023). Home to one of the largest mountains, Mount Olympus, Greece is highly diverse in geographical features.

Figure 2: Map of Greece

Population and Demographics   

Greece, located in Southeastern Europe, possesses a population that has changed over time. Greece’s population is estimated to be over 10.4 million, Greece ranks ninety-one in the world by population. Its population density is eighty people per square kilometer, given its land area of 128,900 square kilometers (Greece population, 2023). The demographic makeup of Greece includes people who identify as Turks, Macedonians, Albanians, Aromanians (Vlachs), and Roma (Gypsies). Greek is the primary language spoken in Cyprus, and communities of Greek speakers are found to differing degrees in southern Albania, southern Italy, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Notably, Greek migrating communities contribute uniquely to various regions, including Europe, North and South America, Australia, and South Africa (Greece 2023). Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population in the productive age range (15-64 years), particularly among men (GREECE 2023). This increase is primarily attributed to the large influx of economic immigrants into the country.

The composition of Greece’s population can be viewed in several ways. The makeup of Greece cultural diversity in modern Greece has been shaped by migrations, invasions, imperial conquests, and conflicts of the 20th century (Greece 2023). The country has a notable urbanization rate, with many residents living in major cities like Athens whose population is 664,046, and Thessaloniki which holds 354,290 civilians (Greece population, 2023). When analyzing The Human Development Index (HDI) considers factors like literacy, education, GNI, and life expectancy. In 2020, the average life expectancy at birth in Greece was seventy-seven and a half years for men and eighty-three years for women. Despite this, the participation rate of the age group 0-14 in the total population has decreased, while the participation rate of the age group over 65 has risen. In January 2020, a law was placed on college funding that would be determined by performance criteria, such as internationalization, graduates’ employability, and the ratio of new entrants to graduates. The first funding agreements under these conditions are anticipated from 2022 onward. In Greece, there is a higher proportion of women than men, with a gender ratio of ninety-six men to one hundred women (0.96) (World Factbook, 2023). Despite many challenges of population fluctuations, economic crisis, and high unemployment rates, Greece managed to maintain a high Human Development Index (HDI) in (2012), ranking among the top 30 countries globally (Greece HDI score 2021,2023). In summary, Greece’s population and demographics reflect a complex interplay of historical, economic, and social factors influencing the country’s development and policies.  

Fiber, fabric, and apparel production  

Greece has emerged as a noteworthy player in the global textile and apparel industry. The country has leveraged its resources and entrepreneurial spirit to become a hub for fiber, fabric, and apparel production. In the context of fiber and textile production, Greece benefits from its favorable geographic location and climate (fea-vee.eu, 2023). There are more than five hundred apparel manufacturing companies; eighty-six resides in Athens, eighty-eight in Thessaloniki, and the rest in spread out across major cities and towns in Greece (Manufy, 2023). Greece Producing one of the finest pieces of cotton in the industry allows them to be a preferred destination for purchase (Sustainable Sourcing Simplified 2023).” Cotton, a primary source of natural fibers, thrives in the Mediterranean climate of Greece. Cotton fields cover significant portions of the country’s landscape, providing the essential raw material for textile production. 

Greece has invested in the labor force to support the apparel industry. “Therefore, access to skilled labor force at a lower cost is another advantage of clothing manufacturing companies.” On that note, due to Greece’s interconnections with other dependent industries, the labor force keeps the economy up-float (The fashion culture in Greece, 2023). The export sector for cotton. Silk and other raw materials hold employment to more than two hundred thousand workers, and businesses, both industrial and craft, are growing (fea-vee.eu,2023). Leaving every country in Greece to have at least one small or large textile production unit. Greek artisans have been known for their intricate embroidery and weaving techniques. Over time, these skills have been adapted to modern machinery and techniques, resulting in a workforce that is not only proficient but also versatile (Sustainable Sourcing Simplified, 2023). This proves the dedication Greece is making to evolve and bring change to its production industry while practicing sustainability.

Figure 3: Cotton Textile

4 factors of production

 

Let’s further look into the four factors of production: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Greece Capital, comprising both financial and physical assets, is essential for the modernization and growth of the textile industry. The textile industry in Greece accounts for twenty-three percent of export goods, forty-seven percent of exported industrial products, and twenty-eight percent contributed to Greece’s industrial production (Lucatheodoridis, Greece 2021) The gross value of production accounts for about three-point-five percent of total industrial production in the EU, with apparel exporters in Greece valued at about thirty- five billion. At the EU level, the sector employs more than two million people in around one hundred thousand companies. This makes the Greek textile market a significant part of the country’s economy (fea-vee.eu, 2023). Due to competition Greece has invested significantly in modern machinery and technology to stay competitive in the global market.   

Greece’s focal point is to create high-quality textile production, meaning a rise of good customer services, sustainable manufacturing readiness, short trading routes, good labor practices, and lastly business flexibility. Entrepreneurs have also adopted sustainable and eco-friendly practices, responding to the growing global demand for environmentally responsible products (Sustainable Sourcing Simplified, 2023). Universities & institutions are radically rethinking courses to meet changing student aspirations and values. This commitment to sustainability has not only improved the industry’s image but has also opened new opportunities for exports (fea-vee.eu, 2023). Greece has successfully positioned itself as a competitive player in the global textile market. This industry not only provides employment opportunities and contributes to the country’s economy but also showcases the nation’s commitment to quality, sustainability, and innovation on the global stage.  

Distribution & Consumption

A chemise, a ‘poukamiso’ is a loose long shirt and dress with long square sleeves and is often worn as an undergarment among men and women. Made from linen and cotton, the chemise is known for its flowing silhouette and its minimalistic design (Textile Glossary, 2023). Chemises are worn throughout Europe, since it is a known clothing item that can be found in various European countries. Countries such as France, often used chemises to show cultural ideas of the body, cleanliness, and purity, to make a person Christian (Power, n.d). Our chemises are going to be distributed in stores across European countries such as Spain, Germany, Italy and France. Countries with warmer weather are going to be consumed due to the chemise being lightweight and breathable making it comfortable to wear in a warm climate (Papathoma, 2019). Our chemises from Primeval Hellas, are different from the competition because we deliver chemises with unique patterns and different colors for any occasion.

We plan to distribute our chemises through export in exchange for money in small local shops, along with online selling on Etsy shops, as now more Americans are buying from small businesses. Americans prefer small businesses because they have unique products, offerings and customers have a different experience when shopping (Duley, 2022). Our target market is middle class millennials who are open to trying new things, prefer comfortable clothing, or are often wearing chemises for costumes. Though the chemises were used by men and women, chemises are more often seen in women as it can be used as a nightgown, undergarment and outerwear (Chemises, 2023). In addition to online selling, it is important for our product to arrive to the consumer in a fast and timely manner. UPS is the most reliable carrier as well as sending a package expedited with different price ranges (Sands, 2022). With a reliable carrier, customers are guaranteed their chemises on time with cost effective shipping prices.

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