Solar Panel Manufacturing & Its Waste

To: Professor Ellis

From: Devina Budhan, Dominick Denis, Tariq Hemraj

Date: December 24, 2019

Subject: Collaborative Project: Solar Panel Manufacturing & Its Waste

For our project, we focused on the irony of solar panels in terms of the process of making it is very harmful to the environment. We focused on finding alternative materials that could go into making the solar panels as a substitute for lead and silicon which are the leading materials as well as other solutions that can aid in the waste being produced.

Below we are including links to our project deliverables: 

Research Report



Report on Collaboration

Devina Budhan’s 750-Word Expanded Definition of Malware


The reason I am writing this memo is to inform you about a word that is commonly used in my field of study in computer information systems. The word I have chosen to explain more on is malware. By looking up different definitions and examples of the word and how it’s used from articles and the web I will show how it’s changed over the years or if it has changed at all.


Malware is actually the combination of “malicious” and “software/hardware” and originates from the English language. According to the Oxford English Directory (OED), malware is defined as “programs written with the intent of being disruptive or damaging to (the user of) a computer or other electronic devices; viruses, worms, spyware, etc., collectively” (OED, 2019). In other words, OED describes malware a type of program that is created to attack or harm a user’s computer or any electronic device. In addition to the OED’s definition, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), describes malware as “Software or firmware intended to perform an unauthorized process that will have adverse impact on the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an information system.” (NIST, 2019). This describes malware as a software that was initially made to deny access to particular functions and resources of a computer system affecting the confidentiality of the information, the validity of the information contained in the system and the availability of the information to be used meaning the data can be walled from being used. A third definition from “Randed”, malware is defined as “Any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, and gain access to private computer or mobile operations”, this explains malwares specific purpose of infiltrating information and denying access to computer systems.

From the many definitions I was able to gather, malware has not changed much in terms of what it is. However, OED’s definition describes malware as what it is and how it affects a user and lists different threats. The threats today for malware are mostly tied to trojans, ransomware and keyloggers. These malwares are used for gathering data or forcing entry and locking the user out of their data. In order for the user to unlock their files they have to pay the ransom for a chance to maybe unlock the files. Trojans give the hacker access to the system. Due to all these unique threats a single term was used to encompass the general meaning of software that has an intent to cause malicious damage. Originally the term that encompassed all of them was virus but since a lot of the malicious attacks today are focused only on one computer it could no longer be classified as a virus and instead was labeled under malware.


“However, with the past of the years the objective change and currently the main objective is to enter in another system in order to steal any kind of information, change parameters inside, being redirected to a website with more malware… The idea is to create chaos in the system that they are enter to” (Randed, 2019). The word in this sentence is described by the actions of malware to enter another system and stealing that type of information. The article explains the general idea and use of malware such as creating chaos by causing user to panic should they be locked out of their system or redirecting the users to another site that is impersonating another site to install more malware that can reach deeper into the system. Thieves that use computers are called cyber criminals and their main type of attack is using malwares on unsuspecting users and stealing data such as username, passwords, bank information and personal information that can be used to steal the user’s identity. “Malware typically employs as many as 10 evasion techniques per sample, which indicates both that malware analysis is a great concern of malware authors and that they are aware of the efforts taken to develop effective malware detection methods” (Or-Meir et al., 2019). This goes to show that malware is a high stakes game of cat and mouse. Where the cyber criminals know their exploits are being discovered and traced back so the need to evolve and stay ahead. This in turn causes cyber security experts to think of new ways of detecting the malicious program. One such way is to have a malware scanner that is based on the behavioral pattern of malware instead of signature based. Signature based malware prevention is when a copy of the malware code is kept and compared to the new malware being scanned. If they are similar it is a hit and that malware will be quarantined and removed. The new type of anti-malware becoming more prominent is a type that monitors the activity of all programs and should any of them be recording data or sending them in suspicious ways they will trigger an alarm. As stated in the quote, cyber security experts are increasing efforts to finding new ways to detect malware even before new ones are created. “The number of malware alterations for mobile devices created for phishing activities, information theft related to bank cards and for money theft from bank accounts increased almost 20 times” (Iovan et. al, pg. 267). Malware in this context is used as a “backdoor” to infiltrate the mobile device to obtain personal information such as bank information, social security, etc. This is similar to the definition that NIST provided where it affects the integrity, confidentiality and availability of information.

Working Definition

Malware relates to my field of study because as an IT operation major, it is important to learn about attacks to prevent data breaches. It is important to study malware due to the fact that in IT operations not only is the data of the company being managed but also the personal information of all employees is stored there. By studying malware, we will be able to increase security and prevent data and identity theft of everyday user thus creating a safer environment for all. Based upon the examples and definitions found from various sources such as OED, articles and websites malware means a program or software created to exploit a user’s computer or electronic device for personal and financial information.


Iovan, Ş., & Marge, R. (2018). Malware for Mobile Devices and Their Security. Fiability & Durability / Fiabilitate Si Durabilitate, (1), 267–272.

malware, n. (2019). Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from

Malware, what do you need to know. From where it comes from to types of it. (2019, January 16). Retrieved from

Malware. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Or-Meir, O., Nissim, N., Elovici, Y., & Rokach, L. (2019). Dynamic Malware Analysis in the Modern Era–A State of the Art Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 52(5), 1–48.

Devina Budhan’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Devina Budhan

DATE: September 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV”

            “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” by Margot Douaihy discusses biometric AI (artificial intelligence) technology in terms of facial recognition and detection as well as its security and privacy. In today’s world we rely a lot on AI such as Amazon’s Alexa or Google Assistant and more. However, facial recognition and detection has been the newest and steady growing tech of AI starting from 2017 when smartphones started implementing this feature as a password. I will explain further the difference between facial recognition and detection as well as the legality of it in terms of security and privacy.

            Facial detection is software that can detect a human face by using AV (audio/video). Facial recognition uses a data base to match faces that facial detection picks up by analyzing patterns and features on a person’s face. The senior director of marketing for ELAN, a company for home security system, states that detection is nothing more than what detects human faces in AV whereas recognition takes it a step further to identify whose face is who. Both recognition and detection work hand in hand because without one you are unable to find the other.

However, the senior technical account manager of Samsung SDS America, Joseph Warner, has a different view of facial recognition and detection. According to him, “The Samsung Nexshop analytics solution doesn’t use facial recognition. We use PII-compliant facial analysis…” (Douaihy, 2019, pg. 6). In other words, PII (personally identifiable information) uses an algorithm that analyzes facial features and assigns the person a code such as “male” or “female” without really identifying who they are. Going back to the company ELAN, they believe by using facial recognition and detection, they can personalize the control experience. For example, an employee at a bar or restaurant will have their own profile that gives them access to certain features provided by their manager to help better accommodate their customers without risking others getting into their profiles hence facial recognition.

On the other hand, this brings up the issue of security and privacy. Warner, from Samsung SDS America, made it clear that people’s information collected from the Nexshop sensor is not specific and is actually anonymized when information is collected. Instead of specifically labeling who they are, each feature of that person is given an identification number where it still remains anonymous and safe. Many people are not happy with being recorded or having any kind of picture taken but, in this day, and age, especially in big business everyone is being recorded all the time. However, to compromise with the privacy issue, big corporations tend to have their workforce sign off on a policy that states it will protect their identity by data retention.

Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” focuses on how biometric AI technology has grown and along with that growth so does the issue of security and privacy. The article explains how AI of facial recognition and detection can put a person’s information out there but at the same time I disagree and believe that this new form of AI can be quite efficient. Yes, it may be costly at first but once the system has all the information it needs in terms of facial features and patterns, it can help speed up the processes of punching a timecard or having someone steal your information. It also negates the notion of passwords in which this day and age a lot of people have issues with because they forget it and constantly have to reset before it locks them out and then turns into a bigger mess. AI in terms of facial recognition and detection is still fairly new in present day, however I believe it will be a breakthrough in the near future once it is perfected in terms of security and privacy.  


Doaihy, M. (2019). Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV. TWICE: This Week in Consumer Electronics, 34(13), 6-7