Collaborative Project: Subway Wireless Connection

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Burhan Saeed, Fernando Ortega, and Hector Dextre

DATE: 12/24/2019

SUBJECT: Subway Wireless Connection

In the past few years, there has been a rising demand for the internet due to its increasing usage all across the world. The world has changed throughout the years with new technology coming every year and so the demand for Wi-fi connection has increased. It would be beneficial to happily use the NYC subway for their Wi-fi system while commuting compared to other places around the world. Have the freedom to watch movies, shows, listen to music, use social media, or even browse online. Sadly that is not the case we have to face the problem of not having Wi-fi connection in the NYC subway cars while being underground. As technology changes so will the NYC subway with the use of their technology to implement the use of our mobile or laptop devices. For every problem there is a solution now we will have to propose possible solutions that will change this and make our ride home entertaining.





Fernando Ortega’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Firewall

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Fernando

DATE: 10/4/19

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of “Firewall”


The importance of this document is to learn about the historical context of a word, the origin of where it came from, and how the word’s definition has changed over time also the accurate definition that is used in the present day. The term that I will be defining will be “Firewall”, I will be providing definitions of the word from the Oxford English dictionary and online sources to analyze the changes it has gone through with the definitions.


The first definition from the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is “An unbroken line of flames forming a barrier; a wall of fire. Somewhat rare” (“firewall,” 2019). This is definition explains a barrier on fire used for a line of defense that is resistant. Based on the definition, “firewall” was much like a form defense that does not provide enough context on the word. The second definition is, “A wall or partition designed to inhibit or prevent the spread of fire; spec. such a wall in a building, which extends to a certain height above the roof.” (“firewall,” 2019). This talks about a big wall that has the height of a roof used to prevent the spreading of fire from passing over the wall. The third definition is, “Something designed to protect the security or integrity of a system, process, or institution, esp. by acting as a barrier; a measure taken to prevent something undesirable occurring; a safeguard” (“firewall,” 2019). This explains about an object that protects the trust it has with a certain system by preventing harmful things from happening to the system acting as a barrier or safeguard. This definition has a lot of context than the last two definitions by showing that it is designed for protecting a system and preventing unexpected things from happening to the system. The fourth definition is, “A system, typically a piece of hardware or software, which provides protection against unauthorized access to or from a private network or computer system” (“firewall,” 2019). This is a system that is software or hardware that can be used to protect a private network or computer system from anything that does not have permission from accessing them. It has similarities to the last definition with the concept of protecting a system and the difference is the terms to specify what it’s protecting, this last definition uses computer terms such as network and computer. When reading these definitions, all of them have a similar concept of having to protect or preventing something from happening. By using words, like the wall, barrier, protect, or unbroken to signify something that can’t be trespassed easily. From what I have gathered, the first definition is from the 1570s and the definition is vaguely defined as time passes a little more context is added to the definition. Like in definition 1, it just mentions a wall of fire, definition 2, adds more details by adding on what it prevents, definition 3 using more words to describe the definition. In addition, the fourth definition having more computing terms like hardware, software, private network.


The magazine defines firewall as, “These computer firewalls are actually more like fire doors because they have to let some stuff through.” Firewall is much like a door that opens and closes to let things pass through, this is much different from the other definitions since it does not use the terms like barrier or wall. In a blog they mention, “A firewall is a type of cybersecurity tool that is used to filter traffic on a network” in definition they mention how a firewall is a cybersecurity tool and it filters traffic. I would say that this is almost an accurate definition than the one from the magazine because it is relatable to the fourth definition since it uses more computer terms. In another source Alex X. Liu defines it differently, “A firewall is placed at the point of entry between a private network and the outside Internet such that all incoming and outgoing packets have to pass through it” this definition explains how a firewall is in between a network inside and outside of the internet watching packets that pass inside and outside. Another piece of information I would add from this same source is that they explain the function, “The function of a firewall is to examine every incoming or outgoing packet and decide whether to accept or discard it.” Based on this I can tell the definition from the 1570s focuses from a battling point of view different from Alex’s definition because it focuses on a technological view.

Working Definition

Learning about the firewall relates to my major because it has to do with networking & security and having more knowledge of the word helps understands the term in multiple ways other than in the IT terms. My own definition for this term is a protocol that checks for unwanted data from entering a system or host without permission.


Dosal, E., (2019, Sept 12). What is a firewall? The different firewall types & architectures. Retrieved from

firewall, n.,1. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from Accessed 12 October 2019

firewall, n.,2. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from Accessed 12 October 2019.

firewall, n.,3. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from Accessed 12 October 2019.

firewall, n.,4. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from Accessed 12 October 2019.

Liu, X. A., (2009, Nov 10). Firewall policy verification and troubleshooting. Elsevier, Retrieved from https://www-sciencedirect-com/science/article/pii/S1389128609002199

Tero, and Paul., (2013, Jan 30). A comprehensive guide to firewalls. Smashing magazine, Retrieved from

Fernando Ortega’s 500 word Article Summary

TO:Prof. Ellis
SUBJECT:500-Word Summary of Weinberg’s “Law and Technology- Biometric Identity”

Jonathan T. Weinberg discusses about the biometric technology being implemented in some places like India and Pakistan and how it’s had a positive impact. Trying to make slight improvements with keeping data organized, secured, and easier for the government and people. Though that is the case for these places, the U.S. made the decision to drop the idea on biometrics and Weinberg then goes on about what improvements India and Pakistan have started, that could have benefited the U.S and possibly some issues. In the article, “Law and Technology- Biometric Identity” by Jonathan T. Weinberg, he gives valid points that could change the use of ids to biometric technology.

Biometric id card would link the person’s biometric data such as fingerprints, iris scans, and a photograph making it difficult to replicate that information. To ensure the card belongs to the card holder, a biometric verification test would be done to guarantee the card indeed belongs to the card holder. India plans to use their people’s biometric data to then link that to any governmental data given in a card for uses in work, ATMs, and health benefits keeping all that data in their protected databases. This policy would be much helpful for the U.S. to link biometric id to the people to check whether the person has any criminal record, has work authorization, and reduces identity fraud. 

According to Weinberg, “talks about Pakistan using the biometric data in voting registration, to track down people that have voted more than one time in voting election to then de-duplicating them.”  In addition, mentions about uncovering many workers that are “ghost worker”, government having more of an organized place, and being able to reduce less fraud and trust between people. Another positive talked about biometrics is having an unborn baby registered since many poor countries don’t get paper documentation it would be beneficial to use biometric technology instead. 

Issues mentioned in the article would be the U.S. having people frightened on the idea of biometrics because it would contain vulnerable information on them of whether being noncitizen or citizen. Meaning that noncitizen people would be limited from doing anything like traveling, working, or even having health insurance and having the information whether they can be arrested or deported. Even the idea of the government taking control of people’s personal biometric data, is a problem since that limits them to anything because people have in trusted the government with all their sensitive information. Furthermore, something much worse would be the databases not being secured as people would of think that it would have been, hackers having very sensitive data very much like India databases.

Biometrics is a topic that can be easily understood and can make life’s easier for traveling, for keeping something protected, and make things faster. It is a topic that is interesting that Weinberg made valid points to believe in the biometrics technology and keep on using it. It is something that can lead to a brand-new technology or idea if done correctly, just like technology that help humanity.


Weinberg, J. T. (2016). Biometric Identity. Communications of the ACM59(1), 30–32.