ENG1151 Fall 2023

Week 2: “History of the News” — Upload your post response by Monday, Sept. 11

Journalism Students:

Welcome back from Labor Day weekend.

Thank you for your creative, exuberant, and informative self-introductions. It’s clear we have a class of diverse talents, experiences, majors, and pet lovers. I expect that we will learn a great deal more about each other and our course topics as the semester progresses.

On the right of the site, you will find a “check your grade” link. You can check on your grades here throughout the semester.

This week I ask that you consider the history of news since it began as well as the important role journalism has played in New York City since our city’s beginnings.

I first ask that you watch this fact-filled video entitled â€śThe Origin of the News”   

As you watch, take notes. Consider the meaning and consequences of terms like “news cycle fatigue” and “censorship” as well as the many reasons people “follow” the news. You might also want to consider the effect of important developments such as the invention of paper, the block press, and movable type as well as the different — and evolving — forms of the media (early newspapers, radio, newsreels, broadcast news, CNN, and today’s social media platforms) as well as new reporting methods.

I also ask that you take a virtual walking tour of one of New York’s famed neighborhoods to learn about local printing history.

In the summers of of 2015 and 2020, I served as Director of the “City of Print” Institute. Owing to the pandemic, the in-person institute of 2015 was transformed to being fully on line. This meant that rather than give walking tours of printing districts in person, I created five virtual tours (of the Seaport, Printing House Square, Union Square, the East Village, and the West Village) to be watched at home.

Choose ONE tour and comment on what interested you most about it.

NYC Seaport Tour

Printing House Square (NYC City Hall/Entrance to Brooklyn Bridge)

Union Square

The East Village

The West Village

Please also take a general look around the full site at City of Print.

One of your options for your final Unit #3 assignment is to write a proposal for an extended journalism project you might like to do in the future. My site was developed using Square-space (with help from Matthew Joseph, a talented City Tech graduate!). The walking tours were taped on “screen-cast-amatic” and uploaded to Vimeo. As our course progresses this semester, think of some of the technology that might help in the production, development, and distribution of your proposed project. I’m happy to advise on this.

Lastly, if you have not yet read Nolan Higdon’s Teaching Media Literacy, please do so.

HOMEWORK (due Monday, Sept. 11 — by the end of the day):

POST a 1 paragraph response to a topic you found particularly interesting in the “Origin of the News” video and, in another paragraph, discuss what you learned (or found interesting) from the virtual walking tour you viewed.  As a substitute for one of these prompts, consider writing a response to Nolan Higdon’s essay “Teaching Media Literacy,” which I assigned last week.



  1. Christopher Willis

    One topic I found particularly interesting in the “Origin of the News” video was Johann Gutenberg’s invention of a movable type-based press system that allowed books, pamphlets, and other materials to be produced quickly. That was essential because the video mentioned that people no longer depended on a town crier or a single page posted in town to learn what was happening locally and could find out about events in other parts of the world (PBS Origins, 2019). I learned that individuals of high authority had a say in what information got printed. It was censorship. During the French Revolution, a punishment for creating defamatory news could be punishable by death.

    Nolan Higdon’s essay “Teaching Media Literacy” has some points that I agree with. For example, he states, “Students are exposed to a range of corporate-driven media like Facebook, Google, and Nickelodeon, that discourages critical thinking ( Higdon, 2022).” I often see “articles” on these social media platforms that have no references and are written by people who work for the company where the story is getting shared. They often are one-sided and have no facts. Therefore, I agree with Higdon that the public needs support, resources, and funding for media literacy education. Critical thinking and media literacy are essential in society because people should know and understand why they agree or disagree with the information, not because Fox News or CNN “duped” them into believing falsehoods to further a political goal ( Higdon, 2022).

  2. Edmond Lee

    I found it interesting how after the printing press was invented there was a lot of censorship from governments to stop certain information getting to the public. They gave multiple examples of different governments who made sure that all printed material was licensed and approved before being distributed. In the video they stated, “King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella required all printed materials to be licensed and approved in advance by government and church authorities” (PBS Origins, 2019). This goes to show that censorship has existed for many years and isn’t just an issue specific to today’s era.

    One thing I found interesting in the Union Square tour was that the Barnes & Noble was designed by William Schickel because I go to this Barnes & Noble a lot and have never heard about the history of the building before. I also found it interesting that the fountain in Stuyvesant Park used to be owned by a farmer who donated it to the public. I have seen this fountain a handful of times and never would’ve guessed that a farmer would have donated it to a park. Lastly, I learned that the flatiron building was designed by a Chicago architect, Daniel Burnham. I’ve seen this building on television shows and always thought that the building was iconic since it was the only triangular building in the area. 

    • QiTing

      Hi Edmond Lee, Very good information and example from the video. Also, I had found out the same interesting about the fountain in Stuyvesant Park is owned by a farmer.

  3. Mamadou

    To start off, I’m actually glad these visual representations were outlined in a way that were concrete and spot-on with the visual aspects that shaped our very own historical analysis. I chose to watch the Printing House Square virtual tour because to truly cherish the foundation and structure of journalism, I should be able to learn from the accounts of the past, one that includes the overall evolution of printing.

    I was fascinated by the discoveries of the printing house organizations that came to form earlier on in our society, which includes printing places I will discuss below. “It is almost impossible to calculate the number of papers that are printed in the City of New York” really hits home for us in modern day when we truly consider the very organizations around the City committed to not only the creation but also the distribution of newspapers. While we live in a world that caters to newspaper publishing, we must also advise one another about the potential bias these papers can attribute… which leads me into the “Origins of the News” video.

    “The Origins Of The News”: I caught a few points from this video but probably the most important part to me was about the radio technology revolutionizing the way Americans received news. Radio technology back then was notorious for the history of news publishing through radios which people listened to, especially during the days of the Great Depression. Although quite thorough, the government became much more involved with the radio space due to the fact that they had the right to license. However due to the advancements of radio information, these publishers would often speak to a large audience group in a more simplistic way as to keep their audience engaged with the topics of discussion, instead of being more complex and to drive those befuddled away. It’s when I truly discovered how frequent the advancements of news-telling actually became prevalent in our society, with more ways of publishing news that was simplified but authentic in ways that not only got people involved but also prioritized the profit these publishers got from it. Radio journalism played a big role in the advancements of worldwide journalism.

    Printing House Square: Carrying back towards the virtual tour, the evolution of printing houses/organizations paved the way for journalism as well. The “New York Mirror” was a news publishing service which began the distribution of news which served as a standalone furnace for steel plate artistry. It’s important to note that one of their famous steel plate art was a visual illustration of Barnam’s American Museum, which saw fifteen-thousands people visiting on a frequent basis. This visualized illustration was most often called exaggerative, however the American Museum was increasingly popular by the days going by. Barnum’s spoken message about the Museum prompted a well received audience reaction towards the vast amount of art pieces showcased. He believed that the Museum should a town of wonder, and those same visitors would be able to walk around and see the art for themselves.

    Shifting gears towards Nolan Higdon’s “Teaching Media Literacy”, it appears as though most of the information that he has presented is truth. His overall stance and message about disinformation is true in itself, that social media outlets can contribute to the cause of disinformation amongst social and/or political topics ranging from the controversies that stem from those discussions. But I wouldn’t agree to coin it as “Fake News”, a critical key phrase Trump has used so fiercely during his presidential run. Let’s call it as it is, misinformation which portrays the general audience into consuming content that otherwise would not be beneficial to the growth of our economic state. In my opinion, I truly do believe misinformation as well as other contributing factors is the very reason why our democracy is systemically divided. In my book that I’m currently writing, I stress the very importance of our students education and concepts of receiving information that is accurate on the accounts of history. By revitalizing that educational perspective, students of my younger generation can truly recognize that their own opinions and perspectives are valued. Higdon sums it up perfectly at the end when he reverberates that a democracy’s strength is derived from a well-informed public.

    • Mamadou

      Just realized I wasn’t logged in but this is me!

      • Mark Noonan

        Very astute and entertaining post, Mamadou!

  4. Kiana Rodnell

    As I watched the “Origin of the News” video, I couldn’t help but be fascinated by the fact that the printing press has impacted the world so much. It was amazing to see how something as seemingly ordinary as a printing press could revolutionize the way that information was disseminated, and ultimately lead to the spread of knowledge, literacy, and ideas throughout the world. One of the things that struck me the most about the video was the incredible ingenuity of Johann Gutenberg’s movable type-based press system. It’s incredible to think that such a simple innovation could have such a profound impact on the world. The ability to print books, pamphlets, and other materials more quickly and efficiently allowed for the dissemination of knowledge on a scale that had never been seen before. The video also highlighted the role that the printing press played in standardizing the vernacular languages of the Western world. It was fascinating to learn how the printing press helped to create a shared language and culture across different regions, ultimately leading to a greater sense of unity and identity among the people of Europe.

    While exploring Union Square, I uncovered some truly fascinating facts. It was opened to the public in 1839 with the aim of bringing people together, hence the name Union Square, located at the intersection of Broadway and Fourth Avenue in New York City. Interestingly, the first-ever Labor Day parade took place there. Moreover, during my walk, I stumbled upon some intriguing information about the Barnes & Noble store that I frequently visit. I was pleasantly surprised to learn that it was designed by William Schickel. Additionally, I came across an uplifting story about the charming fountain in Stuyvesant Park. It was generously donated to the public by a farmer, which was truly heartwarming to discover.

  5. thierry

    One thing that actually question myself is why the news are important in daily life ? First i will say that i really thought back them nee paper was create in the 19th century and actually watching this video show the whole story about when and who create the newspaper and how the newspaper has been improved by the years and also on how humanity have create a machine to make life easier to print newspaper and what should be included meaning the size and  when it should be published .Over the course of its long and complex history, the newspaper has undergone many transformations from going to writing until 1880 photograph began to appear in newspapers where it became more interesting to describe whatever our ancestors was saying in their writing this what make a picture worth a thousands words.Union square is located on union of broadway and 4th ave and know as the people park 

    Henry Kirks brown has sculpted most of the monumental of union square 

    Union square park was the location where the first labor day parade happened on September 16, 1882 but from the picture i can see date is written as the European way where the month came before the days

    In this video it shows the most popular places in union square and who created it and who owned a property such as George W Bellow

    About Nolan Higdon essay” teaching Media Literacy 

    The term fake news to me came from some resources but that doesn’t have some back up to justify what is happening And mostly i agree with him some people are trying to do politics Like in their campaign they give the people hope there will be change and nothing will really happen or barely happen

  6. mareefa

    As explained in “Origin of the News,” the amazing history of how news has spread over time is very interesting. It’s a big deal that the press shapes nations, especially the US, where the idea of a “free press” has had a big impact on the way the country is and what it stands for. People talk about the Stamp Act protests and the Constitution’s promise of free speech rights to show how important the press is in building democratic societies.For me, the most interesting thing is how important news has been in shaping countries, from changing public opinion to upsetting the status quo. This look at the history of news gives us useful information about how the way we get information has changed along with changes in society and technology, which affects how we understand news and its role in modern culture.

    Nolan Higdon makes a strong case in his article for why they should teach media literacy to fight the problems that fake news and misinformation cause. He’s right when he says that the type of filtering suggested by the Disinformation Governance Board doesn’t work and might even make things worse. In today’s world full of information, it’s important that he stresses teaching students how to evaluate and analyze sources, tell the difference between fact and opinion, and question the process of creation. To sum up, Higdon’s call for critical media literacy education is both necessary and a good idea because it would give people the skills they need to navigate the complicated media environment of today. 

    Part of the NYC Seaport Tour that I found interesting was how the addresses and places where writers and printers like Nathaniel Hawthorne, Washington Irving, and Herman Melville lived and worked were very important to their careers. Including information about William Bradford’s print shop and other early printing and publishing methods shows how important printed materials were in spreading information and shaping public speech during those times.

  7. Christine

    In the video “Origin of the News,” I found it interesting how the news is significant in people’s daily lives. We follow the news to stay informed of the current time period, for survival, or even to stay entertained as it stated in the beginning of the video. It is shocking that news has been around since centuries ago. Additionally, I found it interesting of Johann Gutenberg’s invention. Johann Gutenberg’s invention was a type-based press system that allowed books, papers or journal’s to be produced efficiently and quickly. With Johann Gutenberg’s invention, people can easily know what’s happening around the world that they live in instead of people depending on a one page post in town. Therefore, the press-baed system made people’s daily lives easier by staying alerted on what is happening in the world around them.

    After viewing the NYC seaport virtual tour, I found it most interesting that New York was a walking city at a time when the separation of home space and work space for merchants has started. For instance, in the video it shows how Allan Melvill’s home and his business address was a 37 minute walk. I was also interested that R Hoe made an inking iron press. The press was built at 31 Gold St. The iron press supported many businesses along the east river. Finally, the Brooklyn museum also impressed me because it showed off the iron work at the time period as well as the artifacts.

  8. Odalis Cruz

    A few things that stand out to me in the video “Orgien of the News” was how before everyone would try everything to deliver news to one another, whether it was by smoke or announcing it through one another. But back then before newspapers news was delivered to one another verbally. The newspaper print later on became very popular and countries like France, Germany, and more each had their type of newspaper resource. Many new methods of printing started to evolve and try and deliver that news to places all over the world. I find it quite crazy and interesting to watch the news evolve from what it was before to what it is now. Today we get our news on social media and through the internet not that many people actually go and get printed newspapers anymore. Some things I learned about the virtual tour I took on Union Square I never noticed that one of the statues was dedicated to George Washington and that America’s first Labor Day parade took place in Union Square. I learned that many historical events went down right there or near Union Square. I find it so crazy how I have been to Union Square a few times but I have never actually paid attention to all the details around it and wondered what historical events took place there. The fact that we have walked on historical events and there are probably more places I have been to that have such important events that I probably don’t even know of I find that quite fascinating and makes us want to learn more. 

    • QiTing

      Hi Odalis Cruz. Yes, I have the similar experience with you about I don’t pay attention about the details about Union Square till I watched the video.

  9. Cui Zhang

    As I was watching the video, The Origin of the News”, This video highlighted many important topics. The topic I was fascinated by was the printing press. In the video, they mentioned something about how the Romans weren’t actually the ones who invented paper in fact paper was created during the Chinese Han dynasty back in 105 CE. Before watching this video, I’ve always thought that the idea of paper was invented somewhere other than mother China. The video said, that during the Tan dynasty (618 CE) tipao known as a newspaper back in the day was quickly distributed everywhere to upperclassmen. Soon after that, quickly came the invention of block printing. With this powerful invention, the Chinese were able to create multiple copies of the tipaos. After that invention, a man back in the 11th century named Pi Sheng decided to it to another step by developing a way to make moveable printouts. I now have a better understanding of the origins of paper. 

    As I was reading Nolan Higdon, there were several points that I found interesting. He mentions many important key facts due to the issue involving “fake news”. The article said, “Censorship often backfires, making the content in question more desirable, a phenomena known as the Streisand Effect” (Higdon 2022). It’s crucial to know the world we humans live in right now always revolves around fake news. People often believe in the things they read but never the things they actually see in person. Another important key factor the article mentioned was, “Fake news—which I define as any false or misleading information introduced as fact-based news—is nothing new” (Higdon 2022). This can certainly become a major issue, especially with today’s technology. 

    The virtual tour I decided to go to is the “Virtual Tour of Printing House”. This video sparked my interest the most because I was fascinated. Printing Square House was invented back in 1862 and is located in New York. They have various incredible works such as moral and religious works, novels, sports, farmers, illustration, anti-slavery, and more. One thing I found interesting was when the video mentioned something about not knowing how many papers have been printed in New York. This had me thinking that New York probably has done many printing over the past decade and it’s amazing. Another thing that sparked my interest was the idea of humor. Apparently at 116 Nassau Street, there was a weekly Vanity fair published during 1859 – 1863 by some guy named Louis. Overall, this video was overwhelming and I got to learn many new information based on the topic of printing.  

  10. Elan Gan

    In the video, “The Origin of the News”, they really took a deep dive into the history of the news and how everything was being spread out to the public like it is now. There were a lot of key moments that really grabbed my attention but one specific section that really grabbed my attention was the beginning of how news was being spread out and the transition from still not being able to spread the population of the news to newspapers. In the beginning, it all started off with speakers ascending to the platform at the Roman forum to present a political edict. This was a good start to this whole project but it wasn’t enough as the population that heard this news was very limited. As time went on a German goldsmith used to skills and was able to create a movable type-based press system. From there different people made breakthroughs and found ways to develop this project and from there the newspaper’s laws were created. Not following these rules would result in really serious consequences and penalties.

    I also watched the Union Square Tour. This video was very focused on the history of this location and how it developed. When years went by the government decided to reconstruct Union Square and the people that helped with this project were the same people that built the famous Central Park. The part of the video that really stood out to me was as everyone may heard of already, the Flatiron Building. This building attracted many tourists to come and observe this unique building. I personally have visited Union Square many times and the environment of the park is very pleasant to be around. There are a lot of activities you can do such as hiking, walking eating, or even relaxing looking at the green colors around you.

  11. Coumba Diallo

    When watching “The Origin Of the News” one topic that stood out to me was the revolution of technology that helped people watch news. The first radio news was broadcast on August 31, 1920 by station 8MK. Going from newspaper news to radio news people then had to find a way to attract listeners through radio. Which stood out to me because when hearing news on radio they portray their voice a certain way that can catch listeners attention. Which is way different from people reading for themselves and more entertaining. They even made news on radio more structured and simpler where listeners wouldn’t get confused on the certain news. This then led to an even bigger revolution called newsreel.

    One thing that I found interesting in the Union Square virtual tour was the Labor Day parade. When I think of the Labor Day parade I think of eastern parkway caribbean parade. In the 1880s union square park became a vocal point for labor activism. Hearing about this makes me think about the current protest that people now do at Union Square park. Like last summer they had a abortion rights protest in Union Square. Knowing that history takes place there makes it even more interesting.

    • Mark Noonan

      Excellent points Coumba. I did not know about the abortion rights protest you mention. Thanks for pointing this out.

  12. Sphear Forde

    In “The Origin of the News” Danielle Bainbridge discusses the history of news and how we ended up in today’s never ending news cycle fatigue. News is defined as new information about a subject of some public interest that is shared with some portion of the public. Johann Gutenberg developed a letter press that made it possible to mass produce books, pamphlets, and other materials. This development helped improve and promote literacy. It also contributed to the “News Cycle Fatigue”. Bainbridge defines “News Cycle Fatigue” as nonstop exposure to news that causes compassion fatigue or indifference. The “News Cycle Fatigue” is particularly interesting because today, due to the culture, it is almost impossible to avoid it. News is everywhere and can be produced without the authorities verifying whether the information is true.

    From the virtual Union Square video, I learned about the history of Union Square Park.  Union Square was originally oval shaped and gained civic prominent due to being the site of mass political rallies during the civil war. It is also where the first Labor Day parade took place. Union Square is particularly interesting because it has remained the meeting point for political rallies, festivals, parades, protests, and meetups. A lot of hot spots similar to union square no longer exist or have seen a decline in visitors.

    In “Teaching Media Literacy”, Nolan Higdon discusses the importance of teaching media literacy. He argues that the public needs support and resources for a critical media literacy education; they do not need the Disinformation Governance Board. I agree with Higdon’s, the public does not need a disinformation governance board. A disinformation governance board would only make citizens more skeptical of the government and the information being censored.  Teaching media literacy is the best way to combat fake information. Lack of media literacy increases the spread of fake news.

  13. Gabriel

    Something I found interesting in “The Origin of the News” was how even before public media being improved with technology such as printing presses and moveable type to publish mass amounts of news coverage, there’d be a local town crier who was responsible for spreading news around. This is interesting because rather than having something that can inform you in your hand within seconds, you would need to rely on an actual person to deliver news for you with different factors included, such as whether if you’ll even receive the news for the day and when you would be notified.

    One thing I learned from the Virtual Union Square tour was that this park was also used for gatherings or protests formed by unions, which are groups of workers demanding for better working conditions. This is how the park originally received its name of Union Square due to the amounts of workers gathering in protests to fight for their working conditions.

  14. Richard Morales

    In the video of the “The Origin of the News” the thing that interested the most was that the news was a big part of history for hundreds of years ago from several different places around the world but what caught my attention the most here was that in the 15th century, Johannes Gutenberg developed his own version of a movable type-based press system, making it possible to mass-produce books and pamphlets. This led to the birth of newspapers, which had to be available to a sizeable portion of the public, be published regularly and frequently, contain multiple stories in each issue, and have a consistent and recognizable title or format.

    The one tour video that interested me the most was the, “East Village Virtual Tour” the thing that most intrigued me about it was that, after watching the video, I learned something about which I had no idea that it was so significant: at the beginning of the 1950s, the East Village in particular was a source of home-grown periodicals, including newspapers published weekly, xeroxing, semi-gloss monthly’s, small presses, art spaces, and music venues, many of which are now legendary. 

    • Mark Noonan

      Great points Richard. I’m glad you enjoyed the tour of the East Village so much.

  15. Aaron Gan

    I think the most interesting topic to me was the invention of the printing press. The printing press had a significant influence on the spreading of knowledge and information as well as the development of society. Johannes Gutenberg, a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who lived in the 15th century, is frequently credited with creating this ground-breaking invention. Books and other written materials were carefully copied by hand before the printing press was created, mostly by scribes in monasteries. A select few people had access to information because of how difficult and expensive this labor-intensive procedure made books and records. It was clear that a more effective and scalable approach of text reproduction was required. When Johannes Gutenberg combined numerous pre-existing technologies to create the first movable-type printing machine in the middle of the 15th century, he made a significant technological advance. In conclusion, the development of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the middle of the 15th century fundamentally altered how knowledge was created, shared, and used. It changed society, culture, and the manner that knowledge was shared, paving the way for the current era of communication and information. The Gutenberg press is still a representation of human creativity and the ability of invention to change the course of history.

    What caught my eye was the Union Square Park article. In the center of the Manhattan borough of New York City, Union Square Park has a long and illustrious history that dates back to the 19th century. This 2.6-acre public area was first built in 1830 and was formerly named as Union Place. It functioned as a hub for civic gatherings and political demonstrations.

    The equestrian statue of George Washington, created by Henry Kirke Brown in 1856, is one of the park’s most recognizable attractions. This statue honors the first president of the country and acts as a notable feature in the park.

    Union Square Park had a number of improvements to improve both its appearance and operation over the 20th century. Now that it has beautiful green areas, walking trails, and a playground, it is a much-loved leisure spot for both locals and guests. Farmers’ markets, art exhibits, and live concerts continue to take place often at Union Square Park, which is a thriving center for cultural activities. It is regarded as an important location in New York City’s landscape because of its historical significance and continued function as a hub for social and political dialogue, which embodies the city’s rich and varied legacy.

    • Mark Noonan

      Very thorough and thoughtful (and well-written) response, Aaron.

  16. kevin halley

    In this week’s post “History of the News” we watched a short video, “The Origin of the News”. This video discussed the creation of the use of press throughout the centuries. It focused on various timelines of the first few precursors of the Newspaper, along with the backlash it received. According to the video,sharing information or sharing News, was a familiar concept that dates back to the Stone Age. During this time period, cavemen would share information through a variety of ways. One common way Cavemen told stories was by grunting, signaling and even drawing pictures. Similar to today’s society, the Newspaper is used to share information with people via text or pictures. Years later when the human language evolved, so did the way we communicate. In the video, the earliest used or written reports was used by Julius Caesar. At the time of his reign he ordered that the daily records of senate proceedings be posted in public. These proceedings were known as the Acta Diurna. As much as the Newspaper was a successful development in human history. It quickly became a problem to society as well. This was one interesting part I found in the video. That with the rise of a new invention that could benefit the world, sparked a new kind of censorship. Monarchs started to suppress the kind of news that could be reported to the public. During the French Revolution in the 16th century, any defamatory pamphlet published, was punishable by death. The original idea of the News began to be used as a tool to share information and was limited to the type of information reported. If the information printed went against the government’s narrative then it was censored as a way of protecting the nation’s image. Public safety was less of a concern than political agendas.

    In the next portion of the homework assignment, we were assigned to pick a virtual tour. The tour that I chose was of Union Square park, also known as the people’s park. The first thing that I found interesting was the quote given in the beginning of the video by Henri Lefebvre, a French philosopher. In his book The Production of Space, he says that “public space is being permeated with social relations; it is not only supported by social relations, but it is also producing and producing by social relations”. Lefebvre’s quotes explain that the geographical locations are based on the daily activities of the people who use the space, adopting them to their own needs. Meaning that everything that was ever built was intentionally placed in a specific spot.

    This quote is important to the tour of the Union square because it gives insight on the design and structure of the park. Within the park there is a statue of Abraham Lincoln sculptures by Henry Kirke Brown. This statue brings significance to those deeply divided by the civil war/casualties throughout the city and in the press. Here people came together during the placement of the statue and commemorated the sacrifices made. Named as the People’s Park, this was one of many historic figures, placed in the park as another way to bring the city together.

    • Mark Noonan

      Excellent commentary Kevin. I’m very impressed with your discussion of French philosopher Henry Lefebvre .

  17. Kobe

    Something that I found interesting in the “origin of the news” video is how as the years go on technology seem to develop. What I mean by this is that technology helped develop the distribution of news papers to another level where it created a faster process.Furthermore, how Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer created a printing press that created 1100 impressions an hour. Then later on Richard Hoe created his printing press which later was able to print millions. Even Ottmar Mergenthaler created a type word on a keyboard.

    The virtual walking tour I viewed was Union Square Tour. What I learned in this tour is how Teddy Roosevelt the first media president to promote his policies. Not only that but I also learn that the park was a place where political rally’s took place. In the tour I also learned about the history of buildings in the area.

    After reading “Teaching Media Literacy” it makes me wonder is there any possible way that we can stop false information from being put out to the world. Teaching media literacy could have an affect on false information but wont put it to a complete stop due to the fact that people now in days have access to technology and there are various news reports and apps where people can put out false information. But with the help of teaching media literacy it can help people understand and reflect of when things aren’t original.

    • Mark Noonan

      Excellent points Kobe. I especially liked your comment on the continuos evolution of media technology. Where will we be tomorrow?

  18. Riley Gatto

    I found the video “When did the News Start?” very informative–I had no idea about the evolution of the process of reporting and what separated a good and bad reporter. When I think of news, I think of written word (whether it’s printed or online). I loved how this video touched on radio news and its history. Learning that photos only began to be printed in newspapers in the 1880’s was also a huge shock to me. I can’t picture a newspaper or magazine without photographs!

    The walking tour I chose was the Union Square tour. When I first moved to NYC 6 years ago, I lived on 14th St and 2nd Ave–Union Square was my home. I was intrigued to learn about Emma Goldman’s speech in Union Square in 1916. The picture included is such a jarring contrast of the Union Square I lived in just recently. Though I’ve attended speeches, protests, rallies, and celebrations in Union Square myself, I reflect on them differently now knowing that people were doing the same even a century ago.

    • Mark Noonan

      Very interesting and fun commentary Riley.

  19. Efaz Kareeb

    As Watching the “Origin of the News” video one thing interesting is the printing press Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in the 15th century. It enabled the mass manufacturing of newspapers and other printed products, making news more widely available. The printing press had a significant influence on the diffusion of knowledge and information. It increased the availability, affordability, and accessibility of books and printed materials to a wider audience. This breakthrough is often regarded as a driving force behind the Renaissance and the diffusion of knowledge throughout the Enlightenment. Moving metal type was employed in printing presses, allowing individual letters and characters to be manipulated and reused to create multiple texts. This breakthrough made printing far more efficient than the previous practice of hand-copying texts.

    In “Teaching Media Literacy” by Nolan Higdon there are some points I can agree with and one of the points is, “The decentralized nature of the U.S. education system has prevented Americans from making robust media literacy education available to students, as many other nations have done. Programs like the University of Southern California’s Critical Media Project, Mass Media Literacy, and Project Censored have attempted to fill this gap, but what’s truly needed is a more robust funding structure. And while the post-2016 moral panic over fake news did see many states propose legislation to expand media literacy in K-12 schools, the bills often lacked a mechanism to require it”.I can agree because Due to the decentralized character of the school system, offering comprehensive media literacy instruction in the United States presents obstacles. It also analyzes initiatives to bridge this gap via various programs and legislative measures, highlighting the importance of higher financing and more effective procedures for integrating media literacy into the curriculum.

  20. Mark Noonan

    Very keen observations, Efaz.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *