Marco Mai 750-Word Expanded Definition of Cloud

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to interpret the technical term and see how it’s being applied in different situations. There were many terms, but I decided on cloud due to its complexity depending on how it’s used. In today’s world, cloud is mainly used in the technology world rather the clouds in the sky but it can also be talking about cloud computing in the technology world.

Definitions

According to Oxford English Dictionary (OED) “A visible mass of condensed watery vapour floating in the air at some considerable height above the general surface of the ground.” (OED, 2019) In this definition, it shows how evaporated water shows some visible mass after reaching a certain altitude which is simply called cloud. Besides the OED, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) states “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources…”. (Mell, Grance, 2011) This translates cloud to how it uses remote servers that’s hosts computing resources that users can access without actually having it store locally. According to Ahmed, “Cloud computing is a service that is internet based and that gives the facility of sharing computer resources along with other devices on user demand.” (Ahmed, 2019) As it states it is having internet access to off site shared resources or device that users can use.

Context

As time has passed, cloud is not only used for disputing the weather, it is also used in the technology world. It has been widely used in cloud computing to save time and space from downloading necessary files. According to Fox, “Privately owned cloud computers-large data centers filled with computers that mainly run their company’s software”. (Fox, 2011,p.406) Cloud is being described as a service that can be used by accessing software or resources that’s being hosted at data centers. Users would access these resources without needing their own expensive infrastructure. In consonance to Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), “Our findings may ultimately led to improvements in the presentation of thunderstorms cloud life cycle in climate model and therefore increase the trust in projection of future climates.” In this context, it shows how cloud contribute to different weather in our climate especially for thunderstorm and they may just be able to use their finding to better predict future climates.

Working Definition

Based on all the definition above, cloud is associate to my field of study because many tools require expensive high end equipment that not everyone can afford nor have space to storage. Also, when it does breaks down or stops working it’ll require repair that won’t be cheap. As an alternative, there are businesses out there that specialized in providing support and maintenance. So, cloud is a service that provides computer resources and hardware to users over the internet instead of actually having it locally on your computer. It’s not realistic where user can have a quantum computer to access one. However, with cloud computing obtaining access to one makes it possible without breaking the bank. In fact, IBM provide access to their quantum computer through the cloud without installing anything for free!  In my field of study of network security, cloud services are susceptible to attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS), system vulnerabilities even with the use of encryption, security policies and most of all human negligence. Even so, since users are accessing these resources over the internet, the user and organization can both keep their private information from being stored on network servers. With cloud computing growing so fast more and more people are using these services instead of the traditional download and install to run some sort of applications.

References

“cloud, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/34689. Accessed 18 October 2019.

Fox, A. (2011). Cloud Computing–What’s in It for Me as a Scientist? Science331(6016), 406–407. https://doi-org.citytech.cuny.edu/10.1126/science.1198981

Mell, Peter, and Tim Grance. “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing.” CSRC, 28 Sept. 2011, csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final.

Ahmed, I. (2019). A brief review: security issues in cloud computing and their solutions. Telkomnika17(6), 2812–2817. https://doi-org.citytech.cuny.edu/10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v17i6.12490

Hector Dextre’s 750- Word Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to discuss the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and how it is applied in facial recognition and voice recognition areas. Also, the benefits and risks that represent the use of these technologies in terms of privacy and liberty.

Definitions

According to Oxford English Dictionary, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is “the capacity of computers or other machines to exhibit or simulate intelligent behaviour” (“Artificial Intelligence”, 2019) . The development is precise at the beginning because it gives me a partial idea of what it is, but the lack of expansion is evident at the end since no more details are provided. The most effective way to find the definition of AI is to observe in an encyclopedia. According to Henderson, Artificial Intelligence is defined as follows “ The development of the modern digital computer following World War II led naturally to the consideration of the ultimate capabilities of what were soon dubbed ”thinking machines” or  ”giant brains.” The ability to perform calculations flawlessly and at superhuman speeds led some observers to believe that it was only a matter of time before the intelligence of computers would surpass human levels”. (Henderson, 2009, p. 26) Deducing and combining “thinking machines”, “giant brains” and “perform calculations”, Artificial Intelligence is the proficiency of intelligent computer programs to carry out tasks cleanly. There is a difference between the first and the second definition since the second one is clearer and more expanded.

Context

One of the application areas in Artificial Intelligence is the facial recognition and voice recognition. According to Kugler, facial recognition is “the ability of computer vision systems to identify specific human faces in photos and video. This technology can identify and log facial details of individuals by using cloud infrastructure to process images from a computer, smartphone or camera.” and voice recognition is “the ability of natural language processing (NLP) software to “understand” human language”. (Kugler, 2019, p. 17-18). Facial recognition allows law authorities to identify criminals in a quick manner. China and Russia, on the other hand, go further than that. Chinese government would manage a facial recognition database of all its citizens to allow identifying them. Russian government uses facial recognition in the massive protests to identify those citizens who are against of Putin’s regime. In contrast, social networks such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat use facial recognition to tag users’ friends, either in photos or messages. Examples of voice recognition are the most famous systems called Siri and Alexa. They work in three steps: hears individual’s voice, processes what he/she says and issues a response. Amazon and Google have sold millions of these voice assistant machines. Nevertheless, facial and voice recognition could represent a headache for individuals since their privacy and free expression would be affected. No problem at all when big technologies companies, law officials and governments use citizens’ facial data for checking theft identity and fraud; however, there is an issue when they used them for observing, checking, or keeping a continuous record of individuals’ actions. On the other hand, when voice recognition machines are hearing individuals’ voices and tracking them down permanently, individuals’ privacy might be compromised as well. However, technologies companies have refused those accusations alleging that their devices always listen but do not record.

Working Definition

According to the major I am pursuing for; Artificial Intelligence would be defined as the group of machines that have the capacity to carry out tasks in a smart way or is the intelligence performing non-natural by using a set of instructions or steps. Facial recognition would be defined as the group of computers highly sophisticated to reveal individuals’ identity by their faces and voice recognition would be defined as the group od devices that assist users by hearing their voices.

References

Artificial Intelligence, n. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/271625.

Henderson, H. (2009) Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. (Rev. ed., Facts on File science library). New York: Facts On File. 26-27

Kugler, L. (2019). Being Recognized Everywhere: How facial and voice recognition are reshaping society. Communications of the ACM, 62(2), 17-19.

Devina Budhan’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Malware

Introduction

The reason I am writing this memo is to inform you about a word that is commonly used in my field of study in computer information systems. The word I have chosen to explain more on is malware. By looking up different definitions and examples of the word and how it’s used from articles and the web I will show how it’s changed over the years or if it has changed at all.

Definitions

Malware is actually the combination of “malicious” and “software/hardware” and originates from the English language. According to the Oxford English Directory (OED), malware is defined as “programs written with the intent of being disruptive or damaging to (the user of) a computer or other electronic devices; viruses, worms, spyware, etc., collectively” (OED, 2019). In other words, OED describes malware a type of program that is created to attack or harm a user’s computer or any electronic device. In addition to the OED’s definition, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), describes malware as “Software or firmware intended to perform an unauthorized process that will have adverse impact on the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an information system.” (NIST, 2019). This describes malware as a software that was initially made to deny access to particular functions and resources of a computer system affecting the confidentiality of the information, the validity of the information contained in the system and the availability of the information to be used meaning the data can be walled from being used. A third definition from “Randed”, malware is defined as “Any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, and gain access to private computer or mobile operations”, this explains malwares specific purpose of infiltrating information and denying access to computer systems.

From the many definitions I was able to gather, malware has not changed much in terms of what it is. However, OED’s definition describes malware as what it is and how it affects a user and lists different threats. The threats today for malware are mostly tied to trojans, ransomware and keyloggers. These malwares are used for gathering data or forcing entry and locking the user out of their data. In order for the user to unlock their files they have to pay the ransom for a chance to maybe unlock the files. Trojans give the hacker access to the system. Due to all these unique threats a single term was used to encompass the general meaning of software that has an intent to cause malicious damage. Originally the term that encompassed all of them was virus but since a lot of the malicious attacks today are focused only on one computer it could no longer be classified as a virus and instead was labeled under malware.

Context

“However, with the past of the years the objective change and currently the main objective is to enter in another system in order to steal any kind of information, change parameters inside, being redirected to a website with more malware… The idea is to create chaos in the system that they are enter to” (Randed, 2019). The word in this sentence is described by the actions of malware to enter another system and stealing that type of information. The article explains the general idea and use of malware such as creating chaos by causing user to panic should they be locked out of their system or redirecting the users to another site that is impersonating another site to install more malware that can reach deeper into the system. Thieves that use computers are called cyber criminals and their main type of attack is using malwares on unsuspecting users and stealing data such as username, passwords, bank information and personal information that can be used to steal the user’s identity. “Malware typically employs as many as 10 evasion techniques per sample, which indicates both that malware analysis is a great concern of malware authors and that they are aware of the efforts taken to develop effective malware detection methods” (Or-Meir et al., 2019). This goes to show that malware is a high stakes game of cat and mouse. Where the cyber criminals know their exploits are being discovered and traced back so the need to evolve and stay ahead. This in turn causes cyber security experts to think of new ways of detecting the malicious program. One such way is to have a malware scanner that is based on the behavioral pattern of malware instead of signature based. Signature based malware prevention is when a copy of the malware code is kept and compared to the new malware being scanned. If they are similar it is a hit and that malware will be quarantined and removed. The new type of anti-malware becoming more prominent is a type that monitors the activity of all programs and should any of them be recording data or sending them in suspicious ways they will trigger an alarm. As stated in the quote, cyber security experts are increasing efforts to finding new ways to detect malware even before new ones are created. “The number of malware alterations for mobile devices created for phishing activities, information theft related to bank cards and for money theft from bank accounts increased almost 20 times” (Iovan et. al, pg. 267). Malware in this context is used as a “backdoor” to infiltrate the mobile device to obtain personal information such as bank information, social security, etc. This is similar to the definition that NIST provided where it affects the integrity, confidentiality and availability of information.

Working Definition

Malware relates to my field of study because as an IT operation major, it is important to learn about attacks to prevent data breaches. It is important to study malware due to the fact that in IT operations not only is the data of the company being managed but also the personal information of all employees is stored there. By studying malware, we will be able to increase security and prevent data and identity theft of everyday user thus creating a safer environment for all. Based upon the examples and definitions found from various sources such as OED, articles and websites malware means a program or software created to exploit a user’s computer or electronic device for personal and financial information.

References

Iovan, Ş., & Marge, R. (2018). Malware for Mobile Devices and Their Security. Fiability & Durability / Fiabilitate Si Durabilitate, (1), 267–272.

malware, n. (2019). Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/267413.

Malware, what do you need to know. From where it comes from to types of it. (2019, January 16). Retrieved from https://randed.com/malware-what-do-you-need-to-know-from-where-it-comes-from-to-types-of-it/?lang=en.

Malware. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/malware.

Or-Meir, O., Nissim, N., Elovici, Y., & Rokach, L. (2019). Dynamic Malware Analysis in the Modern Era–A State of the Art Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 52(5), 1–48.

Jeremy Corona’s Expanded Definition of Cryptography

Jeremy Corona’s  Expanded Definition of Cryptography

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Jeremy Corona

DATE: 10/15/2019

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Cryptography

Introduction

Definitions of words over the course of time can change. Depending on their time period the word can mean one thing, and in the next 10 years it’s meaning could be completely different. In all depends on the context in how the word is used and what is being used to describe. Take a  look at the word cryptography for instance. In the earlier days it means to write in secret writing, now in the digital age cryptography is similar to encryption. We will dive a into the etymology of the word  and see how it is used in different contexts. We take examples from different works of literature ranging from blogs to academic journals.

Definitions

According to Etymonline.com, the word cryptography comes from the Greek words kryptos which means hidden, and the word graphia which means writing or recording. Their definition of the word cryptography is “art of the writing in secret characters” (Etymonline.com, 2019). This holds true to the origin of the words. This definition is an older meaning of the word. Back in the earlier days people were handwriting letters in secret letters or codes which was a form of cryptography.

Cryptography can also be used as a kind of technology. “Cryptography is the process of changing data so that they are not readable “(Rashad et al, pg. 3681, 2019). This definition is given by an academic research paper and different from Etymonline. Instead of writing in secret codes, we are translating data that is legible by an ordinary person and changing it so that it can’t be. This definition is a more technical and is referring to data as opposed to writing. However, the core definition remains the same. At the core of cryptography, we are gathering recorded information and making it difficult to interpret.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives the following definition for Cryptography: “The art or practice of writing in code or cipher; the science of encryption; the branch of cryptology concerned with this (cf. cryptanalysis n.). More generally: the study of codes and ciphers; cryptology.” (Cryptography, 2019). This definition introduces another aspect of cryptography which is encryption. From a technical perspective encryption is a part of cryptography. When something is encrypted the purpose is to prevent unauthorized access to information. The other meanings of cryptography reflect that as well. We are trying to protect or hide information from others who are not meant to see it.

Context

Keeping those definitions in mind we can take a look at some of the contexts in how the word cryptography is used. Let’s take at look at its use in a magazine article on qauntamagazine.org. “Now a set of computer scientist has taken a major step toward this goal with the release of EverCrypt, a set of digital cryptography tools.” The author is using the word as a type of technologic tool in the digital age. The entire article is about new un-hackable tools created by computer scientist and mathematicians.  In this context cryptography is being used as a way to protect data from being accessed by hackers with malicious intent.

In blog post by Mathew Green on his website blog.cryptohtaphyengineering.com, we can see similar usage of the word. This blog post is about Apple and their new tracking technology implemented in their app “Find My”. The quote from the post: “The good news is that Apple claims that their system actually does provide strong privacy, and that it accomplishes this using clever cryptography”. Again, we see cryptography being used in the context of protecting some kind of information. In this case Apple is utilizing unique cryptic codes to protect the data of their users from getting into the wrong hands. Cryptographic algorithms are developed in order to make data private.

According to Soltane, Messikh, and Zaoui (2018), “Its deep questions with practical significance; that Cryptography, which allows us to maintain secrecy in messages containing sensitive information, is based on requiring anyone other than an authorized person to perform a very difficult computation in order to steal the information.” Here we see the same pattern where cryptography is being defines as keeping information secret. The purpose of cryptography is to make it extremely difficult for unauthorized personnel to access data. The article combines cryptography with biometrics. In this example we are not creating cipher or code for cryptography. We are instead using our own biological data to act as a cipher or cryptography. We utilize the use of our fingerprints or facial features in order to prevent the unauthorized access to our private information.

Working Definition

Based on these definitions and contexts discussed. We can conclude that core definition of the word cryptography is based on security of recorded information. My working definition of the word cryptography is, the practical application of concealing information from unauthorized personnel. This definition works perfectly for the field of Network Security. A network security analyst’s duty is to protect an organizations internal network from data breaches and leaks. They must also be able to ensure that any digital communication outside of the organization’s network is encrypted and concealed only to be seen by the intended personnel. In Information Technology, this is an aspect of the field that is highly emphasized. From big organizations to individuals with smartphones, we want to be able to keep some information private. Using cryptography tools allows us to accomplish security and peace of mind.

References

Soltane, M., Messikh, L., Zaoui, A.  (2018), A review regarding the biometrics cryptography challenging design and strategies.  Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience. 8(4), 41-65.

Rasras, R.J., Alqadi, Z.A., Sara, M.R.A. (2019). A methodology based on steganography and cryptography to protect highly secure messges. Engineering, Technoogly & Applied Science Research. 9(1), 3681-3684.

Green M. (2019). How does Apple (privately) find your offline devices. Retrieved from https:// https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/

Hartnett K. (2019). Cryptography that can’t be hacked. Retrieved from https:// https://www.quantamagazine.org/how-the-evercrypt-library-creates-hacker-proof-cryptography-20190402/

Cryptography, n. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://oed-com /view/Entry/45374?redirectedFrom=cryptography#eid

Cryptography, n. (2019). In Etymonline.com. Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/cryptography#etymonline_v_29120

Masum Hossain 750-Word Expanded Expanded Definition of Database.

TO : Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM Masum Hossain

DATE10/15/19

SUBJECT: Expanded Expanded Definition of Database.

Introduction

The term paper is going to define and evaluate the technical term database. Database are the foundation of computer application for business. The benefit of database includes the ability to data independence, efficient data access, data integrity, data security etc. This paper is going to collect information by using several online article and journal, few academic book and online magazine. Next I am going to add and evaluate some quote and definition from my research source, which is interconnected to my technical term and my career pathway. My chosen technical term is database.   

Definition

A database is a data structure that stores organized information. Most databases contain multiple tables, which may each include several different fields. For example, a company database may include tables for products, employees, and financial records. Each of these tables would have different fields that are relevant to the information stored in the table. Early databases were relatively old fashion  which means they were limited to simple rows and columns, like a spreadsheet. However, today’s relational databases allow users to access, update, and search information based on the relationship of data stored in different tables. Relational databases can also run queries that involve multiple databases. While early databases could only store text or numeric data, modern databases also let users store other data types such as sound clips, pictures, and videos. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), database (1) as it is, “A structured set of data held in computer storage and typically accessed or manipulated by means of specialized software.” (Database 2019) this definition Data, in a database, is rarely useful in its raw form. For example, in a banking application, data is the whole collection of bank account numbers; bank customers’ names, addresses, and ages; bank transactions and so on.

According to the Merriam-Webster (MW), database (2) “a usually large collection of data organized especially for rapid search and retrieval (as by a computer)” (Database 2019) This definition presented with mass of numbers will simply overwhelm the in the computer application — an individual simply cannot process it all.

 According to the translate. Google, database (3) “a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways.” (Database 2019) This definition define as   data is arranged relationally, it then becomes information, which is much more useful to users.

If we look at those definition, they address same core concept like it is an organized collection of data usually store and accessed electronically from a computer system.

Context

Database context to provide relevant information and services to the user. “Access to the security clearance database would disgorge even more detailed personal information, including the foreign contacts of American officials.” (Michael Hayden 2008, 456-457). Base on this context, personal information can be misused. Now a day’s privacy died with information age because vast amount of data is in the hands of third parties. “Diplomacy has always involved dinners with ruling elites, backroom deals and clandestine meetings. Now, in the digital age, the reports of all those parties and patrician chats can be collected in one enormous database. And once collected in digital form, it becomes very easy for them to be shared.” (Heather Brooke 2006, 200)

Base on this context, Information and communication technologies make life better in the time Connected to the Internet, we create, post, and retrieve which also is in the hands of third parties.

“Think about it: if you were running a multi-million-dollar company, and your database of customer information was stolen, would you want to tell your clients? No. Most companies did not until the laws required them to. It’s in the best interest of organizations – when they’re attacked and information is stolen – to tell nobody.” (Hooper, Today 2019 12-14) Base on the context, Data must be protecting and secure from illegitimate use and cyber-attacks. Otherwise it would be great lose for a company.

Working Definition

As a student of data base management system and my future career pathway to database administrator   The database administrator is the person who manages, backs up and ensures the availability of the data produced and consumed. A database administrator responsibility may include such as A database administrator’s responsibilities may include, Modifying the database structure using information provided by application developers, creating user profiles, and ensuring system security by careful allocation of user permissions, Monitoring technical support for both database systems and related applications and all others activity.

References

Brook, H. (2006). Fundamental of database . Chicago: Chicago Book Press.

Hayden, M. (2008). DataBase System Concept. Michigan: Michigan Press.

Hooper, M. (Today). As Private as a Postcard. Paralegal, 12-20.

Kostas Stefanidis, E. P. (2014). Aware Preference Database System. New york: TROUBADOR PUBLISHING LTD.

Database, (1), (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/47411?redirectedFrom=database#eid

Database, (2), (2019). The Merriam-Webster Dictionary online, Retrieved from

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/database

Database, (3), (2019). to the translate. Google, Retrieved from

https://translate.google.com/?hl=en&tab=wT1#view=home&op=translate&sl=auto&tl=en&text=databa

Huzaifa Anas’s Word Expanded Definition of Algorithm

Huzaifa Anas Expanded Definition of Algorithm 

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Huzaifa Anas

DATE: 10/2015/2019

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Algorithm 

Introduction   

 Algorithms play a pivotal role in computer science and this paper by examining the etymology, definition, context, a working definition will be formed through analysis of different sources like dictionaries, journals, newspaper articles, and encyclopedias, blogs, and social media. Multiple sources are used because they all cater to different audiences. We first focus on the modern definition and its etymology to provide a basis to understand the term and then look at how the term is used practically for a holistic understanding of the term and finally attempt to formulate a definition based on these two factors to make a definition which works for Computer Science (CS).

Definitions

    The word algorithm originates as a homage to the famous al-Khwarizmi, who was a famous polymath remembered for his pioneering Algebra. The word algorithm was algorism in Middle English, which traces its roots to French words algorithme “ meaning “Arabic system of computation,” originating (under mistaken connection with Greek arithmos “number”) from Old French algorisme meaning “the Arabic numeral system “(etymoline.com). The progenitor of these was algorismus which was an archaic Latin translation of al-Khwarizmi. Eventually, during the mid 20th century, the word expanded to any method of computation.

 The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines algorithms for Mathematics and Computing as “A procedure or set of rules used in calculation and problem-solving; (in later use spec.) a precisely defined set of mathematical or logical operations for the performance of a particular task”, and this concept is basically translated over to psychological use of the term (algorithm n.2 & 3., 2019). While looking at the OED’s historical definitions we see the definition limited to mathematical theorems, but then expanding. Overall the idea remained mostly static of having a systematic method to tackle some issues. Britannica also similarly defines an algorithm as a “systematic procedure that produces—in a finite number of steps—the answer to a question or the solution of a problem” (algorithm, 2019). The Gale Encyclopedia of Science defines it slightly differently as “a set of instructions for accomplishing a task that can be couched in mathematical terms. If followed correctly, an algorithm guarantees successful completion of the task”(Algorithm, 2014). Overall in these definitions, we see the trend of having a specific modus operandi to solve specific problems. The only real difference is the scope of this concept being applied from like computer science (CS), CS & math, or this concept in general.

Context

 Algorithms are ubiquitous in computer science and have numerous different techniques that drive them. Some are rigid, and some serve one purpose, while others are multi-purpose and constantly improve on their own. Every year we have algorithms being used in new frontiers, like the recent developments in facial recognition and medicine. Nowadays an algorithm can apply to multiple issues like with “AlphaZero[applying to] games of chess and shogi, as well as Go, by using the same algorithm and network architecture for all three games.”, which is different from the rigid OED definition of limiting to a particular task (Silver et al., 1). This is through the introduction of more advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) principals, which allows an algorithm to do multiple tasks using its initial guidelines. AI algorithms, in general, don’t follow the traditional definition because “the area of AI called machine learning, in which computers derive expertise from experience, the training data for an algorithm can influence its performance.”, so even if the steps are followed correctly faulty training data can cause failure (Huston, 1). Another diverging feature of modern algorithms is that sometimes they build themselves like Jeff06 who “was dissatisfied by how long my genetic algorithm took to evolve a basic control scheme” after he set up the skeletal framework, compared to the traditional algorithms which are precise with instructions (https://www.codingame.com/blog). The goal and definition an algorithm mandates proper execution of an algorithm will result in the issue always being properly addressed, but this can be debated because there is no “right to examine and challenge the data used to make algorithmic decisions about us”, which can put into question the results for non-hard science algorithms because of manipulation and about whether the process itself is correct to fit all contexts, and the way results are categorized or given (Augwin, 2016). We see a similar situation in machine translation where “Google Translate turns non-gendered Turkish sentences [] sexist sentences in English[because the] Google Translate [] algorithm [bases] its translations on observed frequency of usage”, where although the algorithm is properly functioning and should give correct results, in reality, we don’t get our desired results, because of biased data or inherent shortcomings of the multipurpose algorithm. (Shams, 2017). From the rise of AI, we see algorithms becoming more fluid and adaptable, but also less consistent which is a big divergence from old rigid algorithms which we typically associate them with. Overall in the real world without perfect information, these so-called perfect systems won’t always properly perform but even the results themselves can be debated sometimes. All in all, in these quotes we see some form of divergence from the traditional definition of algorithms from their evolving nature, inconsistent performance, contentious parameters or results, and greater flexibility of each algorithm we see a more capable painting of the term, but with one with shakier foundations than these established definitions. 

Working Definition 

 Algorithms now have become dynamic nature, possibly inconsistent, adaptable, and more independent through the Ai in computer science they should be defined as a set of instructions or guidelines, that may self regulate, which can be used to attempt to solve specific or group of problems with a large degree of success.

References

A Genetic Algorithm to Pilot Pod Racers. (2018, August 16). Retrieved October 14, 2019, from https://www.codingame.com/blog/genetic-algorithms-coders-strike-back-game/.

algorithm (n.). (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2019, from https://www.etymonline.com/word/algorithm.

algorithm, n.2. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/4959

algorithm, n.3. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/4959

Algorithm. (2019). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/algorithm.

Algorithm. (2014). In K. L. Lerner & B. W. Lerner (Eds.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Science (5th ed., Vol. 1, p. 131). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from https://link-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/apps/doc/CX3727800076/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=7b6e67ce (This one won’t work without the citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu part)

Angwin, J. (2016, August 1). Make Algorithms Accountable. Retrieved October 14, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/01/opinion/make-algorithms-accountable.html?searchResultPosition=3.

Hutson, M. (2018). Artificial intelligence faces reproducibility crisis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6377), 725-726. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6377/725

Shams, A. (2017, November 27). Facebook post by Alex Shams on the gender bias of google translates algorithm for Turkish to English. Retrieved October 15, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/alexrezashams/posts/10105798694396775.

Silver, D. davidsilver@google. co., Hubert, T., Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Lai, M., Guez, A., … Hassabis, D. dhcontact@google. co. (2018). A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play. Science, 362(6419), 1140–1144. https://doi-org/10.1126/science.aar6404

To: Prof. Jason Ellis From: Alpha Barry Date: 10/15/19 Object: 750-Word Expendent Definition of A uplink radio resource allocation scheme for localized SC-FDMA transmission in LTE network

The goal of this paper is the wireless communication and the LTE network on A uplink radio resource allocation scheme for localized SC-FDMA transmission in LTE network. I’m looking to know the meaning of this term: Uplink

(A communication link for transmissions from the earth to a satellite, weather balloon, etc. Frequently attributive.)

Here, the information is paired from a lower to a higher level in the universe as un upward motion.

(transitive. To relay (data or a signal) by means of an uplink. Cf. downlink v.)

In this case, it’s also to layout or send information through the process of upward transmission contrast of downward(downlink).

(The portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform. An uplink is the converse of a downlink. An uplink or downlink is distinguished from reverse link or forward link.)

In this definition, we see the similarities of the two previous meanings by transferring the information carrier signal from a lower to a higher altitude.

((by analogy, less formally) The communication path from a mobile device to a base station, a consumer to the network backbone, a client device to a server etc.)

We assist at an interdependence between transmitter and receiver for many more subscribers

(Data transmission from a data station to the headend.)

The sending message(information) from a central office to a client or subscriber.

(The transmission from an earth station up to a satellite. Contrast with downlink.)

(The transmission from a cellphone or other mobile device to a cell tower. Contrast with downlink.)

These two definitions are correlated to the previous ones. So, the data is being sent from point A to point B via the network connection.


(An 802.11ax AP must contend for the medium and win a transmit opportunity (TXOPbefore multi-user (MU) communications can occur. Once the 802.11ax AP wins a TXOP, it can then coordinate uplink transmissions from 802.11ax clients that support UL-OFDMA.

UL-OFDMA is more complex than DL-OFDMA and may require the use of as many as three trigger frames. Each trigger frame is used to solicit a specific type of response from the Wi-Fi 6 clients. UL-OFDMA also requires the use of buffer status report (BSR) frames from the clients. Clients use BSR frames to inform the AP about the client’s buffered data and about the QoS category of data. The information contained in BSR frames assists the AP in allocating RUs for synchronized uplink transmissions. The AP will use the information gathered from the clients to build uplink window times, client RU allocation, and client power settings for each RU. Buffer status reports (BSRs) can be unsolicited or solicited. If solicited, the AP will poll the clients for BSRs.

once an 802.11ax AP has won a TXOP, the AP will send the first trigger frame. A buffer status report poll (BSRP) frame is used to solicit information from the 802.11ax clients about their need to send uplink data. The clients will then respond with buffer status reports (BSRs). The whole purpose of the buffer status report (BSR) information is so the Wi-Fi 6 clients can assist an 802.11ax AP to allocate uplink multi-user resources. The AP will use this information to decide how to best allocate RUs to the clients for synchronized uplink transmissions.)

Overall of this definition is that before the transport of information as voice or videos through the internet, the electronic devices make a sequence of troubleshooting by using some triggers for buffering the data versus of its quality of services in order to allow the receiver to get access to the content of the signal(information); through a high bandwidth (range of frequencies) spectrum. Which differ from the precedent definition of an uplink.

Some meanings of abbreviated terms from the journal that I picked to keep me on track of abbreviations’ senses

(Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) is applied as the transmission technology for uplink traffic.  However, users may require different quality of services (QoS) for different applications.  The Gale–Shapley algorithm is applied to find the optimal matching between resource blocks (RB) and user equipment (UE) by considering channel conditions and the desired QoS.  This paper modified the Recursive Maximum Expansion (RME) algorithm to effectively assign radio resource for UEs with different bandwidth demands. The performance of our proposed scheme is compared with the modified RME scheme through exhaustive simulations.)

The journal claimed that a sustainable radio source of use receives more attention because of the proliferation of mobile services require quality of services (QoS) and it’s getting more and more mobile devices. The process consists of having some subcarriers to distribute and localize the SC-FDMA.

References

1968   W. M. Griggs AMSS Prototype Radiosonde (Rep. AD-680-409) 4   The radiosonde is designed to perform two functions… As a transponder, it must receive the uplink range tones.

1975   Sci. Amer. June 127/1   Since its launch in late 1972 it has offered a repeater service open to all, with an uplink at two meters and a downlink at 10.

1982   New Scientist 9 Sept. 682/1   These ‘uplink’ signals are at frequencies between 5·9 and 6·4 giga

1975   Phi Delta Kappan 56 540/1   The first educational television programme was uplinked to ATS-6 from Rosman at 9:00am EDT on July 2, 1974.

1991   Omni Apr. 104/2   I can uplink fax transmissions to a satellite, receive telexes, and bring wide-body airplanes screaming out of the sky.

1999   Balloons & Airships Mar. 20/1   The footage was up-linked to a chase aircraft which carried the compatible microwave equipment on board.

2005   Chicago Tribune (Midwest ed.) 9 Oct. i. 23/4   The event..was uplinked to a satellite for use by TV stations around the state.

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/uplink

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/53501/uplink

https://blog.aerohive.com/uplink-orthogonal-division-multiple-access-ul-ofdma-in-802-11ax/

Chen, Y., & Ke, S. (2013). A uplink radio resource allocation scheme for localized SC-FDMA transmission in LTE network. Journal of Supercomputing, 66(2), 670–685. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-012-0849-8

Liuming Chen’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Algorithm

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Liuming Chen

Date: 10/15/2019

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Algorithm

Introduction

The intention of this document is to explain a term that’s frequently being used in the professional field, especially in IT. The term is “algorithm”. It is not a word that’s only being used by professionals. It appears in the news and social media increasingly in recent years. This document will discuss the definitions of the term “algorithm”, talk about some of the context that the term is being used, and provide a working definition for it.

Definitions

This term was originally borrowed from Latin. The etymon is algorithmus in Medieval Latin. There are three definitions provided by the Oxford English Dictionary for this term, and which we are going to discuss in the following.

The first definition defines algorithm as, “The Arabic system of numbering, characterized by a zero (cf. algorism n. 1; now rare). Formerly also: †calculus (obsolete).” (“algorithm”, 2019). The term algorithm derived from algorism in Middle English and algorism is derived from algorithmus, which is the etymon that we just mentioned. Algorism has the same definition as algorithm. From the Journal of Account Research, Williard Stone explains, “Algorism, the science of calculating by nine figures and zero”. (Stone, 1972, p.347). Algorithm is just another name for the Arabic numerals that the world uses nowadays, but we don’t call it algorism or algorithm anymore.

The second definition is related to Mathematics and Computing, “A procedure or set of rules used in calculation and problem-solving; (in later use spec.) a precisely defined set of mathematical or logical operations for the performance of a particular task.” (“algorithm”, 2019). Algorithms in Mathematics and Computing are being used to calculate something. Something can be anything in this case. If one wants to sort a list of data for readability, a sorting algorithm can be implemented to sort the data. The sorting algorithm will take the data from the user as input, process the data step by step and return a sorted list of data. Usually in IT, engineers and programmers pursue the most effectiveness and efficient algorithm that uses less computer power and faster computation time.

The third definition is related to Medicine, “A step-by-step protocol used to reach a clinical diagnosis or decision.” (“algorithm”, 2019). This is almost identical to algorithm in mathematics and computer. Both algorithms are approaches to result a solution for a problem. In the medical field, result of a medical algorithm can be a confirmed diagnosis, a treatment, or a prescription, etc.

Context

This section will discuss some contexts that the term “algorithm” is being used, and how does the term mean differently in these contexts.

In the article “Algorithm for architectural origami”, Jamie Paik talk about an algorithm in architecture, “Overvelde et al. report an algorithm that allows the rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials and determines their modes of deformation.” (Paik, 2017, p.296-297). In this context, the term algorithm can be interpreted as a solution to an architectural problem.

This context is quoted from a journal article in the military field. Discussing the genetic algorithm in Weapon-Target Allocation Problem by Wang et al., “Compared with air defense interception, ground targets are diverse and suitable for many weaponry types, so the scale and complexity of the WTA problem are greater, requiring the use of more efficient algorithms.”(Wang et al., 2019). The “algorithm” that was mentioned in the quote is a type of algorithms in computational mathematics call a genetic algorithm. It was inspired by evolutionary biology. The algorithm will have an enormous amount of candidate solutions that may take over a trillion years to find the best solution if the algorithm search solutions one by one. The genetic algorithm is designed to find the near-perfect solution by evolving the solution candidate. Time is massively reduced because the algorithm eliminates a lot of solution, just like biological evolution eliminated a countless amount of extinct species that didn’t adapt the nature. In this case, the algorithm is being used for finding the most optimal way of allocating ground targets.

In an antidepressant management paper, Adam et al. describe an algorithm as following, “A treatment algorithm was developed that enables clinically supervised, nonphysician depression care managers (DCMs) to track and monitor antidepressant tolerability and treatment response while supporting nonpsychiatric prescribers with antidepressant choice and dosing.” (Adam et al., 2012, p.647). This is a medical algorithm that was mention in the definition section. In this paper, the algorithm is used for antidepressant treatment and prescription.

Posted by a famous YouTube technology channel content creator, Austin Evans on Twitter, “I almost forgot what day it is thanks YouTube algorithm (With a screenshot of September by Earth, Wind & Fire music video)” (austinnotduncan, 2019). The YouTube algorithm that Austin talked about is a server process of YouTube that tracked user activities. Then it uses the activity data of users to guess, or compute users’ interests and recommend videos that the user might like to watch. The algorithm learned Austin’s interests and recommended the music video of September because it knows Austin would like to watch it on that day.

Working Definition

In conclusion, the term algorithm is a set of procedures that can be performed step by step to result a solution to a problem. It is like a cooking recipe. Following the recipe step by step will cook a delicious dish. The term algorithm is being used more often in the IT field in the past half-century. Algorithms in IT are different types of procedures that are being written by programmers or engineers and will be performed by the computer. It can be mathematical calculations or logical operations. It’s usually effectiveness and efficient. Different algorithm meets different needs. Just like people love a particular dish, and they will need that specific recipe to cook their favorite dish.

References

Adams, J. L., Gaynes, B. N., McGuinness, T., Modi, R., Willig, J., & Pence, B. W. (2012). Treating Depression Within the HIV “Medical Home”: A Guided Algorithm for Antidepressant Management by HIV Clinicians. AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 26(11), 647–654. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1089/apc.2012.0113

algorithm, n. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/4959.

austinnotduncan. (2019, September 21). I almost forgot what day it is thanks YouTube algorithm [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/austinnotduncan/status/1175561104728018944

Duan, M., Yang, H., Wang, S., & Liu, Y. (2019). Self-adaptive dual-strategy differential evolution algorithm. PLoS ONE, 14(10), 1–25. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1371/journal.pone.0222706

Stone, W. E. (1972). Abacists versus algorists. Journal of Accounting Research, 345-350.

Wang, C., Fu, G., Zhang, D., Wang, H., & Zhao, J. (2019). Genetic Algorithm-Based Variable Value Control Method for Solving the Ground Target Attacking Weapon-Target Allocation Problem. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 1–9. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1155/2019/6761073

Fernando Ortega’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Firewall

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Fernando

DATE: 10/4/19

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of “Firewall”

Introduction

The importance of this document is to learn about the historical context of a word, the origin of where it came from, and how the word’s definition has changed over time also the accurate definition that is used in the present day. The term that I will be defining will be “Firewall”, I will be providing definitions of the word from the Oxford English dictionary and online sources to analyze the changes it has gone through with the definitions.

Definitions

The first definition from the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is “An unbroken line of flames forming a barrier; a wall of fire. Somewhat rare” (“firewall,” 2019). This is definition explains a barrier on fire used for a line of defense that is resistant. Based on the definition, “firewall” was much like a form defense that does not provide enough context on the word. The second definition is, “A wall or partition designed to inhibit or prevent the spread of fire; spec. such a wall in a building, which extends to a certain height above the roof.” (“firewall,” 2019). This talks about a big wall that has the height of a roof used to prevent the spreading of fire from passing over the wall. The third definition is, “Something designed to protect the security or integrity of a system, process, or institution, esp. by acting as a barrier; a measure taken to prevent something undesirable occurring; a safeguard” (“firewall,” 2019). This explains about an object that protects the trust it has with a certain system by preventing harmful things from happening to the system acting as a barrier or safeguard. This definition has a lot of context than the last two definitions by showing that it is designed for protecting a system and preventing unexpected things from happening to the system. The fourth definition is, “A system, typically a piece of hardware or software, which provides protection against unauthorized access to or from a private network or computer system” (“firewall,” 2019). This is a system that is software or hardware that can be used to protect a private network or computer system from anything that does not have permission from accessing them. It has similarities to the last definition with the concept of protecting a system and the difference is the terms to specify what it’s protecting, this last definition uses computer terms such as network and computer. When reading these definitions, all of them have a similar concept of having to protect or preventing something from happening. By using words, like the wall, barrier, protect, or unbroken to signify something that can’t be trespassed easily. From what I have gathered, the first definition is from the 1570s and the definition is vaguely defined as time passes a little more context is added to the definition. Like in definition 1, it just mentions a wall of fire, definition 2, adds more details by adding on what it prevents, definition 3 using more words to describe the definition. In addition, the fourth definition having more computing terms like hardware, software, private network.

Context

The magazine defines firewall as, “These computer firewalls are actually more like fire doors because they have to let some stuff through.” Firewall is much like a door that opens and closes to let things pass through, this is much different from the other definitions since it does not use the terms like barrier or wall. In a blog they mention, “A firewall is a type of cybersecurity tool that is used to filter traffic on a network” in definition they mention how a firewall is a cybersecurity tool and it filters traffic. I would say that this is almost an accurate definition than the one from the magazine because it is relatable to the fourth definition since it uses more computer terms. In another source Alex X. Liu defines it differently, “A firewall is placed at the point of entry between a private network and the outside Internet such that all incoming and outgoing packets have to pass through it” this definition explains how a firewall is in between a network inside and outside of the internet watching packets that pass inside and outside. Another piece of information I would add from this same source is that they explain the function, “The function of a firewall is to examine every incoming or outgoing packet and decide whether to accept or discard it.” Based on this I can tell the definition from the 1570s focuses from a battling point of view different from Alex’s definition because it focuses on a technological view.

Working Definition

Learning about the firewall relates to my major because it has to do with networking & security and having more knowledge of the word helps understands the term in multiple ways other than in the IT terms. My own definition for this term is a protocol that checks for unwanted data from entering a system or host without permission.

References

Dosal, E., (2019, Sept 12). What is a firewall? The different firewall types & architectures. Retrieved from www.compuquip.com/blog/the-different-types-of-firewall-architectures

firewall, n.,1. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/249400. Accessed 12 October 2019

firewall, n.,2. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/249400. Accessed 12 October 2019.

firewall, n.,3. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/249400. Accessed 12 October 2019.

firewall, n.,4. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/249400. Accessed 12 October 2019.

Liu, X. A., (2009, Nov 10). Firewall policy verification and troubleshooting. Elsevier, Retrieved from https://www-sciencedirect-com/science/article/pii/S1389128609002199

Tero, and Paul., (2013, Jan 30). A comprehensive guide to firewalls. Smashing magazine, Retrieved from www.smashingmagazine.com/2013/01/introduction-to-firewalls/

Julia Shin’s Expanded Definition of Feedback

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:Julia Shin
DATE: 10/15/2019
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Feedback

Introduction

Some people say that human beings are like computers in some ways. If you think about it, humans receive data from our senses, then process it in our brains to ultimately come to a decision. This is a direct parallel to how computers work. An important aspect of systems, more specifically automated systems, is the feedback. The same thing can be said for human beings. In order for people to adapt and grow, they must receive feedback. What exactly is feedback? This term can be used in different scenarios and its use has changed over time. The term will be placed under great scrutiny in order to understand its definition completely. 

Definitions

One definition that the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) provides is “The return of a fraction of the output signal from one stage of a circuit, amplifier, etc., to the input of the same or preceding stage” (“feedback”, 2019). Another definition is “The modification, adjustment, or control of a process or system (as a social situation or a biological mechanism) by a result or effect of the process, esp. By a difference between a desired and an actual result; information about the result of a process, experiment, etc.; a response” (“feedback, 2019). From the integration of these two definitions, feedback (especially in terms of an electrical system) is when the output/result is fed back into the input so that the system can automatically adjust its parameters to meet a certain desired response. Since no system, process, or device is perfect, it is natural for there to be some sort of error. The feedback is responsible for minimizing the error and making the actual result as close to the desired result as possible. 

The etymology of the term, as generated by the OED, can be broken down into the words “feed” and “back”. According to the OED, “feed” means “To give food; to supply with food; to provide food for. Often followed by †of, on, with (a specified food).” (“feed”, 2019). Feeding is an essential part of life, because we would not be able to function properly without the nutrients we get from food. Similarly, automated systems rely heavily on the data they receive. The definition for “back” the OED gives is “In the direction of one’s back, or the back of any object in question; toward the rear; away from a forward position. Often with the verb (go, come, etc.) omitted, esp. in the imperative. back with: move back with, take or draw back.” (“back”, 2019). “Back” emphasizes the notion that sometimes in life we have to take a step back and reevaluate everything to proceed in the right direction. The same thing applies to automated systems and devices. In order for a system to work, it must not always travel linearly in a forward direction. This is why automated systems are also known as closed loop systems; it moves forward and goes back to the beginning in a circle. 

Context

Feedback played an important role in early technological advancements, and it still does today. “State feedback controller is one of the simplest controllers in modern control system that can make the system having good performance. State feedback controller consists of gain controllers which respond to every state in the system. Hence, it can be modified following the dynamics of the system” (Maarif et al., 2019, p. 208). There are different types of controllers that can be used to “eliminate the steady-state error of the system” which is vital in an industrial process (Maarif et al., 2019, p. 208). However, Maarif et al. come to the conclusion that a state feedback controller is the most optimal. Based on the block diagrams provided in the journal, the state feedback controller observes the state the system is in then adjusts the feedback accordingly which, in the long run, aims to reduce the steady-state error. Feedback does not always have to involve some sort of electrical system. For instance, “You hope, as C.E.O., for the team to say ‘Boy, boss, you did a great job this year, are we lucky to have you.’ And, by gosh, every year they’ve come up with three or four things that are quite authentic that I ought to do better. So you’ve got to create those kinds of feedback loops” says Kevin Sharer (2009). In an interview conducted by Adam Bryant, Sharer explains why he seeks feedback from his fellow employees. Although hearing that everything is absolutely perfect is a great boost in morale, receiving feedback on what can be improved on will ultimately yield better results. Humans strive to better themselves in what they do and the way to do that is by receiving feedback from their peers. In a Twitter post, arcapayments wrote, “Getting feedback from your customers is very important in understanding how your business is performing. Feedback helps you to determine strategies to improve your customers’ experiences which helps increase patronage, retention and loyalty” (2019). Arcapayments emphasizes the importance of a business reflecting on customer feedback. In doing so, the customer will have a better experience with the service or product and the business will more likely succeed. This is a win-win situation. 

Working Definition

Feedback can be applied in different situations. In the field of electrical engineering, feedback is used through a means of a sensor that measures the output and is then connected to a summing amplifier. All of this is done to produce an error of close to zero, where error is measured in desired output (input) minus the present condition (output). Whether it is in regards to a network of components that come together to form a complete system or a network of people, feedback is key to having the best possible results that can be produced.

References

Arcapayments [arca_payments]. (2019, October 11). Getting feedback from your customers is very important in understanding how your business is performing. Feedback helps you determine strategies to improve your customers’ experiences which helps increase patronage, retention, and loyalty. Some businesses do not care about [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/arca_payments/status/1182763416534081538

Back, adj.,1. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/14336

Bryant, A. (2009, March 28). Feedback in Heaping Helpings. Retrieved from  https://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/business/29corner.html?searchResultPosition=1.

Feedback, n.,1. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/68965.

Feedback, n.,2. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/68965.

Feed, v.,1. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from www.oed.com/view/Entry/68963

Maarif, A., Cahyadi, A., Herdjunanto, S., Iswanto, & Yamamoto, Y. (2019). Tracking control of higher order reference signal using integrators and state feedback. IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 46(2), 208-216.