Greece, located in Southeastern Europe, possesses a population that has changed over time. Greece’s population is estimated to be over 10.4 million, Greece ranks ninety-one in the world by population. Its population density is eighty people per square kilometer, given its land area of 128,900 square kilometers (Greece population, 2023). The demographic makeup of Greece includes people who identify as Turks, Macedonians, Albanians, Aromanians (Vlachs), and Roma (Gypsies). Greek is the primary language spoken in Cyprus, and communities of Greek speakers are found to differing degrees in southern Albania, southern Italy, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Notably, Greek migrating communities contribute uniquely to various regions, including Europe, North and South America, Australia, and South Africa (Greece 2023). Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population in the productive age range (15-64 years), particularly among men (GREECE 2023). This increase is primarily attributed to the large influx of economic immigrants into the country.

The composition of Greece’s population can be viewed in several ways. The makeup of Greece cultural diversity in modern Greece has been shaped by migrations, invasions, imperial conquests, and conflicts of the 20th century (Greece 2023). The country has a notable urbanization rate, with many residents living in major cities like Athens whose population is 664,046, and Thessaloniki which holds 354,290 civilians (Greece population, 2023). When analyzing The Human Development Index (HDI) considers factors like literacy, education, GNI, and life expectancy. In 2020, the average life expectancy at birth in Greece was seventy-seven and a half years for men and eighty-three years for women. Despite this, the participation rate of the age group 0-14 in the total population has decreased, while the participation rate of the age group over 65 has risen. In January 2020, a law was placed on college funding that would be determined by performance criteria, such as internationalization, graduates’ employability, and the ratio of new entrants to graduates. The first funding agreements under these conditions are anticipated from 2022 onward. In Greece, there is a higher proportion of women than men, with a gender ratio of ninety-six men to one hundred women (0.96) (World Factbook, 2023). Despite many challenges of population fluctuations, economic crisis, and high unemployment rates, Greece managed to maintain a high Human Development Index (HDI) in (2012), ranking among the top 30 countries globally (Greece HDI score 2021,2023). In summary, Greece’s population and demographics reflect a complex interplay of historical, economic, and social factors influencing the country’s development and policies.