Marco Mai 750-Word Expanded Definition of Cloud

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to interpret the technical term and see how it’s being applied in different situations. There were many terms, but I decided on cloud due to its complexity depending on how it’s used. In today’s world, cloud is mainly used in the technology world rather the clouds in the sky but it can also be talking about cloud computing in the technology world.

Definitions

According to Oxford English Dictionary (OED) “A visible mass of condensed watery vapour floating in the air at some considerable height above the general surface of the ground.” (OED, 2019) In this definition, it shows how evaporated water shows some visible mass after reaching a certain altitude which is simply called cloud. Besides the OED, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) states “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources…”. (Mell, Grance, 2011) This translates cloud to how it uses remote servers that’s hosts computing resources that users can access without actually having it store locally. According to Ahmed, “Cloud computing is a service that is internet based and that gives the facility of sharing computer resources along with other devices on user demand.” (Ahmed, 2019) As it states it is having internet access to off site shared resources or device that users can use.

Context

As time has passed, cloud is not only used for disputing the weather, it is also used in the technology world. It has been widely used in cloud computing to save time and space from downloading necessary files. According to Fox, “Privately owned cloud computers-large data centers filled with computers that mainly run their company’s software”. (Fox, 2011,p.406) Cloud is being described as a service that can be used by accessing software or resources that’s being hosted at data centers. Users would access these resources without needing their own expensive infrastructure. In consonance to Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), “Our findings may ultimately led to improvements in the presentation of thunderstorms cloud life cycle in climate model and therefore increase the trust in projection of future climates.” In this context, it shows how cloud contribute to different weather in our climate especially for thunderstorm and they may just be able to use their finding to better predict future climates.

Working Definition

Based on all the definition above, cloud is associate to my field of study because many tools require expensive high end equipment that not everyone can afford nor have space to storage. Also, when it does breaks down or stops working it’ll require repair that won’t be cheap. As an alternative, there are businesses out there that specialized in providing support and maintenance. So, cloud is a service that provides computer resources and hardware to users over the internet instead of actually having it locally on your computer. It’s not realistic where user can have a quantum computer to access one. However, with cloud computing obtaining access to one makes it possible without breaking the bank. In fact, IBM provide access to their quantum computer through the cloud without installing anything for free!  In my field of study of network security, cloud services are susceptible to attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS), system vulnerabilities even with the use of encryption, security policies and most of all human negligence. Even so, since users are accessing these resources over the internet, the user and organization can both keep their private information from being stored on network servers. With cloud computing growing so fast more and more people are using these services instead of the traditional download and install to run some sort of applications.

References

“cloud, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/34689. Accessed 18 October 2019.

Fox, A. (2011). Cloud Computing–What’s in It for Me as a Scientist? Science331(6016), 406–407. https://doi-org.citytech.cuny.edu/10.1126/science.1198981

Mell, Peter, and Tim Grance. “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing.” CSRC, 28 Sept. 2011, csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final.

Ahmed, I. (2019). A brief review: security issues in cloud computing and their solutions. Telkomnika17(6), 2812–2817. https://doi-org.citytech.cuny.edu/10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v17i6.12490

Long Jie Mai 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Mai Long Jie

DATE: Sept 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Wallden and Kashefi “Cyber Security in the Quantum Era”

Cyber Security in the quantum era is an article written by Petros Wallden and Elham Kashefi and published in Communications of the ACM journal. The article mainly points out the fast-growing trend of quantum computing. Companies such as Google, IBM, Intel, Alibaba among others are embracing quantum computing. The fast rising of quantum technologies comes with negative effects if associated with the adversaries but turns out to be positive if used by honest parties. The large use of quantum computing increases risks and threats in cyber security. Even though, if the issues are addressed through quantum cyber security, it will be easy to cope with quantum technologies in the future. The article gives detailed research information on quantum cyber security which can be approached from three different views. These views being; Post- quantum, quantumly enhanced and quantumly enabled. Additionally, the myths are addressed as to what people understand about quantum computing and facts are stated to cleat the myths.

Research has been carried out to help in achieving quantum cyber security, and this is divided into three categories; Post-quantum being the first category of the research on quantum cyber security which involves classical computation and classical communication as the resources required from the honest parties. This focuses on the hard problems for the quantum computers, security definitions and proof techniques to counter quantum adversaries. Quantumly enhanced approach uses small quantum device for quantum communication and used by the honest parties. This approach is limited only to the quantum technologies that are currently available. Quantum technologies can be used positively in cyber security research. This is possible if they are included in protocols improving on security as it is not based on any computational assumption. This research is done on QKD (Quantum Key Distribution). Quantumly enabled category stretches to the future expansion of large quantum computers and examines the security and protocols that are enabled on existing quantum computers. This uses approaches such as post-quantum computational secure protocol and having clients interact with the quantum server thus mimicking the quantum channel and avoiding information leakage (Wallden & Kashefi, 2019).

The article gives a good description of quantum computing for easy understanding before going deep into the positive and negative effects of large quantum computers. It persuades people to use quantum technologies for their advantage rather than allow cryptographic attacks threating cyber security. It clearly shows the myths and misconceptions of quantum computing and how people believe that constructing quantum computers will solve anything quickly. Also, it states the reality against the myths stated to help in understanding how quantum computing can affect cyber security if not managed. The article offers explanation on adversaries that need to be addressed to ensure that quantum security is achieved in the future, with both large quantum computers and classical communication networks. The list of all research carried out on quantum cyber security may not be exhausted in the article but it captures well the effects of quantum technologies for cryptographic attacks. Clearly, people have a long way in ensuring quantum cyber security is achieved and putting this research into consideration will greatly help in using quantum computers to improve cyber security.

References

Wallden, P., & Kashefi, E. (2019). Cyber security in the quantum era. Communications Of The ACM, 62(4), 120-120. doi: 10.1145/3241037