Zeela Rafija’s Expanded Definition Of Energy

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Zeela Rafija
DATE: 26 Mar. 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Energy


I have decided to discuss on energy. In today’s modern world, energy has become unavoidable part of our lives. Without it, we go for a single day. In the 21st century, almost everything that surrounded us required energy to perform tasks. When we talk about the uses of energy, the most basic energy uses are watching television, washing clothes, lighting the house, taking a shower, the use of a computer, running appliances and cooking. There are also commercial uses of energy and in transportation. There are several forms of energy such as heat, kinetic, light, potential energy, and electrical energy.


To understand the definition of Energy, it requires us to look back at the origin of the word. As many other words, the definition for the word energy has multiple origins, partly a borrowing from Latin and Greek. Comparing it with other parts of the world, Middle French used to call it energie (Ă©nergie) which means efficacy and force of expression, just as Spanish, the word energy is used as energĂ­a. The first use of the word was in 1545 by E. Walshe Office & Duty Fighting for Country. As a general concept, it defines power, strength, force; the ability or capacity to produce an obsolete effect (oed.com). Since the origin of the word has been used in many different platforms to specify multiple uses of energy.  Even though the definition of energy stays the same in all platforms, the use of the word changes.

For example, the first use of the word energy in physics was by Thomas Young in 1800. Thomas Young later established the wave nature of light through interference experiments. Also, between 1842 and 1847, scientists like Julius Robert von Mayer, James Prescott Joule, and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz discovered the basic laws of conservation of energy, but they never used the word energy. However, the word did not gain popularity until Albert Einstein established the general equivalence of energy and mass with his theory of relativity (home.uni-leipzig.de). Although most people use the word energy in their daily lives, it may have a different meaning in different situations. The word is also used in multiple religions which led to me learning more about the word and how it is defined in different religious point of views.


According to Marcia Montenegro in Christianity “Energy in these contexts refers to an unquantifiable unknown energy that is connected to spiritual beliefs about God and/or creation” (Montenegro, Para 2). From her perspective, she believes the use of the word energy has nothing to do with frequencies that have a physical and scientific basis, like electricity or radio waves. To the authors point of view, it seems to be that the word energy falsely claims by scientific foundation, but the word is spiritually based. As she defines “all forms of chi therapies and are based on spiritual beliefs in the invisible (and undocumented) energy called chi, also spelled qi or ki” (christiananswersforthenewage.org). If we look at another religion such as Hinduism, the word energy is defined as “Sakti” which means “A divine cosmic energy that represents feminine energy and the dynamic forces that move through the universe” (The Editors at Chopra.com). From a Hinduism perspective, it seems to be that Shakti is a universal energy force which can be called upon when in need to fight off one’s own personal demons or when seeking protection. People may call upon Durga to provide people with Energy (Sakti) to bring back balance in their life (chopra.com). Whether the energy is defined as spiritual beliefs or seeking protection against demons, it all comes back to the definition of the power to work.

However, the term energy has been lasting among us for decades either to describe how energy is used to create electricity or to describe how our body functions. For instance, scientists are using the ocean to create renewable energy which is carbon free and has a significant impact on energy supplies. According to the article Marine Energy by David Kerr “Power can be extracted from the tides by using barrage (or dam) to impound water at high tide and then, as the tides ebbs and when sufficient head difference exists, to let the water out through a turbine to generate electricity” (Kerr, 2007, p. 972). In addition, in order for humans to move or to do work, we need to have energy. Mitochondria is an organelle which has the function to convert the food we eat into energy for our body to function. As it describes in the article 15 Energy for Lifeby Andrew Morris“Mitochondria make this energy available for use in the cell. They do this by transferring the energy through a series of chemical reaction of specialized molecules, which then carry the energy to where it’s needed” (Morris, 2016, p. 153). As it is described, the word energy has different uses in different platforms, but the definition is the same.

Working Definition

Based on the definitions that I have quoted and discussed above, and the contextual uses of the term which has been defined differently in different fields- energy has been evolving within us for decades as a central power.

Regardless of how it is defined, the meaning of the term remains the same.In the process of defining energy, it has been clear that a word may be used in various written contexts. Along in the future, the use of the word energy might take a different turn, but the definition of the word will stay the same.


Energy, n. Energy. Oxford English Dictionary.


Snurr. R., and D. Freude. The History of the Word Energy. Historical Development of the Word “Energy” Energy Fundamentals. https://home.uni-leipzig.de/energy/energy-fundamentals/01.htm

Montenegro, Marcia. The Religion of Life Force Energy. The Religion of Life Force Energy.http://www.christiananswersforthenewage.org/Articles_Religion%20of%20Life%20Force%20Energy.html

Chopra.com. (2018, Dec28). “Shakti: A Universal Force.” The Chopra Center. http://www.chopra.com/article/shakti-universal-force.

Morris. A. (2016). Why Icebergs Float: Exploring Science in Everyday Life, p.153. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/j.ctt1gxxpgr?refreqid=search -gateway:2d4db6d52cac12d577738c01565954fb.
Kerr, D. (2007). “Marine Energy” Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 36(1853), 971–992. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25190483?refreqid=search-gateway: aa0203406cf8ffb6d1896b395d54ddf6.

Summary of Hare’s “Noisy Operations on the Silent Battlefield”

TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Zeela Rafija
DATE: 03/03/2021
SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Article about the Cyber weapons

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about the Cyber weapons which can be divided into intrusive and unintrusive capabilities. The authors discuss about the cyber weapons, Battels and suggest taking preparation for them. According to the authors, “By 2014, the Russians had honed unintrusive (but noisy and disruptive) cyber operations down to a finely tuned science” (Hare, F., & Diehl, W., 2019, p.7). Summary of “Noisy Operations on the Silent Battlefield” by Forrest Hare and William Diehl . The article tends to revolve around the advocacy for the preparation in opposition to the utilization of un-intrusive precision cyber weapons via improved integration, acquisition, and training. The article is grounded on Dipert’s classification. It involves an explanation of the two classes regarding offensive cyber capabilities. Moreover, it also consists of an illustration of specimens of such attacks along with their types. The authors of the article offer reviews of several preceding conflicts. Their reviews involve un-intrusive cyber weapons that were influential in operational terms. The authors argue that in the Dipert’s Nomenclature, the cyber arms can be classified into different categories. They regard the classification as un-intrusive and intrusive capabilities. The invasive cyber occurrences are more focused as compared to that of un-intrusive attacks. They also noted that IOT susceptibility to the UPCW attacks was shown during the month of October in the year 2016. Several examples regarding UPCW usage are demonstrated in the article. Such as the examples of its use in the local battles are provided by the article effectively. The cyber-criminal organizations have conducted several cyber-attacks in the modern conflicts that required already positioned feats. The authors have illustrated several examples in this regard. Such as the illustration of cyberwar by Russia and how it attacked the transport, financial and other systems of Ukraine is demonstrated in a detailed manner. The intrusive system requires the specific attacker to gain access. On the other hand, the un-intrusive system does not require any such access. Instead, in this system, the sensor or server etc. is degraded so that it cannot function properly for a certain amount of time. The authors offer several potential advantages associated with the employment and development of UPCW. They state that many benefits can be enjoyed by the cyber belligerent when assimilating UPCW with orthodox military processes, such as the capability of un-intrusive correctness cyber weapons is less momentary. It entails less strictly expert operators as compared to that of intrusive ones. Moreover, the cyber operator who employs UPCW can measure the efficiency of weapons more directly. The authors of the study present the challenges concerning consuming UPCW in a particular conflict. The challenges posed in the utilization of UPCW cannot be ignored. Apart from the remunerations of emerging and less cultured UPCW, the implications regarding cyber defender are apparent. Such as the defender must get ready for improved opponent utilization of UPCW in future conflicts along with the periods of increased tensions. The limitations of the article involve that it does not take any stable position on the amalgamation of EW and cyber operations. The authors further imply that EW capabilities have been and will be utilized by the opponents. These EW capabilities will be used to acquire assimilated cyber effects. The findings demonstrate that concerning the emphasis on the defense, the friendly actors should contemplate developing and investigating more improved options in association with UPCW; this will help in enhancing the features of UPCW. The article also demonstrates that UPCW should be studied more deeply along with cyber-EW occurrences. 


Hare, F., & Diehl, W., (2019).  Noisy Operations on the silent battlefield: The Cyber Defense Review,5(1), 153- 168. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26902668