You can find the website for the Research Report on The Technical Problem of Cybersecurity here. It was written by Md Jahirul Hasan, Angela Hernandez, Motahear Hossain, Matthew Rupchand, and Tarin Sultana.
For this project, I wrote about how to efficiently navigate updating computers at your workplace to Windows 10 without affecting day to day work.
To: Prof. Jason Ellis
From: Matthew Rupchand
Subject: Expanded Definition of Data Encryption
The purpose of this document is to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the meaning of data encryption. The way that I will be discussing data encryption is by explaining how it is used in security settings for computers and data. As per McGraw-Hill (1977), the definition of data encryption is as follows, “.. the task of developing a standard encryption device for use in data networks”. In other words, data encryption deals with encrypting data from hackers that can try to steal the information it holds. Through an analysis and discussion of the articles, journals, and encyclopedias that I will state in this expanded definition, you will be able to see and understand how different authors and scholars use the word data encryption in different contexts but still share its basic meaning.
Within the Oxford English Dictionary, they describe not data encryption but the word encryption alone. The definition that the English Dictionary gives is “The process of encrypting” which relates to how the word encryption is used in terms of the process that it takes. In McGraw-Hill science and technology textbook, they describe encryption as “.. the task of developing a standard encryption device for use in data networks” (McGraw-Hill. (1977)). This definition given by McGraw-Hill gives more insight into what exactly encryption is and the use through data networks. It relates to the definition given by Oxford English Dictionary by furthermore explaining what it means to encrypt hardware and data. When writing, a person may use encryption in terms of the Oxford English Dictionary. On the other hand, when explaining the process of how encryption works, others may use the definition given by McGraw-Hill in a way that describes how the task of encryption works for users.
Journals such as “Ensuring Data Security in Databases Using Format Preserving Encryption” by Shikha Gupta, Stibir Jain, and Mohit Agarwal use data encryption in the context of the purpose it poses. A quote from the journal that shows this is “… it is necessary to apply effective and secure encryption/decryption schemes to enhance the security of data”(Gupta 214). This quote from the article provides a description of the purpose of implementing encryption for data to ensure better security on sensitive information. A second journal that I researched was the “Study on Encryption methods to secure the privacy of the data and Computation on Encrypted data presented at Cloud” by Dr. Nagesh and Thejaswini L. Within the article they state “Various encryption methods can be used to secure the data present at (the) cloud. Many of the encryption methods provide secure storage” (Nagesh 383). This quote from Nagesh gives information on how encrypting data can provide a secure way to store information and material. Another example of how data encryption is used in context is from an article by britannica.com which states, “Data encryption (is) the process of disguising information as “ciphertext,” or data unintelligible to an unauthorized person”. This shows how britannica.com’s use of data encryption can create a different context than as described here is that data encryption is “unintelligible to an unauthorized person” which means that only select people or people who know how encryption works will only be able to understand it. Lastly, within the article by simplilearn.com, they use data encryption in the way that it describes how data is converted into encryption and how it can be decrypted. The quote that shows this is “… the conversion of data from a readable format into an encoded format that can only be read or processed after it’s been decrypted.” (simplilearn.com). This quote gives an insight into how you could use data encryption in the context of how it works and how it is made into a readable format.
From the definitions that I retrieved through quotes from the articles, journals, and encyclopedias and throughout my writing, I have come up with a simplified working definition of data encryption. A working definition of data encryption that will be relevant to my career field of networking and security would be that data encryption is a process that developers can take to protect the user’s data from threats. Working with networking and security protocols, data encryption will be a crucial part of making sure all the data stored is protected and unreadable to any person without access. It is important to understand the importance of data encryption because without it, a company would risk losing vital information which in turn can lead to chaos and disorganization.
Oxford English Dictionary. (n.d.). Oxford English Dictionary (encryption). OED. Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://login.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/login?qurl=https://www.oed.com%2fview%2fEntry%2f242722%3fredirectedFrom%3dencryption#eid
IEEE. (2017). Study on Encryption methods to secure the privacy of the data and Computation on Encrypted data present at Cloud. IEEE Xplore, 383–386. https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8070868&tag=1
Gupta, S. G. (2018). Ensuring Data Security in Databases Using Format Preserving Encryption. 2018 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering (Confluence), 214–218. https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8442626
Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (Invalid Date). Data encryption. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/technology/data-encryption
Simplilearn. (2021, February 22). The most effective data encryption techniques you must know in 2021 [Updated]. Retrieved March 04, 2021, from https://www.simplilearn.com/data-encryption-methods-article
To: Prof. Ellis
From: Matthew Rupchand
Subject: 500-Word Summary of Article About the Lack of Cyber Security
In the article “Home User Security- from Thick Security-oriented Home Users to Thin Security- oriented Home Users” by E Kritzinger and Basie von Solms, they bring up the issue of the lack of cybersecurity awareness with the growth of technology for everyday life. According to Krizinger and Solms, the technology trend has moved towards mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. Krizinger and Solms studied how cybersecurity in growing digital areas such as Africa could affect users that are unaware of all the threats that the internet can put upon them. Krizinger describes the situation in Africa that has seen an increase in technology as he describes them as “Home Users”. “Home Users” aren’t aware of the risk involved with access to the internet. They describe “Home Users” as high-value targets for cybercrime because of the lack of knowledge they possess of cybersecurity that they can and should use to protect themselves. With the growing number of computers and smartphones in homes, Krizinger & Solms consider personal and home computers to be considered as “weaker links” rather than corporate use computers because of the lack of certain security protocols. An example of a cybersecurity breakdown is Africa “Millions of Africans are using mobile phones to pay bills, move around cash and buy basic everyday items… Africa has the fastest growing mobile phone arment in the world” (Kritzinger, 2013, pg. 340). In order to increase their security presence, we need to create computer networks that are “out of the box” says Krizinger. Citizens in Africa have skipped a generation of technology which results in them not having the knowledge to become aware of the risk that comes with technology. Krizinger states in the article that “Home users” are only aware of technical issues such as connection to the internet not issues with information being leaked. The article goes into depth about a three-step approach that can help users protect themselves from threats. Regular house computers security is at the hands of their user which Krizinger describes them as “thick security oriented users”(Kritzinger, 2013, pg. 342). The prone problems that these users are exposed to which are forgotten to download patches/updates, do not set up security settings correctly, do not keep up to date with new security risk, allow software licenses to expire, incorrect security protection, lack of cybersecurity awareness, weak passwords, and do not update their anti-virus program regularly. Lack of cybersecurity by home users can also create problems for their government. Krizinger states “Their computers can be used as platforms to launch an attack on a country’s critical information structures, a situation that could prove strategically damaging to any country”(Kritzinger, 2013, pg. 342). So to prevent this and maintain a well-balanced cybersecurity system for home users would be to dedicate the responsibility to third-party companies that will create a secure connection between the home user and the internet. Also, initiatives such as using the Australian ISP to help create more security for users will benefit them however for more extensive security coverage like malware, virus identification, and breaches the ISPs will require the ISP to take more responsibility. Another step that users could take to improve their security and connection is learning and implementing strategies that the ISP will use to help protect them and how it does it. It does work by updating anti-virus software, updating new software patches, scanning computers for viruses frequently, and stopping spam. ISPs can also assist in cybersecurity by referring users to portals that can help increase knowledge of how to use these security programs. However, the user must always keep up their knowledge of cybersecurity to ensure the most out of their security programs and protocols. Although ISPs can help increase cybersecurity in your home it will all depend on the user and how they go on with the information they receive. Simon Hackett (manager of Adelaide ISP) states “ISPs are not the gatekeepers and are not in a position legally or ethically to make decisions for users”(Hackett, 2013, pg. 343). This means that even though the ISPs can help influence decisions upon user they are not legally available to take the full decisions for them. ISPs are not able to control your desire to protect your internet activities and how much users are willing to pay for their security software. The article brings together ways that can help users improve cybersecurity for uses as they referred to it as “intermediate security-oriented home user”(Kritzinger, 2013, pg. 343) that will help users to protect their connection to the internet. The main point of this article is to bring to light how home user security can affect them with security protocols in place with initiatives and strategies to provide guidelines for services to assist in cybersecurity.
E Kritzinger., & Basie von Solms. (2013). IEEE Xplore: Home User Security- from Thick Security-oriented Home Users to Thin Security- oriented Home Users, pp. 340-345. https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/document/6661760