There are many valuable resources that each country provides that make it unique, Greece is rich in natural resources. Southern Europe has a vast amount of natural resources such as iron which can be found in the northern part of Greece, in the Thrace region (Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, 2018). The Southern European countries consist of Albania, Andorra, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Gibraltar, Greece, Holy See, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, and Yugoslavia, and they all contribute to natural resources throughout the region. Iron ore contributes to Greece’s mining industry due to the country’s geographic location, and countries such as Albania rely on Greece for iron imports. Natural resources found in Greece are lignite, petroleum, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, and hydropower potential (Central Intelligence Agency, 2023). Lignite can be used to produce electricity, making the electricity system offer affordable energy, ultimately promoting economic growth in the country (Lignite in the Greek energy system, 2020).  Natural resources within the region promote the growth of the GDP, creating positive revenue for the Greek economy.

Forest management contributes to the ecosystems, and is crucial in the battle against climate change and global warming. The trees in the forest form canopy function as thermal insulators and buffer microclimatic conditions affecting biological and ecological processes (Haesan et al., 2021). Forest management in South Europe differs by country, but they all focus on the commitment that they have to ensure the health of their forests (Schelhaas et al., 2018). Management and regulations differ by country based on their specific environmental conditions and regulations. Still, all have the same goal of preserving their forest regions and the life that may live within. The Ministry of Environment and Energy controls the conservation and manages biodiversity, forests, and climate change (Papaspyropoulos et al., 2023). Agencies such as The Ministry of Environment addresses environmental concerns, implement policies to preserve forest and come together with local communities to raise awareness to contribute to the well being of the environment.