To: Prof. Jason Ellis

From: Remonda Mikhael


Subject: Next Generation Network


In the document titled Next/New Generation Networks Services and Management it talks how this particular network is able to provide many services such as Telecommunications. I’ll be discussing how Next Generation Networks can handle multiple type of service and how it changed in the telecommunications fields. This network wasn’t always in place before Next Generation Networks (NGN) Traditional Network was the go-to instead. This network was mainly used on “some fixed functions means dedicated network devices such as Switch and Router, MPLS switch, Ethernet switch etc and most of the network types are traditional network which are still in uses at organizations and enterprises.” (Jena, 2020).

Definition of NGN

As stated in the article Next Generation Network is “a packet- based network able to provide services including Telecommunications Services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies” (Bertin & Yahia, n.d). I believe that Bertin and Yahia are saying that Next Generation Network is not just a technology it’s also a concept. Dowden, Gitlin and Martin stated that “ Next-generation network provide a platform for rapid service creation, by incorporating intelligence in separate standards- based networks servers that build on rapid technological advances in service-enabling software, software- controlled switching, client/server computing, and new database/ directory systems”. The main purpose of this network is to supply a single technology platform. A lot of people wonder exactly how you define Next Generartion Service in the article it’s defines as “…which are basically an advanced telecommunication services. Here is after a brief survey about the latest service meanings in telecommunications fields: Telemanagement Forum (TMF) defines services as following “Services are developed by a service provider for sale within products. The same service may be used as a component in multiple products, packaged differently with different pricing”” (Bertin & Yahia, n.d). This is basically saying that Next Generation Network can be used with not just one product but multiple.


In a blog written by Scoot Reeves from the Data Center speaks on how Next Generation Networks impact our community. He also speaks about the IP multimedia service. In the blog he wrote “…Next Generation Networks are packet-switched and use IP at the network layer. The centre of the network is the IP multimedia service (IMS). This provides an independent platform through which access services such as 4G can use the network. The principle idea is to have seamless communication; people can be connected anywhere and anytime” (Reeves, 2013).  What he is trying to say is the cell phones is powered by this network where family and friends can communicate with each other. In today society company are always trying to be better than the next or who whey were before. Next Generation Network is the key way “ The communications network as a whole has evolved from voice telecom, which was developed to ensure stability by being essentially monolithic, to IP networks focused primarily on data transmission. The network of the future will deliver the telecom industry’s traditional stability across a much broader range of capabilities, but this stability will be in large part due to a dynamic, adaptive architecture.” (Communication , N.d). This network was made to better the world today and move on from traditional network.


In the Computer Information Technology/ networking, they have a lot of responsibilities that they must perform. In this job field network engineer design new network solutions and improve network that are already in place. Paying attention to the faults that be happening in the network and managing the new network equipment to the latest firmware that was releases is another responsibility for network engineer. They also provide certain security to protect their network. As a someone in Information Technology some responsibilities to ensure that the company worked have been saved in the system, they will perform a data backup. Another responsibility is monitoring Wi-Fi and LAN/WAN to make sure its at the full coverage and nothing is messing up. Providing helpdesk support such as remote access into their technology to ensure the customer is getting the best help.


Jena, S. (2020, August 17). Difference between next generation network and traditional network. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from,Traditional%20Network%20is%20TDM%20based.&text=It%20uses%20different%20control%20and,to%20support%20different%20multimedia%20services.

Reeves, S. (2013, June 9). Key features of Next Generation NetworksSc5 [Web log post]. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

Communication, F. N. (n.d.). Next-Generation Networks [Web log post]. Retrieved March 07, 2021, from

Matthew Rupchand’s Expanded Definition of Data Encryption

To: Prof. Jason Ellis
From: Matthew Rupchand
Date: 02/24/2021
Subject: Expanded Definition of Data Encryption

The purpose of this document is to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the meaning of data encryption. The way that I will be discussing data encryption is by explaining how it is used in security settings for computers and data. As per McGraw-Hill (1977), the definition of data encryption is as follows, “.. the task of developing a standard encryption device for use in data networks”. In other words, data encryption deals with encrypting data from hackers that can try to steal the information it holds. Through an analysis and discussion of the articles, journals, and encyclopedias that I will state in this expanded definition, you will be able to see and understand how different authors and scholars use the word data encryption in different contexts but still share its basic meaning.

Within the Oxford English Dictionary, they describe not data encryption but the word encryption alone. The definition that the English Dictionary gives is “The process of encrypting” which relates to how the word encryption is used in terms of the process that it takes. In McGraw-Hill science and technology textbook, they describe encryption as “.. the task of developing a standard encryption device for use in data networks” (McGraw-Hill. (1977)). This definition given by McGraw-Hill gives more insight into what exactly encryption is and the use through data networks. It relates to the definition given by Oxford English Dictionary by furthermore explaining what it means to encrypt hardware and data. When writing, a person may use encryption in terms of the Oxford English Dictionary. On the other hand, when explaining the process of how encryption works, others may use the definition given by McGraw-Hill in a way that describes how the task of encryption works for users. 

Journals such as “Ensuring Data Security in Databases Using Format Preserving Encryption” by Shikha Gupta, Stibir Jain, and Mohit Agarwal use data encryption in the context of the purpose it poses. A quote from the journal that shows this is “… it is necessary to apply effective and secure encryption/decryption schemes to enhance the security of data”(Gupta 214). This quote from the article provides a description of the purpose of implementing encryption for data to ensure better security on sensitive information. A second journal that I researched was the “Study on Encryption methods to secure the privacy of the data and Computation on Encrypted data presented at Cloud” by Dr. Nagesh and Thejaswini L. Within the article they state “Various encryption methods can be used to secure the data present at (the) cloud. Many of the encryption methods provide secure storage” (Nagesh 383). This quote from Nagesh gives information on how encrypting data can provide a secure way to store information and material. Another example of how data encryption is used in context is from an article by which states, “Data encryption (is) the process of disguising information as “ciphertext,” or data unintelligible to an unauthorized person”. This shows how’s use of data encryption can create a different context than as described here is that data encryption is “unintelligible to an unauthorized person” which means that only select people or people who know how encryption works will only be able to understand it. Lastly, within the article by, they use data encryption in the way that it describes how data is converted into encryption and how it can be decrypted. The quote that shows this is “… the conversion of data from a readable format into an encoded format that can only be read or processed after it’s been decrypted.” ( This quote gives an insight into how you could use data encryption in the context of how it works and how it is made into a readable format.

Working Definition
From the definitions that I retrieved through quotes from the articles, journals, and encyclopedias and throughout my writing, I have come up with a simplified working definition of data encryption. A working definition of data encryption that will be relevant to my career field of networking and security would be that data encryption is a process that developers can take to protect the user’s data from threats. Working with networking and security protocols, data encryption will be a crucial part of making sure all the data stored is protected and unreadable to any person without access. It is important to understand the importance of data encryption because without it, a company would risk losing vital information which in turn can lead to chaos and disorganization. 

Oxford English Dictionary. (n.d.). Oxford English Dictionary (encryption). OED. Retrieved March 4, 2021, from

IEEE. (2017). Study on Encryption methods to secure the privacy of the data and Computation on Encrypted data present at Cloud. IEEE Xplore, 383–386.

Gupta, S. G. (2018). Ensuring Data Security in Databases Using Format Preserving Encryption. 2018 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering (Confluence), 214–218.

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (Invalid Date). Data encryption. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Simplilearn. (2021, February 22). The most effective data encryption techniques you must know in 2021 [Updated]. Retrieved March 04, 2021, from

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Remonda Mikhael

DATE: 3/3/2021

Summary of Article About Ternary Optical Computers Construction by wang ‘s, zang’s.

The following is a 500-Word summary of a peer-review article about “Ternary Optical”. The authors go into detail about the construction and theories of ternary computers by explaining how the theory and how they were tested and what were the results. 

Optical computers were gaining more attention because of the speed and power they operate at and the first ternary optical computer was proposed by Jin et al. Several theories and additions were added to the construction of the first ternary optical computer.  What had to be determined was how fast the quality of service would be which can only be tested once the construction was complete. This article will explain the four-stage design of the ternary optical computer. The remainder of this article will explain how the systems work, which algorithms used, and future potential direction it can take.

The ternary computer is broken up to three sections, each handling specific functions that also the computer to operate sufficiently. What makes this computer different from others is that it can process multiple inputs at once, reconfigure itself to understand the user’s request, and there is plenty of space in the processor to run complex algorithms. Queueing theory which is used to measure the speed of how fast the computer can operate which there are several different ways this is tested in different locations, which all of these tests are used to test this ternary optical computer. 

Two novel strategies will be presented: immediate scheduling and computing accomplished scheduling and how they are used. According to the authors, “Under the IS strategy, the data bits of the optical processor are equally divided into n parts and each part corresponds to a small optical processor that can be independently used” (Xianchao Wang et al., 9 February 2019, p.6243). It does this by sending data to unoccupied processors to so the operations can be done quickly. 

The other strategy is computing accomplished scheduling which happens after the request has been computed. This is done to make sure all requests are operated simultaneously. This is just by sending small bits of data to the processor first, then larger bits to the processor. The requests are received by the receiving server to transferred to preprocessing service to be process into a tri-value logic operator. The information received are done in a first-come-first-served basis which is then send to processor to translates the request into computer language and begins working on the requests.

The scheduling strategies and batch size has a direct result for various service processes. Using both strategies can increase the arrive time for results to be output because there are four stages each request must undergo before the request has been completed, but the increase in response time doesn’t increase dramatically because the system operates requests in parallel, so the delay is only affected minorly. Since all requests are not only operated in parallel, but are also broken into four smaller processors which is why the operating speed is quick for ternary optical computers.


Wang X., Wang X., Zhang S., Gao S., Zhang M., Zhang J. & Xu Z. (2019). Response time of a ternary optical computer that is based on queuing systems. The Journal of Supercomputing, 76, 6238–6257.