Tarin Sultana’s Expanded Definition of Network Security

To: Professor Ellis
From: Tarin Sultana
Date: March 17, 2021
Subject: Expanded Definition of Network Security

Introduction

The purpose of my 750-1,000-Word Expanded Definition Project is to explore the term “network security” as a general introduction for undergraduates that are studying computer information technology, and which is also associated with my college major. I decided to focus on network security because it is a global issue in technology right now. While writing this document, I will expand the term of network security. I will use different quotes to discover the differences or similarities uses in separate sections or purposes in the context. At the end of this project, in the working definition section, I will provide my practical explanation that I learned during the research of my project. 

Definitions

If we look at the word “network security,” it is two words; there are two different definitions of each term. Such as according to the Oxford English dictionary, “network” means “A group of people who exchange information, contacts, and experience for professional or social purposes.” And “security” means “A group of people who exchange information, contacts, and experience for professional or social purposes.” The term “network” has changed over time and continues to change as emerging technology such as cloud computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) grow faster. As a result, new and diverse network detection tools need to protect this widening presence. If we connect with the term of network and security, in technology this the same word and the definition of the term is, network security is a system of principles and configurations that use both software and hardware to protect the integrity, confidentiality, and accessibility of computer networks and data. 

Context

A researcher at a NASA center in California is generally known for creating the first firewall. They developed a network protection method that was a virtual version of the “firewall” used in physical structures to prevent fires from spreading to other areas of a building or complex after being targeted by a virus in 1988. “Protecting the confidentiality of corporate information, preventing unauthorized access and defending the network against attacks remain primary concerns of network security professionals today.” (Crowcombe, 2004). The context uses the Intitle “network security” that is critical for both personal and business networks. Data loss, fraud, and sabotage can all reduce with a sound network security system. The purpose of network protection is to protect the network from cyberattacks and hacking attempts. 

The term network security uses in different sections. It can also improve network traffic, improve network performance, ensure secure data sharing between employees and data sources, and protect assets and data integrity from external exploits. The protection given to a network against unauthorized access and threats is known as network security. Network administrators must take preventative steps to safeguard their networks against future security threats. Daily transactions and correspondence within the government, individuals, or businesses necessitate secure computer networks. Assigning a unique name and corresponding password to a network resource is the most common and easy way of protecting it.

Working Definitions

Network security is critical for both personal and business networks. Most homes with high-speed internet have one or more wireless routers, which can be a hack if not adequately protected. Data loss, hacking, and sabotage are all risks that can reduce with a network security system. It did not take much to realize that businesses had to have such basic safety protective measures when they began connecting their internal/trusted networks to external/untrusted internet. Network architectures have developed that create protection layers between the most sensitive parts, usually where the mainframes or databases reside on the internet, which is untrusted and external.

References

J. Reuvid (Ed.).(2004). Secure Online Business Handbook (3rd ed., pp.226). Kogan Page. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3471300002/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=ae2ace0a

Z. Chen, W. Dong, H. Li, P. Zhang, X. Chen and J. Cao. (Feb. 2014). Collaborative network security in multi-tenant data center for cloud computing. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 19(1), 82-94. https://doi.org/10.1109/TST.2014.6733211

NATO, A. S. I. O. N., North, A. T. O., NATO, S. F. P. A. S. (2008). Aspects of network and information security. E. Kranakis, et al’s. (Ed.). IOS press. 

Crowcombe, Peter. “Network Vulnerabilities.” Secure Online Business Handbook, edited by Jonathan Reuvid, 3rd ed., Kogan Page, 2004, pp. 63-66. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3471300019/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=bba83999..

Mamadou Diallo’s Expanded definition of computer Network Simulation and Network Security Auditing in A Spatial Context of An Organization (CNSNSASCO)

To: Prof. Ellis
From: Mamadou Diallo
Date: 03/26/2021
SBJECT: Expanded definition of Computer Network simulation and Network security auditing in A Spatial Context of an Organization (CNSNSASCO)

Introduction

Computer networking is the current mode of operation for most organizations today. The flow of information within and outside organizations is done using computer devices. The growing concern for the use of computer networking is data security and computer simulation. Some of the commonly used terms that address computer network security include Breach, firewall, and malware. A breach is a term used to refer to when a hacker has successfully accessed complete control of a computer device or a network. A Firewall is a software program that is put in place to prevent any corrupt or unauthorized access to a computer system or network. Finally, our main focus area, malware, refers to that malicious software that corrupts and destroys a computing device or network.

Definitions

The term malware is a broad description of specific malicious programs that include viruses, trojans, worms, and spyware(Bazrafshan et al., 2013). Although there is more malicious software affiliated with malware, we will focus on the four examples named above. The four are the most common types of malware that affect the network of an organization. Some of this malware can originate from within the organization, usually known as micro threats, or can come from outside the company, usually known as macro threats. Most of the macro threats come from competitors, government regulations, technological changes, and customer’s changes in taste and preferences. The micro threats originate from malicious persons inside the company or outside persons like hackers and crackers who might infect computer devices and networks with viruses, trojans, and worms.

Context

A computer virus is a malicious program that corrupts data in a computer. A computer virus, just like a human virus, can transfer itself from one computer to another. Computer viruses are dangerous to any organization and can make a company cone’s normal operations to a stand-still. When a computer virus finds its way into a company’s network, it might lead to a series of problems. A computer virus can erase important data from the company’s website, and it can also steal and manipulate secure information from the organization’s network(Misra et al., 2014). A virus can freeze the normal functions of a computer, which will alter the effectiveness of the device in the company. Therefore, to prevent a network from being infected by a computer virus, most companies have opted to use anti-virus programs and set up strong firewall systems to prevent the virus from affecting the computer network.

A trojan horse malware is a computer malware that allows hackers to access a computer using a back door like the historical trojan horse in the Greek stories that was used deceptively to lead to Troy’s fall. A trojan horse malware comes in the form of a computer application or program that the user downloads or installs in their device, unknowing its hidden intention (Nari & Ghorbani, 2013). The malware may pop-up as ads or emails that were not expected and once, they have been opened or installed in the device, they can be used by cyber thieves or hackers to breach the system or computer network. Therefore, employees who handle computer devices in an organization should be advised not to open any unnecessary online files or applications using its devices. 

A worm is a computer is malware that replicates itself to other computers in the same system. A worm is one of the most common malwares in computer network security. Unlike a virus, a worm can make copies of itself to other computers in the network, but a computer virus requires a host to move from one computer to another. A worm focuses on exhausting a shared network’s bandwidth and hard drive (Bazrafshan et al., 2013). Therefore, making copies of itself can fill up the hard drive with unnecessary files that will cause the network to overload and eventually collapse if unattended.

Additionally, a computer worm can steal and manipulate data in a system. Usually, a worm finds its way into a system through spam files and emails that were not expected. Therefore, IT experts advise staff to avoid using and opening up unexpected files using the company’s computers.

Spyware is another type of malware used to spy on the user without the user’s knowledge. Cyber thieves can use spyware malware to steal information from a device and corrupt data from a shared network while using the user’s data. Spyware malware is so malicious that hackers can use it to incriminate someone using their personal information(Misra et al., 2014). Spyware can track down someone’s personal information, including social media content, credit card statements, and identity. Therefore, when one realizes that spyware malware has infected their device, they should use anti-spyware removal software to ensure that their devices are free from foreign eyes.

Working Definitions

In conclusion, malware is one of the commonly used terms in computing today to address the aspect of computer network security. Therefore, since cybersecurity has become one of the main concerns in most organizations, it is necessary to address these malware issues and develop solutions to prevent such infections in organizations’ computer networks.

Reference

Bazrafshan, Z., Hashemi, H., Fard, S. M. H., & Hamzeh, A. (2013). A survey on heuristic malware detection techniques. IKT 2013 – 2013 5th Conference on Information and Knowledge Technology, 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1109/IKT.2013.6620049

Misra, A. K., Verma, M., & Sharma, A. (2014). Capturing the interplay between malware and anti-malware in a computer network. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 229, 340–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2013.12.059

Nari, S., & Ghorbani, A. A. (2013). Automated malware classification based on network behavior. 2013 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, ICNC 2013, 642–647. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCNC.2013.6504162

Pavel Hlinin’s Expanded Definition of Alternative Energy Sources.

To: Professor Ellis
From: Pavel Hlinin
Date: March 20, 2021
Subject: Expanded Definition

Introduction

For my expanded definition research project, I decided to focus mostly on alternative energy sources. I think that it is a great topic for my term research project because our reality changes rapidly and alternative sources of energy are important now and most likely will increase its importance in future. So, the term alternative energy sources are good term to work on.  Development of economies and globalization increase demand of energy. Many countries experience the shortage of energy at some point. Any national disaster or pandemic show that using only traditional sources of energy, cannot satisfy all needs. That makes the topic of alternative energy sources very important nowadays.

Definitions

According to Cambridge Dictionary, “alternative energy is energy from moving water, wind, the sun, and gas from animal waste” or “ alternative energy is energy that does not come from coal, oil, gas, or wood, especially energy from moving water, wind, the sun, or animal waste”.  According to  the article “Minimizing electricity cost by developing an effective combination of alternative energy sources” gives a more expanded definition of alternative energy term by adding a few more different types of alternative energy sources such as “solar power, industrial batteries, and diesel generators” (Yadavalli, V.S.S., 2020). At the same time a very interesting definition gives the website studentenergy.org. According to this website: “alternative energy refers to energy sources other than fossil fuels. This includes all renewable sources and nuclear” (studentenergy.org, 2020). That is interesting because usually a nuclear source of powers refers to traditional sources of energy.

Context

The article „The Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Poland’s Energy Mix” written by polish researchers, tells us about the importance of renewable energy sources and gives extended explanation what is renewable and alternative energy sources. This article explains in detail which renewable and alternative energy sources exist and how it works. For example, the article says that alternative sources of energy are energy generated from solar radiation, wind energy, biomass, water, and geothermal sources. According to this article, “renewable sources of energy come in an unlimited supply, they do not emit greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, or only a negligible amount thereof, and they are less expensive than the conventional sources” (Marks-Bielski, Bielski, Pik, & Kurowska, 2020). The author refers the alternative energy to the term green energy. In Poland, the green energy presented by energy which is based on biofuels (80%) and wild energy (12%). Also, there are few other examples of green energy such as “energy originates from waterpower (2%), biogas (2.88%), and solar power (0.68%), and trace amounts of energy come from incineration of municipal waste, geothermal springs, and heat pumps” (Marks-Bielski, Bielski, Pik, & Kurowska, 2020). S.A. Dyatlov, in his article “Prospects for alternative Energy Sources in Global Energy Sector” , discuss various of alternative energy sources and their importance nowadays. Also, he tells why alternative sources of energy cannot fully compete with traditional sources. Mainly it is because this energy remains very expensive for the end user due to the inclusion of various environmental tariffs and fees in the price” (Dyatlov, 2020).

 Working Definition

The definition of the alternative renewable sources of energy is extensive and includes many components. However, all resources give approximately the similar definition. Thus, alternative and renewable energy sources are represented primarily by installations or devices that use the energy of the sun, wind, water, geothermal energy, or energy contained in water, air, or earth. In recent years, interest in alternative energy sources has been growing steadily. Their use is especially important in remote areas. Also, alternative energy sources have less negative impact on the environment in most cases. The alternativeity of these sources lies in the fact that today these sources are used as alternative sources to traditional sources in conditions when the use of traditional energy sources is not possible for any reason. The renewability of energy sources lies in the fact that, as a rule, these sources work cyclically and are restored to their own without additional help. The good examples of renewability give solar and wind energy sources.

      

References

Alternative energy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/alternative-energy

Yadavalli, V.S.S (2020, December).   Minimising electricity cost by developing an effective combination of alternative energy sources. South African Journal of  Industrial Engineering. p.168

Marks-Bielski, R.,  Bielski, S.,  Pik, K., & Kurowska, K. (2020). The Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Poland’s Energy Mix. https://go-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/

Dyatlov, S., Didenko, N., Ivanova, E., Soshneva, E., & Kulik, S. (2020, January 01). Prospects for Alternative Energy Sources in Global Energy Sector. S.A. Dyatlov et al 2020 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 434 012014. Iopscience. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/434/1/012014

Edward Dominguez’s Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Edward Dominguez
DATE: MARCH 26, 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

INTRO

This is an expanded definition that explores the term “artificial intelligence” as a general introduction for undergraduates that are studying computer information technology. I chose the term artificial intelligence because it is relevant in today’s society. In the following document, I discuss several definitions of artificial intelligence, then I compare and contrast different contextual uses of artificial intelligence and finally, I write my own working definition of the term based on these definitions and contextual examples.

DEFINITION

“The capacity of computers or other machines to exhibit or simulate intelligent behaviour; the field of study concerned with this. Abbreviated AI.” (McGraw-Hill, 1977). In this definition, artificial intelligence is the magnitude of machines that can show intelligent behavior.

“Computer systems that can perform intelligent human tasks, such as decision-making. Intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. In some cases artificial intelligence is applied when a machine mimics cognitive functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as learning and problem-solving.” (Oxford University Press, 2020). In this definition, artificial intelligence is defined as computer systems that can accomplish complex human tasks. Also, artificial intelligence can be applied to machines that copy cognitive functions that are associated with the human mind. Certain tasks that machines are able to do can be defined as artificial intelligence, include learning, decision-making, and problem-solving. This definition relates to the previous definition of (McGraw-Hill, 1977), the particular reason for this circumstance is both definitions state that artificial intelligence is when machines are able to replicate intelligent behavior. One may use this definition (Oxford University Press, 2020), instead of the previous definition (McGraw-Hill, 1977) because it has a much deeper definition and because more examples of artificial intelligence is given. Even though the first definition was written in 1977, it is still holds up as a valid definition.

CONTEXT

“Amazon.com also groups together people with similar interests and uses all of their data to make better recommendations to the group. The more a person uses any of these services, the better the recommendations get. Users’ actions train the AI to better understand what they like.”(Hulick, 2016). In this quote, the term artificial intelligence is used as a way to show how artificial intelligence learns from the user’s data to figure out what that specific user likes. This shows how AI is being used in our daily lives today. This context relates to the definition of (Oxford University Press, 2020), because AI is learning and picking up things from the user in order to help recommend items for that specific user. This context also relates to the definition of (McGraw-Hill, 1977), because the system is showing intelligent behavior by learning.

“Humans decided to give to driverless cars and many other AI equipped machines the power to make sometimes life-critical decisions. As such, ethical and moral dimensions must be taken into consideration and attention given to this aspect. Furthermore, if we are even capable of making an algorithm which will be able to use ethical patterns of humans” (Nikolic, Yang, 2020). The context uses the term “artificial intelligence” as technology that is being used today to make life or death decisions. The important decisions that artificial intelligence has to make and the consequences if something goes wrong, makes us questions if AI like this, is morally right to have in society. The context’s use of artificial intelligence also relates to the second definition (Oxford University Press, 2020) where AI can perform intelligent human tasks such as a driverless car. The way artificial intelligence is used in this context relates to the last context of (Hulick, 2016) where artificial intelligence is used by companies to help users find recommendations for items online while in the context of (Nikolic, Yang, (2020) artificial intelligence is used to make driverless cars. Both contexts show different ways artificial intelligence can be used to help people. Although artificial intelligence can help many people, it can also raise many questions about how ethical and moral due to the fact that many things that errors and mistakes can happen, especially because AI technology still isn’t

WORKING DEFINITION

            Artificial intelligence is when machines are able to learn on their own to make complex decisions that mimic human intelligence such as learning, problem solving and much more.  Artificial intelligence can be found everywhere in today’s society, we use it every time we use our smartphones, media applications, and much more. We are becoming more and more dependent to artificial intelligence. As time progresses, artificial intelligence will continue to grow. AI technology is important now and will become even more important in the future.

References

Gorse, C., Johnston, D., & Pritchard, M. (Eds.). (2020). A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.). Oxford University Press Retrieved March 4, 2020, from  https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198832485.001.0001/acref-9780198832485-e-8189?rskey=7AdcY1&result=1

Hulick, K. (2016). Artificial intelligence . Essential Library

McGraw-Hill. (1977). Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved March 4, 2021, https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/271625?redirectedFrom=artificial+intelligence#eid

Nikolic, P. K., & Yang, H. (2020). Artificial Intelligence Clone Generated Content toward Robot
Creativity and Machine Mindfulness. Mobile Networks & Applications, 25(4), 15041513. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1007/s11036-019-01281-z

Motahear Hossain’s Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis.
FROM: Motahear Hossain.
DATE: 03/26/2021.
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this 750-1000 Word Expanded Definition is to provide all the possible meanings of a scientific term, which is related to modern-day technology and associated with my college major. In this following document, I will be defining the term “Artificial Intelligence,” including the possible meanings and usages of that term. I will also explore the word history of this term, explain peculiarities of its uses, and offer examples of this term. To provide examples, I will address and discuss several definitions and quotations from verified sources and discuss, compare, and contrast those definitions and quotes from the different authors. Conclusively, I will provide my practical explanation of the term throughout this learning process.

DEFINITIONS

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word “Artificial Intelligence” is a noun, connecting with two separate arguments, artificial adj. + intelligence n. They define “Artificial Intelligence” as “The capacity of computers or other machines to exhibit or simulate intelligent behavior; the field of study concerned with this” (American Psychological Association. (n.d.)). Based on this definition, the meaning of artificial intelligence is a computer or machine capable of presenting itself or work on its own and replicate a job called artificial intelligence.
In another source, the World Encyclopedia describes “Artificial Intelligence (AI)” as “Science concerned with developing computers and computer programs that model human intelligence. The most common form of AI involves programming a computer to answer questions on a specialized subject. Such ‘expert systems’ are said to display the human ability to perform expert analytical tasks. A similar system in a word processor may highlight incorrect spellings and be ‘taught’ new words. A closely related science, sometimes known as ‘artificial life,’ is concerned with more low-level intelligence” (Philip, 2014). Unlike Oxford English Dictionary, this is a broader approach of definition. Encyclopedias compare artificial intelligence with the human brain and designation it ‘artificial life.’ They state it will work by a set of programs and made for a specialized subject. It can provide the correct answer, detect the wrong answer, and suggest better options based on the system (AI) is working.

CONTEXT

According to Rockwell Anyoha (August 28, 2017), “In the first half of the 20th century, science fiction familiarized the world with the concept of artificially intelligent robots. It began with the “heartless” Tin man from the Wizard of Oz and continued with the humanoid robot that impersonated Maria in Metropolis.” In his blog post, the writer wrote the history of the concept of artificially intelligent robots or robotic systems. Anyoha claims that Alan Turing was the person who saw the possibility of artificial intelligence. If humans can solve the problem and make the decision, Turing thought, why not a machine? Besides, blogger claims most scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers were optimized for the potential possibility of artificial intelligence around the turn of the twentieth century and started work on the program. It began with cracking the ‘Enigma’ code used by German forces during the Second World War. But as technology advances, earlier standards that defined artificial intelligence become outdated. These days the artificial intelligence (AI) is developing to benefit many different industries, so the meaning of artificial intelligence (AI) has become much broader.
In the article “Artificial Intelligence in the 21st Century” J. Liu et al. states that “Due to the historical development, AI has been utilized into several major subjects including computer vision, natural language processing, the science of cognition and reasoning, robotics, game theory, and machine learning since the 1980s.” (2018, p. 34403). As J. Liu et al. has indicated, artificial intelligence is not just defining a particular sector in the technology industry; nevertheless, it is much broader than we think. Nowadays, artificial intelligence is applying in every segment. For instance, computer vision of object recognition is the process of identifying the picture or object. Using computer vision, we can analyze any blurred images, read a map, or recognize substances like fingerprints. In the same ways for home and industrial security purposes, some companies use a security camera with installing facial recognition software. The same software can be used in a drone for shipping purposes or detecting criminal activities.
According to an article in the New York Times, “Police Drones Are Starting to Think for Themselves” Metz C. states that “In Chula Vista, drones are already an integral part of the way the police respond to emergencies. After an emergency call comes in, officers give the drone a location, and it flies to that point on its own — before returning on its own, too.” In the article, Metz also mentioned that Chula Vista is the first city in the world to use drones as first responders. Since the program began two years ago, Chula Vista police have used drones to respond to up to 15 emergency calls a day, totaling over 4,100 flights. This report suggests that artificial intelligence drones are now taking the place of human cops, and they are performing even better. This drone is a perfect example of artificial intelligence in action. It has the ability to deliberate and make decisions that are most likely to result in the achievement of a particular objective.

WORKING DEFINITION

After going through all of the concepts, quotes, and learning from college courses, I have concluded that Artificial Intelligence is a clone of the human mind that is programmable as an algorithm and applied to machines to operate and run software without human intervention. If it can deliberate and take decisions that have the best chance of achieving a particular goal, it will be an ideal trait. Artificial intelligence would be advantageous to us in the future. It is something to be utilized in a wide range of industries and sectors.

REFERENCES

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Artificial intelligence. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved February 19, 2021, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/271625?redirectedFrom=artificial+intelligence#eid.

Philip’s. (2014). Artificial intelligence. In World Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 19, 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001/acref-9780199546091-e-684?rskey=0VcIwl&result=9.

Anyoha, R. (August 28, 2017). The History of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/history-artificial-intelligence/.

J. Liu et al. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in the 21st Century. IEEE Access, 6, 34403-34421. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2819688.

Metz, C., (December 5, 2020). Police Drones Are Starting to Think for Themselves. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/05/technology/police-drones.html?searchResultPosition=16

Zeela Rafija’s Expanded Definition Of Energy

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Zeela Rafija
DATE: 26 Mar. 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Energy

Introduction

I have decided to discuss on energy. In today’s modern world, energy has become unavoidable part of our lives. Without it, we go for a single day. In the 21st century, almost everything that surrounded us required energy to perform tasks. When we talk about the uses of energy, the most basic energy uses are watching television, washing clothes, lighting the house, taking a shower, the use of a computer, running appliances and cooking. There are also commercial uses of energy and in transportation. There are several forms of energy such as heat, kinetic, light, potential energy, and electrical energy.

Definitions

To understand the definition of Energy, it requires us to look back at the origin of the word. As many other words, the definition for the word energy has multiple origins, partly a borrowing from Latin and Greek. Comparing it with other parts of the world, Middle French used to call it energie (énergie) which means efficacy and force of expression, just as Spanish, the word energy is used as energía. The first use of the word was in 1545 by E. Walshe Office & Duty Fighting for Country. As a general concept, it defines power, strength, force; the ability or capacity to produce an obsolete effect (oed.com). Since the origin of the word has been used in many different platforms to specify multiple uses of energy.  Even though the definition of energy stays the same in all platforms, the use of the word changes.

For example, the first use of the word energy in physics was by Thomas Young in 1800. Thomas Young later established the wave nature of light through interference experiments. Also, between 1842 and 1847, scientists like Julius Robert von Mayer, James Prescott Joule, and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz discovered the basic laws of conservation of energy, but they never used the word energy. However, the word did not gain popularity until Albert Einstein established the general equivalence of energy and mass with his theory of relativity (home.uni-leipzig.de). Although most people use the word energy in their daily lives, it may have a different meaning in different situations. The word is also used in multiple religions which led to me learning more about the word and how it is defined in different religious point of views.

Context

According to Marcia Montenegro in Christianity “Energy in these contexts refers to an unquantifiable unknown energy that is connected to spiritual beliefs about God and/or creation” (Montenegro, Para 2). From her perspective, she believes the use of the word energy has nothing to do with frequencies that have a physical and scientific basis, like electricity or radio waves. To the authors point of view, it seems to be that the word energy falsely claims by scientific foundation, but the word is spiritually based. As she defines “all forms of chi therapies and are based on spiritual beliefs in the invisible (and undocumented) energy called chi, also spelled qi or ki” (christiananswersforthenewage.org). If we look at another religion such as Hinduism, the word energy is defined as “Sakti” which means “A divine cosmic energy that represents feminine energy and the dynamic forces that move through the universe” (The Editors at Chopra.com). From a Hinduism perspective, it seems to be that Shakti is a universal energy force which can be called upon when in need to fight off one’s own personal demons or when seeking protection. People may call upon Durga to provide people with Energy (Sakti) to bring back balance in their life (chopra.com). Whether the energy is defined as spiritual beliefs or seeking protection against demons, it all comes back to the definition of the power to work.

However, the term energy has been lasting among us for decades either to describe how energy is used to create electricity or to describe how our body functions. For instance, scientists are using the ocean to create renewable energy which is carbon free and has a significant impact on energy supplies. According to the article Marine Energy by David Kerr “Power can be extracted from the tides by using barrage (or dam) to impound water at high tide and then, as the tides ebbs and when sufficient head difference exists, to let the water out through a turbine to generate electricity” (Kerr, 2007, p. 972). In addition, in order for humans to move or to do work, we need to have energy. Mitochondria is an organelle which has the function to convert the food we eat into energy for our body to function. As it describes in the article 15 Energy for Lifeby Andrew Morris“Mitochondria make this energy available for use in the cell. They do this by transferring the energy through a series of chemical reaction of specialized molecules, which then carry the energy to where it’s needed” (Morris, 2016, p. 153). As it is described, the word energy has different uses in different platforms, but the definition is the same.

Working Definition

Based on the definitions that I have quoted and discussed above, and the contextual uses of the term which has been defined differently in different fields- energy has been evolving within us for decades as a central power.

Regardless of how it is defined, the meaning of the term remains the same.In the process of defining energy, it has been clear that a word may be used in various written contexts. Along in the future, the use of the word energy might take a different turn, but the definition of the word will stay the same.

References 

Energy, n. Energy. Oxford English Dictionary.

www.oed.com/view/Entry/62088?redirectedFrom=Energy#eid.

Snurr. R., and D. Freude. The History of the Word Energy. Historical Development of the Word “Energy” Energy Fundamentals. https://home.uni-leipzig.de/energy/energy-fundamentals/01.htm

Montenegro, Marcia. The Religion of Life Force Energy. The Religion of Life Force Energy.http://www.christiananswersforthenewage.org/Articles_Religion%20of%20Life%20Force%20Energy.html

Chopra.com. (2018, Dec28). “Shakti: A Universal Force.” The Chopra Center. http://www.chopra.com/article/shakti-universal-force.

Morris. A. (2016). Why Icebergs Float: Exploring Science in Everyday Life, p.153. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/j.ctt1gxxpgr?refreqid=search -gateway:2d4db6d52cac12d577738c01565954fb.
Kerr, D. (2007). “Marine Energy” Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 36(1853), 971–992. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25190483?refreqid=search-gateway: aa0203406cf8ffb6d1896b395d54ddf6.

MD Jahirul Hasan’s Expanded Definition of Cloud Computing

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: MD Jahirul Hasan
DATE: 03/26/2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Cloud Computing

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to discuss the history of a term for those who are studying computer system technology. The term that I am defining is “Cloud Computing”. While the majority of the people are running after the short-term technological advancement and networking policy, I want to take a different approach to redefine the concept of cloud computing where the user’s privacy and security concerns play a vital role in the development of a sustainable cloud computing. In this document, I am going to discuss the definitions of the term and discuss the contextual use of the term. At the end of this document, I am going to provide a working definition of the term that is relevant to the people who are studying computer system technology.

Definition

The Oxford English Dictionary defines cloud computing as “the use of networked facilities for the storage and processing of data rather than a user’s local computer, access to data or services typically being via the internet.” Cloud computing is the distribution of on-demand computing resources over the internet and on a pay as you go basis, ranging from software to storage and processing power. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active control by the user. In other words, cloud computing is the use of network facilities for the storage and processing of data rather than a user’s local computer, access to data or services. Cloud computing is on-demand access, via the internet, to computing resources applications, servers, data storage, development tools, networking capabilities, and more hosted at a remote data center managed by a cloud services provider (or CSP). The CSP makes these resources available for a monthly subscription fee or bills them according to usage. The term “cloud computing” also refers to the infrastructure that enables cloud computing to function. This includes virtualized IT infrastructure, which consists of servers, operating system software, networking, and other infrastructure that has been abstracted using special software and can be pooled and divided across physical hardware boundaries.

Context

According to this journal article “Secure Integration of IOT and Cloud Computing”, “Cloud infrastructure involves the hardware and software components required for proper implementation of a cloud computing model. Cloud computing can also be thought of as utility computing, or on-demand computing” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964). The authors tries to make it clear to the people that Companies can rent access to anything from applications to storage from a cloud service provider rather than owning their own computer resources or data centers. One advantage of cloud computing is that companies can escape the upfront costs and complexities of owning and managing their own IT infrastructure by paying only for what they need, when they use it. Mobile Cloud Computing is a relatively modern technology that refers to an infrastructure that stores and processes data outside of the mobile device. The Internet of Things is a relatively new technology. Another article “cloud computing acceptance among public sector employees” stated that “However, in today’s rapidly changing technology, with the transition to the industrial revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) environment, it has opened a new dimension to the world computing. The emergence of cloud computing technology as a new platform for computing has opened the eyes of technology industry players to further benefit from this innovation. Many studies have proven that this technology provides many benefits to the industry and users such as its ability to reduce operating costs, improve collaboration, more secure security levels and more mobile accessibility” (Amron et al., 2021, p.124). The idea of business agility is often stated by cloud proponents as a major advantage. Companies that use cloud platforms can move faster on projects and try out ideas without having to go through lengthy procurement processes or incur large upfront costs because they only pay for the tools they use. Turning the eyes into the mobile clouding the authors states that, “Mobile Cloud Computing is a new technology which refers to an infrastructure where both data storage and data processing operate outside of the mobile device” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964). The ability to spin up new services without the time and effort associated with traditional IT procurement should mean that is easier to get going with new applications faster. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a relatively new telecommunications technology that is quickly gaining popularity. The authors also stated that, “Cloud computing also cuts costs related to downtime. Since downtime rarely happens in cloud computing, companies don’t have to spend time and money to fix any issues that may be related to downtime” (Stergiou et al., 2018, p. 964).

Working Definition

Based on the definition and quotes that I discussed about the term cloud computing it is related to the major computer system technology. From my understanding, cloud computing is the delivery of various services, such as data storage, servers, database, networking and software. It also allows us to save or work on files remotely to databases and also let us recover the files whenever we need. Cloud computing is very convenient because we don’t need to worry about computer crashes anymore. It stores and can be accessed the files over the internet.

References

Oxford University Press. (n.d.). Cloud Computing. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved March 1, 2021, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/34689?redirectedFrom=cloud+computing#eid189443962

Amron, M. T., Ibrahim, R., &Bakar, N. A. (2021). Cloud Computing Acceptance Among Public Sector Employees. Telkomnika, 19(1), 124-133. https://doi.org10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v19i1.17883

Stergiou, C., Psannis, K., Kim, B., & Gupta, B. (2018). Secure integration of IoT and Cloud Computing. Future Generation Computer Systems, 78, 964–975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2016.11.031

Benson Huang’s Expanded Definition of Software

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Benson Huang
DATE: March 26, 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Software

Introduction

The word chosen for this expanded definition is software. To make the expanded definition for this a few definitions from dictionaries and the uses of the word in context will be observed. After looking through these while comparing and contrasting them an expanded definition will be made off of them.

Definitions

“Programs designed to enable a computer to perform a particular task or series of tasks” (Oxford University Press, 2000). In this definition, software is defined as a program tailored to perform tasks. Everything you do on a computer is software from the operating system to notepad. Software works with hardware to allow users to do what they want.

“Coded instructions in the form of programs that perform certain tasks using a computer’s hardware. Software includes a computer’s operating system and all its applications (colloquially, apps). These are written in source code (a programming language such as Java or C++) and are then converted by a compiler program into binary code.” (Oxford University Press, 2020). This definition is essentially the same as the last just in more detail. It also includes how it is written and explains how it is converted to binary which is how a computer reads the typed code.

“A person or company that produces software. The term is particularly used to describe approved producers of commercial applications software extending the use of existing software (e.g., ‘a Windows developer’)” (Oxford University Press, 2008). This definition is defining not software but software developer. This makes it different from the other two as a software developer is someone that makes the software. As someone who makes the program, they are the ones who make sure that the software they make sure it does what it is supposed to and keeps it free of bugs or unintended features.

Context

“The software system reliability requirement deals with features that can be translated as events occurring overtime, such as the average time between failures (e.g., no more than once in 500 hours), average time for recovery after system failure (e.g., no more than 15minutes), or average down time per month (e.g., no more than 30 minutes per month)” (Galin, 2018, p.274). In this context, we learn that software should be reliable. Even if we take out the word software it is still understandable. A reliable system is a system you would want. The word software is also used with another noun to describe what it is.

“FaSTR DNA from STRmix is an expert forensic software that rapidly analyzes DNA profiles and assigns a Number of Contributors (NoC) estimate” (DNA software, 2020). In this quote, we can conclude that FaSTR DNA is a forensic program that analyzes DNA. Compared to the last quote this we know that the software in this quote is more focused on doing a certain task, analyzing DNA instead of a system that would likely have more functions and users. Also, software is being used with forensic to give software a more scientific meaning.

The word software is also used in a tweet by VALORANT “We’re aware that a recent update is clashing with some antivirus software and keeping you out of the game. A fix is on the way” (Valorant, 2021). Valorant is a tactical first-person shooter, and they are very serious with their anticheat. In this tweet they speak of an antivirus software which is a program that keeps malware away from your device. Here they had issues where an update to their game had conflicts with some antivirus programs that did not allow players to play.

Working Definition

After all these definitions and uses in context we can conclude that the word software can be used in many different industries. As a Computer Systems major, I can define software as a program that can be tailored by a developer to perform either a specific task or multiple tasks. Everything that runs on the computer is software.

References

Oxford University Press. (2000). software. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/183938?redirectedFrom=software
Oxford University Press. (2020). software. A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.). Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780198841838.001.0001/acref-9780198841838-e-2567
Oxford University Press. (2008). software. A Dictionary of Computing (6 ed.). Retrieved March 14, 2021, from https://www-oxfordreference-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780199234004.001.0001/acref-9780199234004-e-6018
Galin, D. (2018). Software Quality: Concepts and Practice (1st ed.). Wiley. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119134527
DNA software. (2020, December). Law Enforcement Product News, 31(8), 20. Retrieved March 16, 2021 from https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A649185021/PPCJ?u=cuny_nytc&sid=PPCJ&xid=ce689a34
VALORANT, [@PlayVALORANT]. (2021, March 16). We’re aware that a recent update is clashing with some antivirus software and keeping you out of the game. A fix is on the way! https://twitter.com/PlayVALORANT/status/1372006567759937540

Ralph Ayala’s Expanded Definition of Software Development

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Ralph Ayala
DATE: 26 Mar. 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Software Development

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to discuss the word history behind a word of my choosing. The term I am defining is “software development”. To me software development is a process of creating or maintaining your software components. So, imagine you are a software developer, and you can not only create but you can also alter software under your control. I will be discussing quotes I have found related to my search, and I will be comparing each quote to discover differences or similarities found behind the meaning of the word software development. Therefore, I can compare those examples to today’s modern society and discover if there was a huge change.

Definitions

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “Systems programming or software development experience is essential” (San Mateo, 1987). When I am programming, the best way to learn is through hands-on experiences. If you ask me this feels very modern to this day because it appears as the best way to learn. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “App developers and software companies have a vested interest in getting you to use their products” (J. Hargrave, 2016). Becoming a software developer allows you to want customers to use your products. The better experience you have, the greater the effort you can put into your apps. In a way software development is about experience, but to me it is also a process of how you can use a certain programming language for a certain software. The difference I see between the two quotes is one concerning experience involving software development and not the other. Experience is important but it is also important to think about what you do with it. 

Context

According to this journal article, “Reuse-based software development emphasizes strategies, techniques, and principles that enable developers to create new systems effectively” (Selby, 2006, p. 495). This quote talks about a benefit you can use involving software development. You use software development for all kinds of stuff such as documenting, designing, and maintaining code. Using code that has already existed from other projects can save you time. The Oxford English Dictionary does show a quote regarding experience, and reusable software is efficient for future projects. An effective method to this day. Another article discusses, “The use of disparate software development tools on a project by multiple developers is usually essential when developing today’s complex software systems” (Grundy at el., 1998, p. 960).  The use of tools that a software developer can use is essential because it can make problems easier for others. Reusing code is a good technique to make your problems less difficult and can be an effective tool. For example, a software known as Java can perform such a tool. If a software developer has knowledge about how to properly use such tools, it can make great coding experience in the future. To this day I am sure tools have evolved over time for software developers to use. This quote from a book states, “Software development, in all its forms, is an exercise in learning” (Kelly, 2008, p. 1). As I discussed in the definitions paragraph, the best way for new people to learn software development is from hands-on experience. It will not only allow you to have better understanding with tools under your control, but perhaps with this knowledge you can pass it down to others as well. From the looks of these quotes there does appear to be some differences. The first quote involves the discussion of an actual tool, and the second talk about how essential such tools can be in the world of a software developer. As for the third quote it once again connects everything to experience. However, from the looks of these quotes there does not appear to be a change in the meaning of the word software development. To my eyes it seems little. Honestly, I do not see this change as a negative because software development can be made to create software for people. So, with what I know it has one purpose only and that is create and maintain a balance.

Working Definition

Based on all the quotes that I have read; the context shows the true meaning behind the word software development. The word software development does not have a lot of change in its own meaning, however at the end of the day here is what I believe software development is all about. Software development is about a process of creating software with months or years of experience to maintain the balance of a computer system with resources provided for you.

References

Grundy, J., Hosking, J., & Mugridge, W. B.(1998). Inconsistency Management for Multiple-View Software Development Environments. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 24(11), 960 – 981. https://doi.org/10.1109/32.730545

Hargrave, J. (n.d.). Software development. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved February 22nd, 2021, from Oxford English Dictionary (cuny.edu)

Kelly, A. (2008). Changing Software Development: Learning to Become Agile. John Wiley & Sons. 

Mateo, S. (n.d.). Software development. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved March 8th, 2021, from Oxford English Dictionary (cuny.edu)

Selby, R. W. (2005) Enabling reuse-based software development of large-scale systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 31(6), 495 – 510. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSE.2005.69

Richard Rivera’s Expanded Definition of Programmer

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Richard Rivera Urgiles
DATE: 03/24/2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Programmer

Introduction

This is an expanded definition that explores the word’s history of this term as a general education for undergraduates that are studying computer systems technology. The term I am defining is “Programmer”. The context that I use the term in is a person that writes code or programs/develops applications whether it be on computers or on mobile devices. Therefore, whenever my colleagues and I are discussing about ways to troubleshoot an application, I consider all of us programmers because the topic is about code or in relation to software languages. In the following document, I discuss several definitions of the term, I compare and contrast different contextual uses of the term, and finally I write my own working definition of the term based on these definitions and contextual examples.

Definitions

Within the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the definitions stated, “A person who writes computer programs or software” (Butterfield et al., 2016). Personally, I would say this is more of a modern definition because this is how people refer to others that code or develop applications.  

This next definition comes from the Oxford Reference and it states, “Person who builds and constructs the programme” (Gorse et al., 2020). In this definition, it is like calling someone a general constructor. In other words, it is saying that it is a person that creates a blueprint, does all the planning, and creates it whether it be a house, a theater play, structures in general, or an application. I never use this word like that because my mind has been wired in a way where the term “programmer” has one solid definition and that is specifically people that actually do coding to develop applications or even websites. In a way, it relates to the previous definition I discussed because you are still constructing something and that includes applications. The only difference is that this definition is more flexible or can be used in different contexts.

Context

In a New York Times newspaper, it states “He took a Remington Rand course in ‘programming’ for computers and is now chief programmer for the machine” (The New York Times, 1958, p. 39). The quote is direct in what it is trying to say, a person decided to take a class involving coding and he became successful to gain a rank as a chief for a computer they were working on. It is clear that when they used the term, they were referring to the first definition from Oxford English Dictionary because the topic or the context of it is about computers.

Here is another quote from a book called ‘Excel 2003 VBA programmer’s reference’, “If you are a new VBA programmer, then reading this chapter will help you optimize your code writing and debugging experience” (Paul, 2004, p. 63). In this context, it still relates to the first definition about coding because they explicitly state the word “code” in this quote. I believe the book is meant to teach the programmer, or coder about a programming language known as Visual Basics for Applications which in short is VBA because the quote does state if the reader has any experience with that specific language and if not, they will learn the basics reading the said chapter.

For the final quote, it also comes from the New York Times newspaper and it states, “Small fry is ‘Big Town Girl,’ which is filling that spot on the Globe’s bill… A typically average programmer, it gives the long arm of coincidence one of the stiffest workouts it has had this year and invites Claire Trevor… and Alan Baxter to animate one of the wildest scenarios ever devised by four desperate script writers” (Nugent, 1937, p. 23). From this quote/context, I am not entirely sure what the definition of the term programmer really means but from my educated guess, it could relate to the second definition. The quote could be saying that for a constructor, it is difficult to animate a play or a scene. In other words, it can be very difficult to construct an animation of some sort, nothing coding related.

Working Definition

Most of the context that I found for the term means it’s a person that programs or codes on a computer therefore that is the definition that I will still proceed to give to whoever it may be that asks, “What is a programmer?”. To be more specific, someone who develops web applications or applications in general through various programming languages.

References

Oxford. (n.d). Programmer. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved February 26, 2021, from programmer, n. : Oxford English Dictionary (cuny.edu)

Oxford University Press. (2020). Programmer. In Oxford Reference. Retrieved February 26, 2021, from Programmer – Oxford Reference (cuny.edu)

The New York Times. (1958, November 3). Blind Man Guides Data on Thruway. The New York Times. TimesMachine: November 3, 1958 – NYTimes.com

Paul, K. (2004). Excel 2003 VBA programmer’s reference. Indianapolis, IN.:Wiley Pub. Excel 2003 VBA programmer’s reference – New York City College of Technology (exlibrisgroup.com)

Nugent, F. S. (1937, December 13). The Screen. The New York Times. TimesMachine: December 13, 1937 – NYTimes.com