Waleed, Keila, Mariyam, Irram, Anesa, Kadeem
What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA and RNA differ from the sugar that is present in the molecules. The sugar that RNA consists of is ribose and in DNA the sugar is called deoxyribose. Both sugars are the same it is just known that deoxyribose has one more OH. DNA is a double stranded molecule whereas RNA is single stranded. Both have different functions in the human body. DNA stores and transfers genetic information and RNA codes for amino acids as it acts as a messenger between ribosomes and DNA in order to produce proteins. DNA and RNA have slightly different base pairs. DNA uses the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. RNA on the other hand uses adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. As you can see instead of thymine in RNA we have uracil and in it there is no methyl group on it’s ring. There are three types of RNA, rRNA (ribosomal RNA) mRNA (messenger RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA) they are complementary to each other when they are making a protein and DNA has only one type. One of the main differences, is RNA copies the genetic information which is found within DNA and uses it to assemble protein, and also ribosomes. RNA is a crucial part in protein synthesis, it is directly involved in it and DNA is indirectly involved in the process.
(Question is a little vague but the answer is deep. Can find a different way of asking the question )
What are the different types of bonds that occur between elements?
Ionic bonding form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Attraction of oppositely charged ions, holds the atoms together.
Covalent bonding results when 2 atoms share electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in the shell.
2 types of substances of covalent bonding are polar and non-polar. Polar substances do not share equally and non-polar substances share equally.
Hydrogen bonding is the attraction of slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative charge of another atom (oxygen, nitrogen) in another or the same molecule. Many hydrogen bonds are strongly related. Help maintain their proper structure and function.
(This can be a quantitative question and requires a frame of reference )
What is the difference between hypotonic , isotonic and hypertonic solutions?
In my lab class we decided to have an experiment in placing several different bags with semipermable membranes in different solutions,so see what occurred..
Bag A was in a hypertonic solution , therefore it lost water because the solvent (water) had a higher concentration of water molecules (lower percentage of solute) inside the bag and outside the bag their was a lower concentration of water molecules (higher percentage of solution. Therefore Osmosis occured throughout the permeable membrane following the concentration gradient of water from a higher to a lower concentration of water. That is why the slope was negative and basically told me that Bag A lost water and that is why the weight was lower.
Bag B was in an isotonic solution, there was not net movement of water. The solute concentration and the water concentration both inside and outside the bag were equa, and therefore there in no net gain or loss of water. That is why the slope remained constant, because the weight stayed the same. expecatations were not met, but i completly now understand the procedure.
Bag C: was in a Hypotonic solution , the solution had a lower concentration of solute (higher concentration of water) outside the cell .Therefore, the water entered the cell because the lower concentration of water inside the bag prompt a net movement of water from the outside to the inside of the bag. That is why the slope went up and was positive because the water inside the bag gained water and in other words gained weight.
Bag D: was in a Hypotonic solution , the solution had a lower concentration of solute (higher concentration of water) outside the cell.Therefore, the water entered the cell because the lower concentration of water inside the bag prompt a net movement of water from the outside to the inside of the bag. That is why the slope went up and was positive because the water inside the bag gained water and in other words gained weight.